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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synthesis and evaluation of Strychnos alkaloids as MDR reversal agents for cancer cell eradication.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Natural products represent the fourth generation of multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agents that resensitize MDR cancer cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp) to cytotoxic agents. We have developed an effective synthetic route to prepare various Strychnos alkaloids and their derivatives. Molecular modeling of these alkaloids docked to a homology model of Pgp was employed to optimize ligand-protein interactions and design analogues with increased affinity to Pgp. Moreover, the compounds were evaluated for their (1) binding affinity to Pgp by fluorescence quenching, and (2) MDR reversal activity using a panel of in vitro and cell-based assays and compared to verapamil, a known inhibitor of Pgp activity. Compound 7 revealed the highest affinity to Pgp of all Strychnos congeners (Kd=4.4?M), the strongest inhibition of Pgp ATPase activity, and the strongest MDR reversal effect in two Pgp-expressing cell lines. Altogether, our findings suggest the clinical potential of these synthesized compounds as viable Pgp modulators justifies further investigation.
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Cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-depleted human lung carcinoma A549 cells with the accelerated senescence phenotype.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a central role in glycolysis. Because cancer cells rely on aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation, GAPDH-depleting agents have a therapeutic potential to impede cancer cell proliferation. Knockdown of GAPDH by RNA interference induced the accelerated senescent phenotype in A549 cells, suggesting that GAPDH is a potential molecular target for combination chemotherapy. The cytotoxic effects of a panel of anticancer drugs, 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluorouridine, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, fludarabine, cladribine, clofarabine, 2-chloroadenosine, and doxorubicin, were assessed in GAPDH-depleted A549 cells using a cell proliferation assay. GAPDH-depleted A549 cells, when compared with control cells, exhibited increased chemoresistance to several antimetabolite agents including cytarabine [inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) 1.7±0.3 vs. 0.03±0.02 ?mol/l], 2-chloroadenosine (IC50 7.1±1.8 vs. 1.5±0.6 ?mol/l), 6-thioguanine (IC50 7.5±1.6 vs. 1.4±0.5 ?mol/l), 5-fluorouracil (IC50 13.2±2.5 vs. 3.0±0.7 ?mol/l), and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (IC50 >100 vs. 3.7±0.9 ?mol/l), which we designated as group A agents. In contrast, GAPDH-deficient and GAPDH-proficient cells were equally sensitive to group B agents including doxorubicin (IC50 0.05±0.02 vs. 0.04±0.02 ?mol/l), fludarabine (IC50 18.5±2.3 vs. 15.7±2.8 ?mol/l), 5-fluorouridine (IC50 0.1±0.03 vs. 0.1±0.03 ?mol/l), clofarabine (IC50 0.7±0.3 vs. 0.5±0.3 ?mol/l), and cladribine (IC50 0.5±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.2 ?mol/l). After treatment with group B agents at concentrations equivalent to 7-10-fold the IC50 value, the fraction of apoptotic cells in GAPDH-depleted, senescent A549 cells was similar to that in GAPDH-proficient cells. Our study identified the antimetabolite drugs active in senescent cells that can be used in combination with GAPDH inhibitors in cancer treatment. GAPDH-targeted combination therapy is a novel strategy to control the proliferation of tumor cells.
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Establishing a model for assessing DNA damage in murine brain cells as a molecular marker of chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment often follows cancer chemotherapy. We explored chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in the brain cells of mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), an antineoplastic agent, to correlate the extent of DNA damage to behavioral functioning in an autoshaping-operant mouse model of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits (Foley et al., 2008).
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Somatic deletions of genes regulating MSH2 protein stability cause DNA mismatch repair deficiency and drug resistance in human leukemia cells.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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DNA mismatch repair enzymes (for example, MSH2) maintain genomic integrity, and their deficiency predisposes to several human cancers and to drug resistance. We found that leukemia cells from a substantial proportion of children (?11%) with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia have low or undetectable MSH2 protein levels, despite abundant wild-type MSH2 mRNA. Leukemia cells with low levels of MSH2 contained partial or complete somatic deletions of one to four genes that regulate MSH2 degradation (FRAP1 (also known as MTOR), HERC1, PRKCZ and PIK3C2B); we also found these deletions in individuals with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (16%) and sporadic colorectal cancer (13.5%). Knockdown of these genes in human leukemia cells recapitulated the MSH2 protein deficiency by enhancing MSH2 degradation, leading to substantial reduction in DNA mismatch repair and increased resistance to thiopurines. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism whereby somatic deletions of genes regulating MSH2 degradation result in undetectable levels of MSH2 protein in leukemia cells, DNA mismatch repair deficiency and drug resistance.
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Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-?-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of ? subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.
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Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase depletion induces cell cycle arrest and resistance to antimetabolites in human carcinoma cell lines.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that acts at the intersection of energy metabolism and stress response in tumor cells. To elucidate the role of GAPDH in chemotherapy-induced stress, we analyzed its activity, protein level, intracellular distribution, and intranuclear mobility in human carcinoma cells A549 and UO31 after treatment with cytarabine, doxorubicin, and mercaptopurine. After treatment with cytosine arabinoside (araC), enzymatically inactive GAPDH accumulated in the nucleus. Experiments on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching with green fluorescent protein-GAPDH fusion protein in the live cells treated with araC demonstrated reduced mobility of green fluorescent protein-GAPDH inside the nucleus, indicative of interactions with nuclear macromolecular components after genotoxic stress. Depletion of GAPDH with RNA interference stopped cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase via p53 stabilization, and accumulation of p53-inducible CDK inhibitor p21. Neither p21 accumulation nor cell cycle arrest was detected in GAPDH-depleted p53-null NCI-H358 cells. GAPDH-depleted A549 cells were 50-fold more resistant to treatment with cytarabine (1.68 +/- 0.182 microM versus 0.03 +/- 0.015 microM in control). Depletion of GAPDH did not significantly alter cellular sensitivity to doxorubicin (0.05 +/- 0.023 microM versus 0.035 +/- 0.0154 microM in control). Induction of cell cycle arrest in p53-proficient carcinoma cells via GAPDH abrogation suggests that GAPDH-depleting agents may have a cytostatic effect in cancer cells. Our results define GAPDH as an important determinant of cellular sensitivity to antimetabolite chemotherapy because of its regulatory functions.
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Chromatin-associated proteins HMGB1/2 and PDIA3 trigger cellular response to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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The identification of new molecular components of the DNA damage signaling cascade opens novel avenues to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA damage sensor responsive to the incorporation of nonnatural nucleosides into DNA; several nuclear and cytosolic proteins are functionally integrated with HMGB1 in the context of DNA damage response. The functional role of HMGB1 and HMGB1-associated proteins (high-mobility group protein B2, HMGB2; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH; protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3, PDIA3; and heat shock 70 kDa protein 8, HSPA8) in DNA damage response was assessed in human carcinoma cells A549 and UO31 by transient knockdown with short interfering RNAs. Using the cell proliferation assay, we found that knockdown of HMGB1-associated proteins resulted in 8-fold to 50-fold decreased chemosensitivity of A549 cells to cytarabine. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent microscopy were used to evaluate genotoxic stress markers in knocked-down cancer cells after 24 to 72 hours of incubation with 1 micromol/L of cytarabine. Our results dissect the roles of HMGB1-associated proteins in DNA damage response: HMGB1 and HMGB2 facilitate p53 phosphorylation after exposure to genotoxic stress, and PDIA3 has been found essential for H2AX phosphorylation (no gamma-H2AX accumulated after 24-72 hours of incubation with 1 micromol/L of cytarabine in PDIA3 knockdown cells). We conclude that phosphorylation of p53 and phosphorylation of H2AX occur in two distinct branches of the DNA damage response. These findings identify new molecular components of the DNA damage signaling cascade and provide novel promising targets for chemotherapeutic intervention.
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TPMT genetic variations in populations of the Russian Federation.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Polymorphisms that reduce the activity of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) cause adverse reactions to conventional doses of thiopurines, routinely used for antileukemic and immunosuppressive treatment. There are more than 20 variant alleles of TPMT that cause decreased enzymatic activity. We studied the most common variant alleles of TPMT and their frequency distribution in a large cohort of multiracial residents in the Russian Federation and compared their frequencies in children with and without malignancy to determine whether TPMT gene abnormality is associated with hematologic malignancy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.