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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of a Functional Antioxidant Response Element within the Eighth Intron of the Human ABCC3 Gene.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters, including ABCC3, is a large family of efflux pumps that plays a pivotal role in the elimination of xenobiotics from the body. ABCC3 has been reported to be induced during hepatic stress conditions and through the progression of some forms of cancer. Several lines of evidence have implicated the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in this induction. However, while rodent models have been investigated, a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the human ABCC3 gene has not been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the ARE(s) responsible for mediating the Nrf2-dependent induction of the human ABCC3 gene. A high-throughput ChIP-sequencing analysis performed in A549 cells revealed a specific interaction between Nrf2 and the eighth intron of the human ABCC3 gene, rather than the more prototypical flanking region of the gene. Subsequent in silico analysis of the intron identified two putative ARE elements that contained the core, consensus ARE sequence commonly found in several Nrf2-responsive genes. Functional characterization of these two AREs using luciferase-reporter constructs with ARE mutant constructs revealed that one of these putative AREs is functionally active. Finally, DNA pull-down assays confirmed specific binding of these intronic AREs by Nrf2 in vitro. Our findings identify a functional Nrf2 response element within the eighth intron of the ABCC3 gene, which may provide mechanistic insight into the induction of ABCC3 during antioxidant response stimuli.
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Systems Level Metabolic Phenotype of Methotrexate Administration in the Context of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent a significant clinical challenge with respect to patient morbidity and mortality. We investigated the hepatotoxicity and systems level metabolic phenotype of methotrexate (MTX) in the context of a prevalent liver disease; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was employed to analyze the metabolic consequences of MTX (0, 10, 40, and 100 mg/kg) in the urine and liver of healthy rats (control diet) and in a model of NASH (methionine-choline deficient diet). Histopathological analysis confirmed baseline (0 mg/kg) liver necrosis, liver inflammation, and lipid accumulation in the NASH model. Administration of MTX (40 and 100 mg/kg) led to liver necrosis in the control cohort, whereas the NASH cohort also displayed biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis (100 mg/kg), providing evidence of the synergistic effect of MTX and NASH. The complementary hepatic and urinary metabolic phenotypes of the NASH model, at baseline, revealed perturbation of multiple metabolites associated with oxidative and energetic stress, and folate homeostasis. Administration of MTX in both diet cohorts showed dose-dependent metabolic consequences affecting gut microbial, energy, nucleobase, nucleoside, and folate metabolism. Furthermore, a unique panel of metabolic changes reflective of the synergistic effect of MTX and NASH was identified, including the elevation of hepatic phenylalanine, urocanate, acetate, and both urinary and hepatic formiminoglutamic acid. This systems level metabonomic analysis of the hepatotoxicity of MTX in the context of NASH provided novel mechanistic insight of potential wider clinical relevance for further understanding the role of liver pathology as a risk factor for ADRs.
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Increased susceptibility to methotrexate-induced toxicity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters play a crucial role in determining the fate of drugs, and alterations in liver function can place individuals at greater risk for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We have shown that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) leads to changes in the expression and localization of enzymes and transporters responsible for the disposition of numerous drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of NASH on methotrexate (MTX) disposition and the resulting toxicity profile. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control or methionine-choline-deficient diet for 8 weeks to induce NASH, then administered a single ip vehicle, 10, 40, or 100 mg/kg MTX injection followed by blood, urine, and feces collection over 96 h with terminal tissue collection. At the onset of dosing, Abcc1-4, Abcb1, and Abcg2 were elevated in NASH livers, whereas Abcc2 and Abcb1 were not properly localized to the membrane, similar to that previously observed in human NASH. NASH rodents receiving 40-100 mg/kg MTX exhibited hepatocellular damage followed by initiation of repair, whereas damage was absent in controls. NASH rodents receiving 100 mg/kg MTX exhibited slightly greater renal toxicity, indicating multiple organ toxicity, despite the majority of the dose being excreted by 6 h. Intestinal toxicity in NASH however, was strikingly less severe than controls, and coincided with reduced fecal MTX excretion. Because MTX-induced gastrointestinal toxicity limits the dose escalation necessary for cancer remission, these data suggest a greater risk for life-threatening MTX-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in NASH in the absence of overt gastrointestinal toxicity.
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Drug disposition alterations in liver disease: extrahepatic effects in cholestasis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs and xenobiotics, namely pharmaceuticals, is influenced by a host of factors that include genetics, physiological factors and environmental stressors. The importance of disease on the disposition of xenobiotics has been increasingly recognized among medical professionals for alterations in key enzymes and membrane transporters that influence drug disposition and contribute to the development of adverse drug reactions.
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Synergistic interaction between genetics and disease on pravastatin disposition.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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A genome wide association study and multiple pharmacogenetic studies have implicated the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide-1B1 (OATP1B1) in the pharmacokinetics and musculoskeletal toxicity of statin drugs. Other OATP uptake transporters can participate in the transport of pravastatin, partially compensating for the loss of OATP1B1 in patients carrying the polymorphism. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans and in a diet-induced rodent model alter the expression of multiple OATP transporters.
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Experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis increases exposure to simvastatin hydroxy acid by decreasing hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide expression.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Simvastatin (SIM)-induced myopathy is a dose-dependent adverse drug reaction (ADR) that has been reported to occur in 18.2% of patients receiving a 40- to 80-mg dose. The pharmacokinetics of SIM hydroxy acid (SIMA), the bioactive form of SIM, and the occurrence of SIM-induced myopathy are linked to the function of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) hepatic uptake transporters. Genetic polymorphisms in SLCO1B1, the gene for human hepatic OATP1B1, cause decreased elimination of SIMA and increased risk of developing myopathy. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is known to alter drug transporter expression and drug disposition. The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolism and disposition of SIM in a diet-induced rodent model of NASH. Rats were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet for 8 weeks to induce NASH and SIM was administered intravenously. Diet-induced NASH caused increased plasma retention and decreased biliary excretion of SIMA due to decreased protein expression of multiple hepatic Oatps. SIM exhibited increased volume of distribution in NASH as evidenced by increased muscle, decreased plasma, and no change in biliary concentrations. Although Cyp3a and Cyp2c11 proteins were decreased in NASH, no alterations in SIM metabolism were observed. These data, in conjunction with our previous data showing that human NASH causes a coordinated downregulation of hepatic uptake transporters, suggest that NASH-mediated transporter regulation may play a role in altered SIMA disposition and the occurrence of myopathy.
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Xenobiotic transporter expression along the male genital tract.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents.
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Modeling human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-associated changes in drug transporter expression using experimental rodent models.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease that can progress to the more advanced stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH has been shown to alter drug transporter regulation and may have implications in the development of adverse drug reactions. Several experimental rodent models have been proposed for the study of NASH, but no single model fully recapitulates all aspects of the human disease. The purpose of the current study was to determine which experimental NASH model best reflects the known alterations in human drug transporter expression to enable more accurate drug disposition predictions in NASH. Both rat and mouse NASH models were used in this investigation and include the methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet model, atherogenic diet model, ob/ob and db/db mice, and fa/fa rats. Pathologic scoring evaluations demonstrated that MCD and atherogenic rats, as well as ob/ob and db/db mice, developed NASH. Liver mRNA and protein expression analyses of drug transporters showed that in general, efflux transporters were induced and uptake transporters were repressed in the rat MCD and the mouse ob/ob and db/db models. Lastly, concordance analyses suggest that both the mouse and rat MCD models as well as mouse ob/ob and db/db NASH models show the most similarity to human transporter mRNA and protein expression. These results suggest that the MCD rat and mouse model, as well as the ob/ob and db/db mouse models, may be useful for predicting altered disposition of drugs with similar kinetics across humans and rodents.
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Selective and Cytokine-dependent Regulation of Hepatic Transporters and Bile Acid Homeostasis During Infectious Colitis in Mice.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Various disease models have been shown to alter hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) and transporter expression, and to induce cholestasis through altered enzyme and transporter expression. Previously, we detailed the regulation of hepatic DMEs during infectious colitis caused by Citrobacter rodentium infection. We hypothesized that this infection would also modulate hepatic drug transporter expression and key genes of bile acid (BA) synthesis and transport. Mice lacking Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), or interferon-gamma (IFN?) and appropriate wild type animals were orally infected with C. rodentium and sacrificed 7 days later. In two wild type strains, drug transporter mRNA expression was significantly decreased by infection for Slc22a4, Slco1a1, Slco1a4, Slco2b1, Abcc6, whereas the down-regulations of Abcc2, Abcc3, and Abcc4 were strain-dependent. In contrast, mRNA expressions of Slco3a1 and Abcb1b were increased in a strain-dependent manner. Expression of Abcb11, Slc10a1, the two major hepatic BA transporters and Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme of BA synthesis, was also significantly decreased in infected animals. None of the above effects were caused by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, since they still occurred in the absence of functional TLR4. The down-regulation of Slc22a4 and Cyp7a1 was absent in IFN?-null mice, and the down-regulation of Slco1a1 was abrogated in IL-6-null mice indicating in vivo roles for these cytokines in transporter regulation. These data indicate that C. rodentium infection modulates hepatic drug processing through alteration of transporter expression as well as DMEs. Furthermore, this infection down-regulates important genes of BA synthesis and transport and may increase the risk for cholestasis.
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Localization of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins along the Blood-Testis Barrier in Rat, Macaque, and Human Testis.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many drugs into seminiferous tubules, which can be beneficial for therapy not intended for the testis but may decrease drug efficacy for medications requiring entry to the testis. Previous data have shown that some of the transporters in the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family (ABCC) are expressed in the testis. By determining the subcellular localization of these transporters, their physiologic function and effect on drug disposition may be better predicted. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we determined the site of expression of the MRP transporters expressed in the testis, namely, MRP1, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP8, from immature and mature rats, rhesus macaques, and adult humans. We determined that in all species MRP1 was restricted to the basolateral membrane of Sertoli cells, MRP5 is located in Leydig cells, and MRP8 is located in round spermatids, whereas MRP4 showed species-specific localization. MRP4 is expressed on the basolateral membrane of Sertoli cells in human and nonhuman primates, but on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells in immature and mature rats, representing a potential caution when using rat models as a means for studying drug disposition across the BTB. These data suggest that MRP1 may limit drug disposition into seminiferous tubules, as may MRP4 in human and nonhuman primates but not in rats. These data also suggest that MRP5 and MRP8 may not have a major impact on the penetration of drugs across the BTB.
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The adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress response to lipotoxicity in progressive human nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress from simple steatosis to severe, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 7%-14% of the U.S. population through a second "hit" in the form of increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are triggered when high levels of lipids and misfolded proteins alter ER homeostasis creating a lipotoxic environment within NAFLD livers. The objective of this study was to determine the coordinate regulation of ER stress-associated genes in the progressive stages of human NAFLD. Human liver samples categorized as normal, steatosis, NASH (Fatty), and NASH (Not Fatty) were analyzed by individual Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST microarrays, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. A gene set enrichment analysis was performed on autophagy, apoptosis, lipogenesis, and ER stress/UPR gene categories. An enrichment of downregulated genes in the ER stress-associated lipogenesis and ER stress/UPR gene categories was observed in NASH. Conversely, an enrichment of upregulated ER stress-associated genes for autophagy and apoptosis gene categories was observed in NASH. Protein expression of the adaptive liver response protein STC2 and the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP-1s) were significantly elevated among NASH samples, whereas other downstream ER stress proteins including CHOP, ATF4, and phosphorylated JNK and eIF2? were not significantly changed in disease progression. Increased nuclear accumulation of total XBP-1 protein was observed in steatosis and NASH livers. The findings reveal the presence of a coordinated, adaptive transcriptional response to hepatic ER stress in human NAFLD.
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Circulating microRNA 122 in the methionine- and choline-deficient mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The methionine choline-deficient diet (MCD) is a frequently used hepatotoxicity animal model of NASH that induces hepatic transaminase (ALT, AST) elevations and hepatobiliary histological changes similar to those observed in human NASH. Liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown as a key regulator of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in adult liver, and has recently been proposed as a sensitive and specific circulating biomarker of hepatic injury. The purpose of this study was to assess miR-122 serum levels in mice receiving an MCD diet for 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days and compare the performance vs. routine clinical chemistry when benchmarked against the histopathological liver findings. MiR-122 levels were quantified in serum using RT-qPCR. Both miR-122 and ALT/AST levels were significantly elevated in serum at all timepoints. MiR-122 levels increased on average by 40-fold after 3 days of initiating the MCD diet, whereas ALT and AST changes were 4.8- and 3.3-fold, respectively. In general, miR-122 levels remained elevated across all time points, whereas the ALT/AST increases were less robust but correlated with the progressive severity of NASH as assessed by histopathology. In conclusion, serum levels of miR-122 can potentially be used as a sensitive biomarker for the early detection of hepatotoxicity and can aid in monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury in mouse efficacy models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Differential regulation of hepatic organic cation transporter 1, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1a4, bile-salt export pump, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 transporter expression in lymphocyte-deficient mice associates with interleuk
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Cholestasis results from interrupted bile flow and is associated with immune-mediated liver diseases. It is unclear how inflammation contributes to cholestasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether T and B cells contribute to hepatic transporter expression under basal and inflammatory conditions. C57BL/6J wild-type mice or strains lacking T, B, or both T and B cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, and livers were collected 16 hours later. Branched DNA signal amplification was used to assess mRNA levels of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatp) 1a1, 1a4, and 1b2; organic cation transporter (Oct) 1; canalicular bile-salt export pump (Bsep); multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp) 2 and 3; and sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp). Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to correlate changes of transporter expression with interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? expression in the liver. LPS treatment inhibited Bsep and Oct1 mRNA expression, and this was abrogated with a loss of T cells, but not B cells. In addition, the absence of T cells increased Mrp2 mRNA expression, whereas B cell deficiency attenuated Oatp1a4 mRNA in LPS-treated mice. Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2, Ntcp, and Mrp3 were largely unaffected by T or B cell deficiency. Lymphocyte deficiency altered basal and inflammatory IL-6, but not TNF-? or IL-1b, mRNA expression. Taken together, these data implicate lymphocytes as regulators of basal and inflammatory hepatic transporter expression and suggest that IL-6 signaling may play a critical role.
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Downregulation of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased human livers.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Sulfotransferase (SULT) function has been well studied in healthy human subjects by quantifying mRNA and protein expression and determining enzyme activity with probe substrates. However, it is not well known if sulfotransferase activity changes in metabolic and liver disease, such as diabetes, steatosis, or cirrhosis. Sulfotransferases have significant roles in the regulation of hormones and excretion of xenobiotics. In the present study of normal subjects with nonfatty livers and patients with steatosis, diabetic cirrhosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, we sought to determine SULT1A1, SULT2A1, SULT1E1, and SULT1A3 activity and mRNA and protein expression in human liver tissue. In general, sulfotransferase activity decreased significantly with severity of liver disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Specifically, SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 activities were lower in disease states relative to nonfatty tissues. Alcoholic cirrhotic tissues further contained lower SULT1A1 and 1A3 activities than those affected by either of the two other disease states. SULT2A1, on the other hand, was only reduced in alcoholic cirrhotic tissues. SULT1E1 was reduced both in diabetic cirrhosis and in alcoholic cirrhosis tissues, relative to nonfatty liver tissues. In conclusion, the reduced levels of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased versus nondiseased liver tissue may alter the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics and affect homeostasis of endobiotic sulfotransferase substrates.
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Basolateral uptake of nucleosides by Sertoli cells is mediated primarily by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport.
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Characterization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related Genes and Metabolites in Human Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The worldwide prevalences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are estimated to range from 30 to 40 % and 5-17 %, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily caused by hepatitis B infection, but retrospective data suggest that 4-29 % of NASH cases will progress to HCC. Currently the connection between NASH and HCC is unclear.
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Alcohol cirrhosis alters nuclear receptor and drug transporter expression in human liver.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Unsafe use of alcohol results in approximately 2.5 million deaths worldwide, with cirrhosis contributing to 16.6% of reported deaths. Serum insulin levels are often elevated in alcoholism and may result in diabetes, which is why alcoholic liver disease and diabetes often are present together. Because there is a sizable population with these diseases alone or in combination, the purpose of this study was to determine whether transporter expression in human liver is affected by alcoholic cirrhosis, diabetes, and alcoholic cirrhosis coexisting with diabetes. Transporters aid in hepatobiliary excretion of many drugs and toxic chemicals and can be determinants of drug-induced liver injury. Drug transporter expression and transcription factor-relative mRNA and protein expression in normal, diabetic, cirrhotic, and cirrhosis with diabetes human livers were quantified. Cirrhosis significantly increased ABCC4, 5, ABCG2, and solute carrier organic anion (SLCO) 2B1 mRNA expression and decreased SLCO1B3 mRNA expression in the liver. ABCC1, 3-5, and ABCG2 protein expression was also upregulated by alcoholic cirrhosis. ABCC3-5 and ABCG2 protein expression was also upregulated in diabetic cirrhosis. Cirrhosis increased nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 mRNA expression, whereas it decreased pregnane-X-receptor and farnesoid-X-receptor mRNA expression in comparison with normal livers. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that expressions of ABCC2, 3, and 6; SLCO1B1 and 1B3; and ABCC4 and 5 were more closely related in the livers from this cohort. Overall, alcoholic cirrhosis altered transporter expression in human liver.
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Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the classical (neutral) and alternative (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH.
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Molecular mechanism of altered ezetimibe disposition in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Ezetimibe (EZE) lowers serum lipid levels by blocking cholesterol uptake in the intestine. Disposition of EZE and its pharmacologically active glucuronide metabolite (EZE-GLUC) to the intestine is dependent on hepatobiliary efflux. Previous studies suggested that hepatic transporter expression and function may be altered during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether NASH-induced changes in the expression and function of hepatic transporters result in altered disposition of EZE and EZE-GLUC. Rats fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks were administered 10 mg/kg EZE either by intravenous bolus or oral gavage. Plasma and bile samples were collected over 2 h followed by terminal urine and tissue collection. EZE and EZE-GLUC concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sinusoidal transporter Abcc3 was induced in MCD rats, which correlated with increased plasma concentrations of EZE-GLUC, regardless of dosing method. Hepatic expression of the biliary transporters Abcc2 and Abcb1 was also increased in MCD animals, but the biliary efflux of EZE-GLUC was slightly diminished, whereas biliary bile acid concentrations were unaltered. The cellular localization of Abcc2 and Abcb1 appeared to be internalized away from the canalicular membrane in MCD livers, providing a mechanism for the shift to plasma drug efflux. The combination of induced expression and altered localization of efflux transporters in NASH shifts the disposition profile of EZE-GLUC toward plasma retention away from the site of action. This increased plasma retention of drugs in NASH may have implications for the pharmacological effect and safety of numerous drugs.
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Genetic variation in the mouse model of Niemann Pick C1 affects female, as well as male, adiposity, and hepatic bile transporters but has indeterminate effects on caveolae.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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We have previously shown that male Npc1 heterozygous mice (Npc1(+/-)), as compared to homozygous wild-type mice (Npc1(+/+)), both maintained on the "lean" BALB/cJ genetic background, become obese on a high fat but not on a low fat diet. We have now extended this result for female heterozygous mice. When fed high-fat diet, the Npc1(+/-) white adipose weight is also increased in females, therefore following the same trend as males. Bile transporters which had previously been found to be altered in Npc1(-/-) mice on a high fat diet, showed related, but small, changes in mRNA levels but large changes in protein expression. We have addressed the possible role of caveolae in these differences. It has long been known that caveolin 1 is increased in the liver (sex not specified) of Npc1(+/-) (compared to Npc1(+/+) and Npc1(-/-)) mice and in heterozygous cultured skin fibroblasts of NPC1 carriers. We now find that caveolin 1 is increased in male, but not female liver and female, but not male adipose tissue. The caveolin 1 increase was not accompanied by changes in another caveolar protein, polymerase1 and transcript release factor (Ptrf). The numbers of caveolae in female adipose cells could not be correlated with levels of caveolae. Thus, we conclude that Npc1 affects female as well as male obesity and bile transporters but that effects on caveolin 1 are not discernible.
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Variations in ATP-binding cassette transporter regulation during the progression of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Transporters located on the sinusoidal and canalicular membranes of hepatocytes regulate the efflux of drugs and metabolites into blood and bile, respectively. Changes in the expression or function of these transporters during liver disease may lead to a greater risk of adverse drug reactions. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive condition encompassing the relatively benign steatosis and the more severe, inflammatory state of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we present an analysis of the effect of NAFLD progression on the major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transport proteins ABCC1-6, ABCB1, and ABCG2. Human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatotic, NASH (fatty), and NASH (not fatty) were analyzed. Increasing trends in mRNA expression of ABCC1, ABCC4-5, ABCB1, and ABCG2 were found with NAFLD progression, whereas protein levels of all transporters exhibited increasing trends with disease progression. Immunohistochemical staining of ABCC3, ABCB1, and ABCG2 revealed no alterations in cellular localization during NAFLD progression. ABCC2 staining revealed an alternative mechanism of regulation in NASH in which the transporter appears to be internalized away from the canalicular membrane. This correlated with a preferential shift in the molecular mass of ABCC2 from 200 to 180 kDa in NASH, which has been shown to be associated with a loss of glycosylation and internalization of the protein. These data demonstrate increased expression of multiple efflux transporters as well as altered cellular localization of ABCC2 in NASH, which may have profound effects on the ability of patients with NASH to eliminate drugs in an appropriate manner.
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Analysis of global and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination gene expression in the progressive stages of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by a series of pathological changes that range from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this study is to describe changes in global gene expression associated with the progression of human NAFLD. This study is focused on the expression levels of genes responsible for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Differential gene expression between three clinically defined pathological groups-normal, steatosis, and NASH-was analyzed. Genome-wide mRNA levels in samples of human liver tissue were assayed with Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0ST arrays. A total of 11,633 genes exhibited altered expression out of 33,252 genes at a 5% false discovery rate. Most gene expression changes occurred in the progression from steatosis to NASH. Principal component analysis revealed that hepatic disease status was the major determinant of differential ADME gene expression rather than age or sex of sample donors. Among the 515 drug transporters and 258 drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) examined, uptake transporters but not efflux transporters or DMEs were significantly over-represented in the number of genes down-regulated. These results suggest that uptake transporter genes are coordinately targeted for down-regulation at the global level during the pathological development of NASH and that these patients may have decreased drug uptake capacity. This coordinated regulation of uptake transporter genes is indicative of a hepatoprotective mechanism acting to prevent accumulation of toxic intermediates in disease-compromised hepatocytes.
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Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes.
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Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 induces biotransformation enzyme and transporter expression in livers of mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1.
J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Chemicals that activate nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) often increase multidrug-resistance-associated protein (Mrp) expression in liver. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) activates Nrf2. Use of hepatocyte-specific Keap1 deletion represents a nonpharmacological method to determine whether constitutive Nrf2 activation upregulates liver transporter expression in vivo. The mRNA, protein expression, and localization of several biotransformation and transporters were determined in livers of wild-type and hepatocyte-specific Keap1-null mice. Sulfotransferase 2a1/2, NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1, cytochrome P450 2b10, 3a11, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit expression were increased in livers of Keap1-null mice. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1a1 expression was nearly abolished, as compared to that detected in livers of wild-type mice. By contrast, Mrp 1-5 mRNA and protein levels were increased in Keap1-null mouse livers, with Mrp4 expression being more than 15-fold higher than wild types. In summary, Nrf2 has a significant role in affecting Oatp and Mrp expressions.
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Diversity in antioxidant response enzymes in progressive stages of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which occurs in approximately 17 to 40% of Americans, encompasses progressive stages of liver damage ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammation and oxidative stress are known characteristics of NAFLD; however, the precise mechanisms occurring during disease progression remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the expression or function of enzymes involved in the antioxidant response, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutamate cysteine ligase, are altered in the progression of human NAFLD. Human livers staged as normal, steatotic, NASH (fatty), and NASH (not fatty) were obtained from the Liver Tissue Cell Distribution System. NQO1 mRNA, protein, and activity tended to increase with disease progression. mRNA levels of the GST isoforms A1, A2, A4, M3, and P1 increased with NAFLD progression. Likewise, GST A and P protein increased with progression; however, GST M protein levels tended to decrease. Of interest, total GST activity toward the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene decreased with NAFLD progression. GSH synthesis does not seem to be significantly dysregulated in NAFLD progression; however, the GSH/oxidized glutathione redox ratio seemed to be reduced with disease severity, indicating the presence of oxidative stress and depletion of GSH throughout progression of NAFLD. Malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly increased with disease progression, further indicating the presence of oxidative stress. Nuclear immunohistochemical staining of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an indicator of activation of the transcription factor, was evident in all stages of NAFLD. The current data suggest that Nrf2 activation occurs in response to disease progression followed by induction of specific Nrf2 targets, whereas functionality of specific antioxidant defense enzymes seems to be impaired as NAFLD progresses.
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Drug transporter expression and localization in rat nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Uptake of drugs and other xenobiotics from the nasal cavity and into either the brain or systemic circulation can occur through several different mechanisms, including paracellular transport and movement along primary olfactory nerve axons, which extend from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb of the brain. The present study was conducted to expand knowledge on a third means of uptake, namely the expression of drug transporters in the rat nasal epithelium. We used branched DNA technology to compare the level of expression of nine transporters [(equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT)1 and ENT2; organic cation transporter (OCT)1, 2, and 3; OCTN1; organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)3; and multidrug resistance (MRP)1 and MRP4] in nasal respiratory mucosa, olfactory mucosa, and olfactory bulb to the level of expression of these transporters in the liver and kidney. Transporters with high expression in the nasal respiratory mucosa or olfactory tissues were immunolocalized by immunohistochemistry. ENT1 and ENT2 expression was relatively high in nasal epithelia and olfactory bulb, which may explain the uptake of intranasally administered nucleoside derivatives observed by other investigators. OATP3 immunoreactivity was high in olfactory epithelium and olfactory nerve bundles, which suggests that substrates transported by OATP3 may be candidates for intranasal administration.
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Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme alterations in humans with progressive stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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Members of the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme families CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 are responsible for the metabolism of approximately 75% of all clinically relevant drugs. With the increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is likely that patients with this disease represent an emerging population at significant risk for alterations in these important drug-metabolizing enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three progressive stages of human NALFD alter hepatic P450 expression and activity. Microsomes isolated from human liver samples diagnosed as normal, n = 20; steatosis, n = 11; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (fatty liver), n = 10; and NASH (no longer fatty), n = 11 were analyzed for P450 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. Microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 mRNA levels were decreased with NAFLD progression, whereas CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 mRNA expression increased. Microsomal protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 tended to decrease with NAFLD progression. Likewise, functional activity assays revealed decreasing trends in CYP1A2 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C19 (p = 0.05) enzymatic activity with increasing NAFLD severity. In contrast, activity of CYP2A6 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C9 (diclofenac, p = 0.0001; tolbutamide, p = 0.004) was significantly increased with NAFLD progression. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta was observed and may be responsible for observed decreases in respective P450 activity. Furthermore, elevated CYP2C9 activity during NAFLD progression correlated with elevated hypoxia-induced factor 1alpha expression in the later stages of NAFLD. These results suggest that significant and novel changes occur in hepatic P450 activity during progressive stages of NAFLD.
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Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2009
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (SFL model) or a methionine-choline-deficient diet (NASH model) for eight weeks. Hepatic uptake transporter function was determined by bromosulfophthalein (BSP) disposition. Transporter expression was determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and western blotting; inflammation was identified by immunostaining of liver slices for interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta). MC- rats showed significant retention of BSP in the plasma when compared to control rats. Hepatic NTCP, OATP1a1, 1a4, 1b2 and 2b1; and OAT 2 and 3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in high-fat and MC- diet rats when compared to control. Protein expression of OATP1a1 was significantly decreased in high-fat animals, while OATP1a1 and OATP1b2 expressions were significantly lower in MC- rats when compared to control. Liver tissue from high-fat and MC- rats stained positive for IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to decrease expression of NTCP, OATP and OAT transporters, suggesting a plausible mechanism for the observed transporter alterations. These data suggest that different stages of NAFLD result in altered hepatic uptake transporter expression that can lead to a functional impairment of xenobiotic uptake from the blood. Furthermore, NAFLD may alter the plasma retention time of clinically relevant drugs that are reliant on these transporters and may increase the potential drug toxicity.
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Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression.
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Constitutive androstane receptor-mediated changes in bile acid composition contributes to hepatoprotection from lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice before and during induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA). In LCA-treated WT and all the CAR-null groups (excluding controls), histology revealed severe multifocal necrosis. This pathology was absent in WT mice pretreated with PB and TCPOBOP, indicating CAR-dependent hepatoprotection. Decreases in total hepatic bile acids and hepatic monohydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy bile acids in PB- and TCPOBOP-pretreated WT mice correlated with hepatoprotection. In comparison, concentrations of monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated bile acids were increased in all the treated CAR-null mice compared with CO controls. Along with several other enzymes (Cyp7b1, Cyp27a1, Cyp39a1), Cyp8b1 expression was increased in hepatoprotected mice, which could be suggestive of a shift in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway toward the formation of less toxic bile acids. In CAR-null mice, these changes in gene expression were not different among treatment groups. These results suggest CAR mediates a shift in bile acid biosynthesis toward the formation of less toxic bile acids, as well as a decrease in hepatic bile acid concentrations. We propose that these combined CAR-mediated effects may contribute to the hepatoprotection observed during LCA-induced liver injury.
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Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH.
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Altered UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase expression and function during progressive stages of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
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The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) represent major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that are also responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by metabolism of several endogenous molecules. Perturbations in the expression or function of these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders and improper management of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Because the liver plays a central role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of human NAFLD progression on the expression and function of UGTs and SULTs in normal, steatosis, NASH (fatty), and NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) samples. We identified upregulation of UGT1A9, 2B10, and 3A1 and SULT1C4 mRNA in both stages of NASH, whereas UGT2A3, 2B15, and 2B28 and SULT1A1, 2B1, and 4A1 as well as 3-phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate synthase 1 were increased in NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) only. UGT1A9 and 1A6 and SULT1A1 and 2A1 protein levels were decreased in NASH; however, SULT1C4 was increased. Measurement of the glucuronidation and sulfonation of acetaminophen (APAP) revealed no alterations in glucuronidation; however, SULT activity was increased in steatosis compared with normal samples, but then decreased in NASH compared with steatosis. In conclusion, the expression of specific UGT and SULT isoforms appears to be differentially regulated, whereas sulfonation of APAP is disrupted during progression of NAFLD.
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The hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Mrp2 are downregulated in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
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Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of premature infants and is characterized by an extensive hemorrhagic inflammatory necrosis of the distal ileum and proximal colon. We have previously shown that, during the development of experimental NEC, the liver plays an important role in regulating inflammation in the ileum, and accumulation of ileal bile acids (BA) along with dysregulation of ileal BA transporters contributes to ileal damage. Given these findings, we speculated that hepatic BA transporters would also be altered in experimental NEC. Using both rat and mouse models of NEC, levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp27a1, and the hepatic BA transporters Bsep, Ntcp, Oatp2, Oatp4, Mrp2, and Mrp3 were investigated. In addition, levels of hepatic BA transporters were also determined when the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-18, which are both elevated in NEC, are neutralized during disease development. Ntcp and Mrp2 were decreased in NEC, but elevated ileal BA levels were not responsible for these reductions. However, neutralization of TNF-? normalized Ntcp, whereas removal of IL-18 normalized Mrp2 levels. These data show that the hepatic transporters Ntcp and Mrp2 are downregulated, whereas Cyp27a1 is increased in rodent models of NEC. Furthermore, increased levels of TNF-? and IL-18 in experimental NEC may play a role in the regulation of Ntcp and Mrp2, respectively. These data suggest the gut-liver axis should be considered when therapeutic modalities for NEC are developed.
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Altered arsenic disposition in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is represented by a spectrum of liver pathologies ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver damage sustained in the progressive stages of NAFLD may alter the ability of the liver to properly metabolize and eliminate xenobiotics. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether NAFLD alters the disposition of the environmental toxicant arsenic. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat or a methionine-choline-deficient diet to model simple steatosis and NASH, respectively. At the conclusion of the dietary regimen, all mice were given a single oral dose of either sodium arsenate or arsenic trioxide. Mice with NASH excreted significantly higher levels of total arsenic in urine (24 h) compared with controls. Total arsenic in the liver and kidneys of NASH mice was not altered; however, NASH liver retained significantly higher levels of the monomethyl arsenic metabolite, whereas dimethyl arsenic was retained significantly less in the kidneys of NASH mice. NASH mice had significantly higher levels of the more toxic trivalent form in their urine, whereas the pentavalent form was preferentially retained in the liver of NASH mice. Moreover, hepatic protein expression of the arsenic biotransformation enzyme arsenic (3+ oxidation state) methyltransferase was not altered in NASH animals, whereas protein expression of the membrane transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 was increased, implicating cellular transport rather than biotransformation as a possible mechanism. These results suggest that NASH alters the disposition of arsenical species, which may have significant implications on the overall toxicity associated with arsenic in NASH.
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Measuring altered disposition of xenobiotics in experimental models of liver disease.
Curr Protoc Toxicol
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Understanding the metabolic pathway and excretion mechanisms governing the disposition of a compound is essential to the safe use of pharmaceutical agents. Because the liver is the primary organ responsible for the metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics, chronic liver disease can have a significant effect on the disposition of many xenobiotics due to changes in the expression or function of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Liver disease can result in increased retention of a xenobiotic within the body, causing greater exposure of the individual to a potentially harmful compound, which may lead to toxicity. On the other hand, liver disease may also up-regulate the elimination processes of a xenobiotic, accelerating its removal from the body. With regard to a pharmaceutical agent, enhanced elimination may result in a decreased pharmacologic effect. Such alterations may necessitate dosage adjustments to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome.
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Genetics or environment in drug transport: the case of organic anion transporting polypeptides and adverse drug reactions.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
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Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug-drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown.
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