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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biological Correlates of Blood Pressure Variability in Elderly at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. This study investigates biological correlates of intra-individual variability in blood pressure in older persons.
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HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials.
Daniel I Swerdlow, David Preiss, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Michael V Holmes, Jorgen E L Engmann, Tina Shah, Reecha Sofat, Stefan Stender, Paul C D Johnson, Robert A Scott, Maarten Leusink, Niek Verweij, Stephen J Sharp, Yiran Guo, Claudia Giambartolomei, Christina Chung, Anne Peasey, Antoinette Amuzu, KaWah Li, Jutta Palmen, Philip Howard, Jackie A Cooper, Fotios Drenos, Yun R Li, Gordon Lowe, John Gallacher, Marlene C W Stewart, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Sarah G Buxbaum, Daphne L van der A, Nita G Forouhi, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Renate B Schnabel, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Růžena Kubinova, Miglė Bacevičienė, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Andrzej Pająk, Romanvan Topor-Madry, Urszula Stepaniak, Sofia Malyutina, Damiano Baldassarre, Bengt Sennblad, Elena Tremoli, Ulf de Faire, Fabrizio Veglia, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gert Jan de Borst, Pim A de Jong, Ale Algra, Wilko Spiering, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Olaf H Klungel, Anthonius de Boer, Pieter A Doevendans, Charles B Eaton, Jennifer G Robinson, David Duggan, , John Kjekshus, John R Downs, Antonio M Gotto, Anthony C Keech, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Peter S Sever, Neil R Poulter, David D Waters, Terje R Pedersen, Pierre Amarenco, Haruo Nakamura, John J V McMurray, James D Lewsey, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Aldo P Maggioni, Luigi Tavazzi, Kausik K Ray, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally Seshasai, JoAnn E Manson, Jackie F Price, Peter H Whincup, Richard W Morris, Debbie A Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Pamela J Schreiner, Myriam Fornage, David S Siscovick, Mary Cushman, Meena Kumari, Nick J Wareham, W M Monique Verschuren, Susan Redline, Sanjay R Patel, John C Whittaker, Anders Hamsten, Joseph A Delaney, Caroline Dale, Tom R Gaunt, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Sekar Kathiresan, Berta A Castillo, Pim van der Harst, Eric J Brunner, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Michael G Marmot, Ronald M Krauss, Michael Tsai, Josef Coresh, Ronald C Hoogeveen, Bruce M Psaty, Leslie A Lange, Hakon Hakonarson, Frank Dudbridge, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Mika Kivimäki, Nicholas J Timpson, Claudia Langenberg, Folkert W Asselbergs, Mikhail Voevoda, Martin Bobak, Hynek Pikhart, James G Wilson, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Aroon D Hingorani, Naveed Sattar.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target.
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A dysglycaemic effect of statins in diabetes: relevance to clinical practice?
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In this issue of the journal, Erqou and colleagues (DOI 10.1007/s00125-014-3374-x ) report, in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials, a very modest (1.3 mmol/mol or 0.12%) albeit significant increase in HbA1c in patients with diabetes treated with statins, compared with control. Here, we discuss the clinical relevance of the findings. Given the overwhelming benefit of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes, current guidelines recommending statins for primary prevention in type 2 diabetes should not change, and any effect on microvascular risk is likely to be minimal. Of course, all patients recommended for statin treatment, whether they have diabetes or not, should now be warned of a slight potential for dysglycaemia on starting statins, but at the same time they should be told that very modest lifestyle improvement will help offset this dysglycaemia risk. Finally, we remind colleagues that nearly all drugs have side effects and we should not be surprised by this statin-dysglycaemia effect, which can be easily managed.
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Regular breakfast consumption and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 9- to 10-year-old children in the child heart and health study in England (CHASE): a cross-sectional analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Regular breakfast consumption may protect against type 2 diabetes risk in adults but little is known about its influence on type 2 diabetes risk markers in children. We investigated the associations between breakfast consumption (frequency and content) and risk markers for type 2 diabetes (particularly insulin resistance and glycaemia) and cardiovascular disease in children.
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Type 2 diabetes as a disease of ectopic fat?
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Although obesity and diabetes commonly co-exist, the evidence base to support obesity as the major driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the mechanisms by which this occurs, are now better appreciated.
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Stress hyperglycaemia in hospitalised patients and their 3-year risk of diabetes: a Scottish retrospective cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Hyperglycaemia during hospital admission is common in patients who are not known to have diabetes and is associated with adverse outcomes. The risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes, however, is not known. We linked a national database of hospital admissions with a national register of diabetes to describe the association between admission glucose and the risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes.
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Elevated parathyroid hormone, but not vitamin D deficiency, is associated with increased risk of heart failure in older men with and without cardiovascular disease.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Hyperparathyroidism and low vitamin D status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). We examined the prospective associations between parathyroid hormone (PTH), circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and markers of mineral metabolism and risk of incident HF in older men with and without established cardiovascular disease.
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Revisiting the J shaped curve, exploring the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in patients with cardiometabolic disease: Findings from a large cross-sectional study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Depression is common in patients with cardiometabolic diseases but little is known about the relationship, if any, between cardiovascular risk factor values and depressive symptoms in patients with these conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in patients with three common cardiometabolic conditions: coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and diabetes.
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An evaluation of risk factors for major adverse cardiovascular events during tocilizumab therapy.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Objective. To explore associations of baseline and on-treatment lipid levels, inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity with risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in tocilizumab-treated RA patients. Methods. In retrospective post hoc analyses, data were pooled from 3986 adults with moderate to severe RA administered ?1 dose of tocilizumab 4 or 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks in randomized controlled trials and extension studies. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate associations among baseline characteristics and posttreatment initiation variables (week 24) and change from baseline to week 24 disease activity and laboratory values, with risk for future MACE during extended follow-up. Results. There were 50 independently adjudicated cases of MACE during 14,683 patient-years (PY) of follow-up (0.34 MACE/100 PY). At baseline, age, history of cardiac disorders, disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28), and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio were independently (P<0.05 for all) associated with MACE in multivariable models. On treatment, higher DAS28 scores and swollen and tender joint counts at week 24 were associated with future MACE. In separate models, greater reductions in DAS28 score and joint counts from baseline to week 24 were inversely associated with future MACE; changes in lipid parameters were not statistically significantly associated with risk for MACE. Conclusion. As in the general population, an association was observed between baseline total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and increased risk for MACE. Risk for on-treatment MACE, however, was found to be associated with control of disease activity but not lipid changes. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.
Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo, Richard J Silverwood, Yiran Guo, Zheng Ye, David Prieto-Merino, Abbas Dehghan, Stella Trompet, Andrew Wong, Alana Cavadino, Dagmar Drogan, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Shanshan Li, Ajay Yesupriya, Maarten Leusink, Johan Sundström, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Hynek Pikhart, Daniel I Swerdlow, Andrie G Panayiotou, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Chris Finan, Sonia Shah, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Fulvio Ricceri, Olle Melander, Carlotta Sacerdote, Dale M Gamble, Sruti Rayaprolu, Owen A Ross, Stela McLachlan, Olga Vikhireva, Ivonne Sluijs, Robert A Scott, Vera Adamkova, Leon Flicker, Frank M van Bockxmeer, Christine Power, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Tom Meade, Michael G Marmot, José M Ferro, Sofia Paulos-Pinheiro, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Irene Mateo Leach, Niek Verweij, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten J Cramer, Pim van der Harst, Olaf H Klungel, Nicole F Dowling, Anna F Dominiczak, Meena Kumari, Andrew N Nicolaides, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Shah Ebrahim, Tom R Gaunt, Jackie F Price, Lars Lannfelt, Anne Peasey, Růžena Kubinova, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Mikhail I Voevoda, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Paul E Norman, Graeme J Hankey, Manuela M Bergmann, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jackie Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Wilko Spiering, Pim A de Jong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Ian Ford, Elina Hyppönen, Osvaldo P Almeida, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anders Hamsten, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Anne Tjønneland, Janne S Tolstrup, Eric Rimm, Joline W J Beulens, W M Monique Verschuren, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Richard Morris, Astrid M Vicente, Hugh Watkins, Martin Farrall, J Wouter Jukema, James Meschia, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen J Sharp, Myriam Fornage, Charles Kooperberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, James Y Dai, Matthew B Lanktree, David S Siscovick, Eric Jorgenson, Bonnie Spring, Josef Coresh, Yun R Li, Sarah G Buxbaum, Pamela J Schreiner, R Curtis Ellison, Michael Y Tsai, Sanjay R Patel, Susan Redline, Andrew D Johnson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Hakon Hakonarson, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Paul I W de Bakker, Mika Kivimäki, Folkert W Asselbergs, Naveed Sattar, Debbie A Lawlor, John Whittaker, George Davey Smith, Kenneth Mukamal, Bruce M Psaty, James G Wilson, Leslie A Lange, Ajna Hamidovic, Aroon D Hingorani, Børge G Nordestgaard, Martin Bobak, David A Leon, Claudia Langenberg, Tom M Palmer, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Frank Dudbridge, Juan P Casas, .
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease.
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Ethnic-specific obesity cutoffs for diabetes risk: cross-sectional study of 490,288 UK biobank participants.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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To compare the relationship between adiposity and prevalent diabetes across ethnic groups in the UK Biobank cohort and to derive ethnic-specific obesity cutoffs that equate to those developed in white populations in terms of diabetes prevalence.
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Contrasting associations of insulin resistance with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the elderly: PROSPER long-term follow-up.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Insulin resistance is commonly proposed as a precursor to both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet few studies have directly compared insulin resistance with both outcomes simultaneously and determined whether associations with each outcome differ in strength or are comparable. We assessed the association of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident CVD and diabetes in older people.
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The association of rate of weight gain during early adulthood with the prevalence of subclinical coronary artery disease in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: the MAXWEL-CAD study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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To investigate the association of the rate of weight gain (Ratemax_wt) between the age of 20 years and the age of maximum lifetime weight gain with indicators of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D).
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Pregnancy glycaemia and cord-blood levels of insulin and leptin in Pakistani and white British mother-offspring pairs: findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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To determine the extent to which gestational fasting and postload levels of glucose explain differences in infant fat mass between UK-born Pakistani and white British infants.
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Do cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and hsTnT predict microvascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes? Results from the ADVANCE trial.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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We investigated microvascular event risk in people with type 2 diabetes and assessed whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) improved prediction.
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and risk of cardiovascular events in older patients with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and incident cardiovascular events in older people with type 2 diabetes.
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The use of statins in people at risk of developing diabetes mellitus: evidence and guidance for clinical practice.
Atheroscler Suppl
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins is associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) events in a wide range of patient populations. Although statins are generally considered to be safe, recent studies suggest they are associated with an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change their labelling requirements for statins to include a warning about the possibility of increased blood sugar and HbA1c levels and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to issue guidance on a small increased risk of T2D with the statin class. This review examines the evidence leading to these claims and provides practical guidance for primary care physicians on the use of statins in people with or at risk of developing T2D. Overall, evidence suggests that the benefits of statins for the reduction of CV risk far outweigh the risk of developing T2D, especially in individuals with higher CV risk. To reduce the risk of developing T2D, physicians should assess all patients for T2D risk prior to starting statin therapy, educate patients about their risks, and encourage risk-reduction through lifestyle changes. Whether some statins are more diabetogenic than others requires further study. Statin-treated patients at high risk of developing T2D should regularly be monitored for changes in blood glucose or HbA1c levels, and the risk of conversion from pre-diabetes to T2D should be reduced by intensifying lifestyle changes. Should a patient develop T2D during statin treatment, physicians should continue with statin therapy and manage T2D in accordance with relevant national guidelines.
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Lifelong patterns of BMI and cardiovascular phenotype in individuals aged 60-64 years in the 1946 British birth cohort study: an epidemiological study.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Excess body fat is associated with an increase in risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in adulthood and these risks can adversely affect progression of arterial disease. We aimed to assess the impact of lifelong patterns of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in later life in participants in the 1946 British birth cohort study.
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The emergence of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the cardiovascular arena as viewed from a clinical perspective.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The ability to phenotype metabolic profiles in serum has increased substantially in recent years with the advent of metabolomics. Metabolomics is the study of the metabolome, defined as those molecules with an atomic mass less than 1.5 kDa. There are two main metabolomics methods: mass spectrometry (MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, each with its respective benefits and limitations. MS has greater sensitivity and so can detect many more metabolites. However, its cost (especially when heavy labelled internal standards are required for absolute quantitation) and quality control is sub-optimal for large cohorts. (1)H NMR is less sensitive but sample preparation is generally faster and analysis times shorter, resulting in markedly lower analysis costs. (1)H NMR is robust, reproducible and can provide absolute quantitation of many metabolites. Of particular relevance to cardio-metabolic disease is the ability of (1)H NMR to provide detailed quantitative data on amino acids, fatty acids and other metabolites as well as lipoprotein subparticle concentrations and size. Early epidemiological studies suggest promise, however, this is an emerging field and more data is required before we can determine the clinical utility of these measures to improve disease prediction and treatment. This review describes the theoretical basis of (1)H NMR; compares MS and (1)H NMR and provides a tabular overview of recent (1)H NMR-based research findings in the atherosclerosis field, describing the design and scope of studies conducted to date. (1)H NMR metabolomics-CVD related research is emerging, however further large, robustly conducted prospective, genetic and intervention studies are needed to advance research on CVD risk prediction and to identify causal pathways amenable to intervention.
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Preanalytical study of fetuin-A: effect of sample type, processing speed and freeze-thaw cycles.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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It has been suggested that fetuin-A may be a potential biomarker of cardiometabolic disease. However, few studies have investigated preanalytical factors that might impact the measurement of fetuin-A in the circulation. This pilot study aimed to investigate the preanalytical variables of sample type, timing of sample centrifugation and the impact of freeze-thaw cycles on the concentration of fetuin-A in serum or EDTA-plasma.
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Genome-wide association meta-analysis of human longevity identifies a novel locus conferring survival beyond 90 years of age.
Joris Deelen, Marian Beekman, Hae-Won Uh, Linda Broer, Kristin L Ayers, Qihua Tan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Anna M Bennet, Riin Tamm, Stella Trompet, Daníel F Guðbjartsson, Friederike Flachsbart, Giuseppina Rose, Alexander Viktorin, Krista Fischer, Marianne Nygaard, Heather J Cordell, Paolina Crocco, Erik B van den Akker, Stefan Böhringer, Quinta Helmer, Christopher P Nelson, Gary I Saunders, Maris Alver, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Marie E Breen, Ruud van der Breggen, Amke Caliebe, Miriam Capri, Elisa Cevenini, Joanna C Collerton, Serena Dato, Karen Davies, Ian Ford, Jutta Gampe, Paolo Garagnani, Eco J C de Geus, Jennifer Harrow, Diana van Heemst, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Albert Hofman, Bernard Jeune, Palmi V Jonsson, Mark Lathrop, Doris Lechner, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Susan E McNerlan, Evelin Mihailov, Alberto Montesanto, Simon P Mooijaart, Anne Murphy, Ellen A Nohr, Lavinia Paternoster, Iris Postmus, Fernando Rivadeneira, Owen A Ross, Stefano Salvioli, Naveed Sattar, Stefan Schreiber, Hreinn Stefansson, David J Stott, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gonneke Willemsen, Nilesh J Samani, Pilar Galán, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, J Wouter Jukema, Irene Maeve Rea, Giuseppe Passarino, Anton J M de Craen, Kaare Christensen, Almut Nebel, Kari Stefansson, Andres Metspalu, Patrik Magnusson, Hélène Blanché, Lene Christiansen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Cornelia M van Duijn, Claudio Franceschi, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Eline Slagboom.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The genetic contribution to the variation in human lifespan is ? 25%. Despite the large number of identified disease-susceptibility loci, it is not known which loci influence population mortality. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 7729 long-lived individuals of European descent (? 85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (<65 years) followed by replication in an additional set of 13 060 long-lived individuals and 61 156 controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ? 90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 × 10(-36)), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103), the minor allele of rs2149954 (T) on chromosome 5q33.3 associates with increased survival (HR = 0.95, P = 0.003). This allele has previously been reported to associate with low blood pressure in middle age. Interestingly, the minor allele (T) associates with decreased cardiovascular mortality risk, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less dependent on blood pressure. Hence, the pleiotropic mechanisms by which this intragenic variation contributes to lifespan regulation have to be elucidated.
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Glycated hemoglobin measurement and prediction of cardiovascular disease.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain.
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Effect of a lifestyle intervention on weight change in south Asian individuals in the UK at high risk of type 2 diabetes: a family-cluster randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The susceptibility to type 2 diabetes of people of south Asian descent is established, but there is little trial-based evidence for interventions to tackle this problem. We assessed a weight control and physical activity intervention in south Asian individuals in the UK.
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Metformin for non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (the CAMERA study): a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Metformin reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes seemingly independent of lowering blood glucose concentration. We assessed the cardiovascular effects of metformin in individuals without type 2 diabetes.
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Infant body composition and adipokine concentrations in relation to maternal gestational weight gain.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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To investigate associations of maternal gestational weight gain and body composition and their impact on offspring body composition and adipocytokine, glucose, and insulin concentrations at age 4 months.
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Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: the ALSPAC study.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Adiposity is a key risk factor for NAFLD. Few studies have examined prospective associations of infant and childhood adiposity with subsequent NAFLD risk. We examined associations of weight-for-height trajectories from birth to age 10 with liver outcomes in adolescence, and assessed the extent to which associations are mediated through fat mass at the time of outcome assessment.
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In preeclampsia, maternal third trimester subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis is more resistant to suppression by insulin than in healthy pregnancy.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Obesity increases preeclampsia risk, and maternal dyslipidemia may result from exaggerated adipocyte lipolysis. We compared adipocyte function in preeclampsia with healthy pregnancy to establish whether there is increased lipolysis. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies were collected at caesarean section from healthy (n=31) and preeclampsia (n=13) mothers. Lipolysis in response to isoproterenol (200 nmol/L) and insulin (10 nmol/L) was assessed. In healthy pregnancy, subcutaneous adipocytes had higher diameter than visceral adipocytes (P<0.001). Subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte mean diameter in preeclampsia was similar to that in healthy pregnant controls, but cell distribution was shifted toward smaller cell diameter in preeclampsia. Total lipolysis rates under all conditions were lower in healthy visceral than subcutaneous adipocytes but did not differ after normalization for cell diameter. Visceral adipocyte insulin sensitivity was lower than subcutaneous in healthy pregnancy and inversely correlated with plasma triglyceride (r=-0.50; P=0.004). Visceral adipose tissue had lower ADRB3, LPL, and leptin and higher insulin receptor messenger RNA expression than subcutaneous adipose tissue. There was no difference in subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis rates between preeclampsia and healthy controls, but subcutaneous adipocytes had lower sensitivity to insulin in preeclampsia, independent of cell diameter (P<0.05). In preeclampsia, visceral adipose tissue had higher LPL messenger RNA expression than subcutaneous. In conclusion, in healthy pregnancy, the larger total mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue may release more fatty acids into the circulation than visceral adipose tissue. Reduced insulin suppression of subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis may increase the burden of plasma fatty acids that the mother has to process in preeclampsia.
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Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.
Iris Postmus, Stella Trompet, Harshal A Deshmukh, Michael R Barnes, Xiaohui Li, Helen R Warren, Daniel I Chasman, Kaixin Zhou, Benoit J Arsenault, Louise A Donnelly, Kerri L Wiggins, Christy L Avery, Paula Griffin, QiPing Feng, Kent D Taylor, Guo Li, Daniel S Evans, Albert V Smith, Catherine E de Keyser, Andrew D Johnson, Anton J M de Craen, David J Stott, Brendan M Buckley, Ian Ford, Rudi G J Westendorp, P Eline Slagboom, Naveed Sattar, Patricia B Munroe, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Alice Stanton, Denis C Shields, Eoin O'Brien, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Y-D Ida Chen, Deborah A Nickerson, Joshua D Smith, Marie Pierre Dubé, S Matthijs Boekholdt, G Kees Hovingh, John J P Kastelein, Paul M McKeigue, John Betteridge, Andrew Neil, Paul N Durrington, Alex Doney, Fiona Carr, Andrew Morris, Mark I McCarthy, Leif Groop, Emma Ahlqvist, , Joshua C Bis, Kenneth Rice, Nicholas L Smith, Thomas Lumley, Eric A Whitsel, Til Stürmer, Eric Boerwinkle, Julius S Ngwa, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ramachandran S Vasan, Wei-Qi Wei, Russell A Wilke, Ching-Ti Liu, Fangui Sun, Xiuqing Guo, Susan R Heckbert, Wendy Post, Nona Sotoodehnia, Alice M Arnold, Jeanette M Stafford, Jingzhong Ding, David M Herrington, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Leonore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Audrey Y Chu, Franco Giulianini, Jean G MacFadyen, Bryan J Barratt, Fredrik Nyberg, Bruno H Stricker, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Valur Emilsson, Oscar H Franco, Paul M Ridker, Vilmundur Gudnason, Yongmei Liu, Joshua C Denny, Christie M Ballantyne, Jerome I Rotter, L Adrienne Cupples, Bruce M Psaty, Colin N A Palmer, Jean-Claude Tardif, Helen M Colhoun, Graham Hitman, Ronald M Krauss, J Wouter Jukema, Mark J Caulfield.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
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An assessment by the Statin Diabetes Safety Task Force: 2014 update.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Statin therapy reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death by 25% to 30% in primary as well as secondary prevention patients. Thus, statins are the pharmacologic therapy of choice for the management of high blood cholesterol levels. Prompted by examination of clinical trial data suggesting a modest, but statistically significant, increase in the incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus with statin use, the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012 added a statement to the labels of statin medications indicating that increases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and fasting glucose levels have been reported with statin use. This labeling change has raised questions among clinicians regarding the relative benefits and risks of statin use, both among patients with diabetes mellitus and among those with diabetes risk factors. This 2014 report from the Diabetes Subpanel of the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Statin Safety reviews the published evidence relating statin use to the hazard for diabetes mellitus or worsening glycemia, examines potential mechanisms that may mediate the relationship between statin use and diabetes mellitus risk, and suggests future research efforts. Given the well-established benefits of statin therapy in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events among those with indications for treatment, no changes to clinical practice are recommended other than the measurement of HbA1C or fasting glucose in those deemed to also be at elevated diabetes risk after initiating statin therapy, and potentially before initiation in selected patients considered to be at elevated risk of developing diabetes. The panel advocates following recommendations from the American Diabetes Association, or other relevant guidelines if outside the United States, for screening and diagnosis as well as lifestyle modification for prevention or delay of diabetes mellitus in those with prediabetes or other risk factors.
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Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.
Jie Huang, Jennifer E Huffman, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Munekazu Yamkauchi, Stella Trompet, Folkert W Asselbergs, Maria Sabater-Lleal, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Wei-Min Chen, Nicholas L Smith, Marcus E Kleber, So-Youn Shin, Diane M Becker, Weihong Tang, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Vinh Truong, Lasse Folkersen, Qiong Yang, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellkah, Brendan M Buckley, Jason H Moore, Frances M K Williams, Harry Campbell, Günther Silbernagel, Veronique Vitart, Igor Rudan, Geoffrey H Tofler, Gerjan J Navis, Anita DeStefano, Alan F Wright, Ming-Huei Chen, Anton J M de Craen, Bradford B Worrall, Alicja R Rudnicka, Ann Rumley, Ebony B Bookman, Bruce M Psaty, Fang Chen, Keith L Keene, Oscar H Franco, Bernhard O Böhm, André G Uitterlinden, Angela M Carter, J Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar, Joshua C Bis, Mohammad A Ikram, , Michèle M Sale, Barbara McKnight, Myriam Fornage, Ian Ford, Kent Taylor, P Eline Slagboom, Wendy L McArdle, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Alison H Goodall, Lisa R Yanek, Karen L Furie, Mary Cushman, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aaron R Folsom, Saonli Basu, Nena Matijevic, Wiek H van Gilst, James F Wilson, Rudi G J Westendorp, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Russell P Tracy, Ozren Polašek, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Peter J Grant, Hans L Hillege, Francois Cambien, David J Stott, Gordon D Lowe, Timothy D Spector, James B Meigs, Winfried März, Per Eriksson, Lewis C Becker, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Nicole Soranzo, Scott M Williams, Caroline Hayward, Pim van der Harst, Anders Hamsten, Charles J Lowenstein, David P Strachan, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA.
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cognitive decline in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Elevated levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with cognitive impairment, which might be explained by cardiovascular diseases or risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of NT-proBNP with cognitive function and decline in older adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
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In search for genetic determinants of clinically meaningful differential cardiovascular event reduction by pravastatin in the PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE)/PROSPER study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Statin therapy is widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events and is associated with significant risk reductions. However, there is considerable variation in response to statin therapy both in terms of LDL cholesterol reduction and clinical outcomes. It has been hypothesized that genetic variation contributes importantly to this individual drug response.
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A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring.
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Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future.
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Advances in managing type 2 diabetes: challenging old paradigms and developing new ones.
F1000Prime Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As is well known, diabetes rates continue to escalate worldwide, adding cost and disease burden to all health-care institutions. Over the last few years, however, a number of diabetes paradigms have been challenged, not least on the best methods to lessen or delay the development of co-morbidities, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD) (i.e. targeting blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking will do more than intensive glucose control). In addition, recent research has offered some hope to potentially reverse diabetes in motivated individuals, with resultant larger and longer trials of such interventions about to commence. This brief review summarizes these important recent developments and suggests that, while many new drugs are being added to the diabetes therapeutic armory, more could and should be done to target sustainable weight change in our patients for multiple health benefits.
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Body mass index and waist circumference cut-points in multi-ethnic populations from the UK and India: the ADDITION-Leicester, Jaipur heart watch and New Delhi cross-sectional studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To derive cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for minority ethnic groups that are risk equivalent based on endogenous glucose levels to cut-points for white Europeans (BMI 30 kg/m2; WC men 102 cm; WC women 88 cm).
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The relation of rapid changes in obesity measures to lipid profile - insights from a nationwide metabolic health survey in 444 Polish cities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The impact of fast changes in obesity indices on other measures of metabolic health is poorly defined in the general population. Using the Polish accession to the European Union as a model of political and social transformation we examined how an expected rapid increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference relates to changes in lipid profile, both at the population and personal level.
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Effect of interleukin-6 receptor blockade on surrogates of vascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: MEASURE, a randomised, placebo-controlled study.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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The interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blocker tocilizumab (TCZ) reduces inflammatory disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but elevates lipid concentrations in some patients. We aimed to characterise the impact of IL-6R inhibition on established and novel risk factors in active RA.
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The Value of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Determining Antihypertensive Benefit: Observations From the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT).
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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We investigated 3 hypotheses: (1) N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular disease events in patients with hypertension, (2) NT-proBNP is associated with blood pressure variability, and (3) NT-proBNP predicts benefit from antihypertensive regimens. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) randomized a subset of 6549 patients at risk with no history of coronary heart disease to either atenolol-based or amlodipine-based blood pressure-lowering treatment. During 5.5 years of follow-up, 485 cardiovascular disease cases accrued and were matched with 1367 controls. Baseline and 6-month in-trial NT-proBNP were measured. The results show that NT-proBNP improves cardiovascular disease risk prediction beyond established predictors, continuous net reclassification improvement of 22.3% (P<0.0001). Furthermore, a 1-mm Hg increase in the SD of systolic blood pressure was associated with 2% higher baseline NT-proBNP in a multivariable regression analysis (P<0.0001). However, NT-proBNP predicted cardiovascular disease risk independently of blood pressure variation (odds ratio per SD increase in log NT-proBNP 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45; P=0.007). Atenolol-based treatment led to a 69.6% increase in NT-proBNP at 6 months (P<0.0001). In contrast, amlodipine-based treatment reduced NT-proBNP by 36.5% (P<0.0001). Amlodipine recipients who achieved a 6-month NT-proBNP below the median (61 pg/mL) were at lower risk of cardiovascular disease when compared with those who did not (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.91) after adjustment for confounders inclusive of baseline NT-proBNP and achieved blood pressure. If confirmed, these novel results suggest that NT-proBNP, as well as aiding cardiovascular disease risk assessment, may also help assess the efficacy of specific antihypertensive regimens. Further relevant studies seem warranted.
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How low to aim in rheumatoid arthritis? Learning from other disciplines.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Treat-to-target strategies have been widely adopted as the standard of care for the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The concept of tight control is prevalent in other disciplines, particularly in diabetes and cardiovascular risk management. In these disciplines, evidence has accumulated that the utility of tight control strategies must be carefully weighed against the disutility that may arise from multiple interventions, particularly in patients at low risk. There is a lively debate in rheumatology circles about whether treatment should be targeted at achieving low disease activity, clinical remission or imaging remission. As rheumatologists we should learn the lessons from other disciplines, and ensure that we expand the evidence base to ensure our recommendations are securely underpinned by robust evidence.
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Hyperglycaemia Has A Greater Impact On Left Ventricle Function In South Asians Than Europeans.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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ObjectiveDiabetes is associated with left ventricular diastolic and systolic dysfunction. South Asians may be at particular risk of developing LV dysfunction due to a high prevalence of diabetes. We investigated the role of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in LV dysfunction in a community-based cohort of older South Asians and White Europeans.Research Design and MethodsConventional and Doppler echocardiography was performed in 999 participants (542 Europeans, 457 South Asians aged 58-86 years) in a population-based study. Anthropometry, fasting bloods, coronary artery calcification scoring, blood pressure and renal function were measured.ResultsDiabetes, and hyperglycaemia across the spectrum of HbA1c had a greater adverse effect on LV function in South Asians than Europeans (NT-proBNP beta±SE 0.09±0.04, p=0.01 versus -0.04±0.05, p=0.4, p for HbA1c/ethnicity interaction 0.02), diastolic function (E/e 0.69±0.12, p<0.0001 versus 0.09±0.2, p=0.6, p interaction 0.005, and systolic function (s -0.11±0.06, p=0.04 versus 0.14±0.09, p=0.1, p interaction 0.2). Multivariable adjustment for hypertension, microvascular disease, LV mass, coronary disease and dyslipidaemia only partially accounted for the ethnic differences. Adverse LV function in diabetic South Asians could not be accounted for by poorer glycaemic control or longer diabetes duration.ConclusionsDiabetes and hyperglycaemia have a greater adverse effect on LV function in South Asians than Europeans incompletely explained by adverse risk factors. South Asians may require earlier, and more aggressive treatment of their cardiometabolic risk factors to reduce risks of LV dysfunction.
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Total cerebral blood flow and mortality in old age: A 12-year follow-up study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To examine the association of total cerebral blood flow (CBF) with all-cause, noncardiovascular, and cardiovascular mortality in older subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease.
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Associations of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence.
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The relative and combined ability of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic Peptide to predict cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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OBJECTIVE Current methods of risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes are suboptimal. The current study assesses the ability of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) to improve the prediction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A nested case-cohort study was performed in 3,862 patients who participated in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. RESULTS Seven hundred nine (18%) patients experienced a major cardiovascular event (composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) and 706 (18%) died during a median of 5 years of follow-up. In Cox regression models, adjusting for all established risk predictors, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular events for NT-proBNP was 1.95 per 1 SD increase (95% CI 1.72, 2.20) and the hazard ratio for hs-cTnT was 1.50 per 1 SD increase (95% CI 1.36, 1.65). The hazard ratios for death were 1.97 (95% CI 1.73, 2.24) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.37, 1.67), respectively. The addition of either marker improved 5-year risk classification for cardiovascular events (net reclassification index in continuous model, 39% for NT-proBNP and 46% for hs-cTnT). Likewise, both markers greatly improved the accuracy with which the 5-year risk of death was predicted. The combination of both markers provided optimal risk discrimination. CONCLUSIONS NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT appear to greatly improve the accuracy with which the risk of cardiovascular events or death can be estimated in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Prenatal exposures and anti-Mullerian hormone in female adolescents: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Given that the primordial ovarian follicular pool is established in utero, it may be influenced by parental characteristics and the intrauterine environment. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are increasingly recognized as a biomarker of ovarian reserve in females in adulthood and adolescence. We examined and compared associations of maternal and paternal prenatal exposures with AMH levels in adolescent (mean age, 15.4 years) female offspring (n = 1,399) using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a United Kingdom birth cohort study that originated in 1991 and is still ongoing (data are from 1991-2008). The median AMH level was 3.67 ng/mL (interquartile range: 2.46-5.57). Paternal but not maternal smoking prior to and during pregnancy were inversely associated with AMH levels. No or irregular maternal menstrual cycles before pregnancy were associated with higher AMH levels in daughter during adolescence. High maternal gestational weight gain (top fifth versus the rest of the distribution) was associated with lower AMH levels in daughters. Parental age, body mass index, and alcohol intake during pregnancy, childs birth weight, and maternal parity and time to conception were not associated with daughters AMH levels. Our results suggest that some parental preconceptual characteristics and environmental exposures while the child is in utero may influence the long-term ovarian development and function in female offspring.
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Serum chloride is an independent predictor of mortality in hypertensive patients.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Chloride (Cl-) is the major extracellular anion in the body, accompanying sodium (Na+), and is primarily derived from dietary sources. Data suggest that increased dietary Cl- intake increases blood pressure, yet paradoxically, higher serum Cl- appears associated with lower mortality and cardiovascular risk. This implies that serum Cl- also reflects risk pathways independent of blood pressure, serum Na+, and bicarbonate (HCO3-). We analyzed 12,968 hypertensive individuals followed up for 35 years, using Cox proportional hazards model to test whether baseline serum Cl- was an independent predictor of mortality. To distinguish the effect of Cl- from Na+ and HCO3-, we adjusted for these electrolytes and also performed the analysis stratified by Na+ /HCO3- and Cl- levels. Generalized estimating equation was used to determine the effect of baseline Cl- on follow-up blood pressure. The total time at risk was 19,7101 person-years. The lowest quintile of serum Cl- (<100 mEq/L) was associated with a 20% higher mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular) compared with the remainder of the subjects. A 1 mEq/L increase in serum Cl- was associated with a 1.5% (hazard ratio, 0.985; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-0.99) reduction in all-cause mortality, after adjustment for baseline confounding variables and Na+, K+ , and HCO3- levels. The group with Na+ > 135 and Cl- > 100 had the best survival, and compared with this group, the Na+ >135 and Cl- <100 group had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.31). Low, not high Serum Cl- (<100 mEq/L), is associated with greater mortality risk independent of obvious confounders. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relation between Cl- and risk.
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Socioeconomic deprivation and cortical morphology: psychological, social, and biological determinants of ill health study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with poor cognitive function pertaining to language and the executive control. Few studies have explored the cortical morphology of regions most commonly associated with these functions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood-level deprivation and the morphology of cortical regions associated with language and executive control in adults.
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Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.
Maria Sabater-Lleal, Jie Huang, Daniel Chasman, Silvia Naitza, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Alexander Teumer, Alex P Reiner, Lasse Folkersen, Saonli Basu, Alicja R Rudnicka, Stella Trompet, Anders Malarstig, Jens Baumert, Joshua C Bis, Xiuqing Guo, Jouke J Hottenga, So-Youn Shin, Lorna M Lopez, Jari Lahti, Toshiko Tanaka, Lisa R Yanek, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellakh, James F Wilson, Pau Navarro, Jennifer E Huffman, Tatijana Zemunik, Susan Redline, Reena Mehra, Drazen Pulanić, Igor Rudan, Alan F Wright, Ivana Kolčić, Ozren Polašek, Sarah H Wild, Harry Campbell, J David Curb, Robert Wallace, Simin Liu, Charles B Eaton, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Stefania Bandinelli, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widén, Aarno Palotie, Myriam Fornage, David Green, Myron Gross, Gail Davies, Sarah E Harris, David C Liewald, John M Starr, Frances M K Williams, Peter J Grant, Timothy D Spector, Rona J Strawbridge, Angela Silveira, Bengt Sennblad, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Jenny van Dongen, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jie Yao, Nancy Swords Jenny, Talin Haritunians, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Lumley, Kent D Taylor, Jerome I Rotter, Bruce M Psaty, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Thomas Illig, Anne Grotevendt, Georg Homuth, Henry Völzke, Thomas Kocher, Anuj Goel, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Udo Seedorf, Robert Clarke, Maristella Steri, Kirill V Tarasov, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, David J Stott, Naveed Sattar, Brendan M Buckley, Ann Rumley, Gordon D Lowe, Wendy L McArdle, Ming-Huei Chen, Geoffrey H Tofler, Jaejoon Song, Eric Boerwinkle, Aaron R Folsom, Lynda M Rose, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Martina Teichert, M Arfan Ikram, Thomas H Mosley, Steve Bevan, Martin Dichgans, Peter M Rothwell, Cathie L M Sudlow, Jemma C Hopewell, John C Chambers, Danish Saleheen, Jaspal S Kooner, John Danesh, Christopher P Nelson, Jeanette Erdmann, Muredach P Reilly, Sekar Kathiresan, Heribert Schunkert, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Luigi Ferrucci, Johan G Eriksson, David Jacobs, Ian J Deary, Nicole Soranzo, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Eco J C de Geus, Russell P Tracy, Caroline Hayward, Wolfgang Koenig, Francesco Cucca, J Wouter Jukema, Per Eriksson, Sudha Seshadri, Hugh S Markus, Hugh Watkins, Nilesh J Samani, , Henri Wallaschofski, Nicholas L Smith, David Tregouet, Paul M Ridker, Weihong Tang, David P Strachan, Anders Hamsten, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation.
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Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiometabolic health in adolescent offspring.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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An accumulating body of evidence suggests that offspring of mothers with preeclampsia have higher blood pressure during childhood and young adulthood compared with women without preeclampsia. However, the evidence with regard to offspring glucose metabolism and lipids is more scant. We examined whether maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension) are associated with a range of cardiometabolic health measures in adolescent offspring. We included data for mother-offspring pairs from a United Kingdom prospective birth cohort (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children). Repeat antenatal clinic measures of blood pressure and proteinuria (median 14 and 11, respectively) were used to ascertain maternal preeclampsia (n=53) and gestational hypertension (n=431). Offspring had blood pressure (n=4438), and fasting lipids, insulin, and glucose (n=2888) measured at a mean age of 17 years. There was no strong evidence of differences in fasting insulin, glucose, or lipid concentrations. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in offspring of mothers with gestational hypertension (mean difference, 2.06 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.84 and 1.11 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.69, respectively) and preeclampsia (1.12 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -0.89-3.12 and 1.71 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-3.17, respectively) compared with offspring of mothers without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, maternal age at delivery, household social class, prepregnancy body mass index, parity, and smoking in pregnancy). Results suggest a specific association between maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and offspring blood pressure that may be driven by genetics or familial nongenetic risk factors particular to blood pressure.
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Socioeconomic status and the cerebellar grey matter volume. Data from a well-characterised population sample.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The cerebellum is highly sensitive to adverse environmental factors throughout the life span. Socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with greater inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk, and poor neurocognitive function. Given the increasing awareness of the association between early-life adversities on cerebellar structure, we aimed to explore the relationship between early life (ESES) and current socioeconomic status (CSES) and cerebellar volume. T1-weighted MRI was used to create models of cerebellar grey matter volumes in 42 adult neurologically healthy males selected from the Psychological, Social and Biological Determinants of Ill Health study. The relationship between potential risk factors, including ESES, CSES and cerebellar grey matter volumes were examined using multiple regression techniques. We also examined if greater multisystem physiological risk index-derived from inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk markers-mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cerebellar grey matter volume. Both ESES and CSES explained the greatest variance in cerebellar grey matter volume, with age and alcohol use as a covariate in the model. Low CSES explained additional significant variance to low ESES on grey matter decrease. The multisystem physiological risk index mediated the relationship between both early life and current SES and grey matter volume in cerebellum. In a randomly selected sample of neurologically healthy males, poorer socioeconomic status was associated with a smaller cerebellar volume. Early and current socioeconomic status and the multisystem physiological risk index also apparently influence cerebellar volume. These findings provide data on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and a brain region highly sensitive to environmental factors.
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Changes in lipid levels with inflammation and therapy in RA: a maturing paradigm.
Nat Rev Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Dyslipidaemia is commonly observed in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with lower total cholesterol levels as well as lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reported in these patients than in individuals without RA. This pattern is mirrored in sepsis and other inflammatory states, suggesting systemic inflammation has the general effect of lowering circulating lipid levels. In line with such observations, suppressing inflammation with DMARDs, biologic therapies and small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitors seems to elevate levels of lipid fractions in RA, albeit in a variable manner dependent presumably upon the mechanism of action of the different agents. In addition, limited epidemiological data in patients with RA suggest increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk at relatively low cholesterol levels, a pattern contrasting with that observed in the population without RA. Our understanding of the potential mechanisms behind these inflammation-associated lipid changes remains suboptimal and requires further study. In clinical terms, however, use of the total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio as the lipid component of CVD risk scoring in patients with RA would seem appropriate given that these lipid parameters generally change in parallel with inflammation and suppression of inflammation. Whether alternative lipid or lipoprotein measures (or simple markers of inflammation) could improve stratification of CVD risk in RA beyond the established risk factors requires future investigation.
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Gender aspects in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk.
Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Men are well known to have a higher risk than women for cardiovascular disease. In recent years, however, studies show adult men also have higher risk for type 2 diabetes, an observation which has important clinical implications, particularly in the public health arena. This chapter explores the relevant data underlying this observation, examines potential mechanisms including life course changes in insulin resistance and role of adiposity, and discusses relevant clinical implications and solutions.
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Analysis and modelling of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes across the range of C-reactive protein levels in clinical practice as an aid to better understanding of inflammation-lipid interactions.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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OBJECTIVES: Raised total cholesterol (TC) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, in autoimmune conditions the lipid-CVD association appears paradoxical, with inflammation as a potential confounding factor. We therefore sought to model the relationship between systemic inflammatory illness and lipid levels using C-reactive protein (CRP) as the prototypical marker of inflammation. Our hypothesis was that there would be an inverse association between raised CRP levels and both TC and HDL-cholesterol levels. METHODS: Results from samples analysed simultaneously for CRP and lipids in a 6-month period were collected retrospectively from a large city hospital laboratory database that collates results from both primary and secondary care. The relationships between CRP and lipids were determined using graphical techniques and empirical, non-parametric, best fit models. RESULTS: A total of 11 437 blood samples was included. We identified a significant (p<0.001) biphasic relationship between TC and CRP: TC increased within the healthy CRP range of less than 5 mg/l, but decreased with CRP levels above 10 mg/l. The two effects approximately cancelled each other out in the intermediate CRP range of 5-10 mg/l. There was an inverse relationship between HDL-cholesterol and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Lipid levels change significantly during inflammatory illness in a population with both acute and chronic conditions. These results provide a strong epidemiological basis for the better understanding of lipid changes in inflammatory conditions and with anti-inflammatory therapies.
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The obesity paradox in men with coronary heart disease and heart failure: The role of muscle mass and leptin.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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We have investigated the role of muscle mass, natriuretic peptides and adipokines in explaining the obesity paradox.
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Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
Michael V Holmes, Tabassome Simon, Holly J Exeter, Lasse Folkersen, Folkert W Asselbergs, Montse Guardiola, Jackie A Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Kathryn F Carruthers, Benjamin D Horne, Kimberly D Brunisholz, Jessica L Mega, Erik P A van Iperen, Mingyao Li, Maarten Leusink, Stella Trompet, Jeffrey J W Verschuren, G Kees Hovingh, Abbas Dehghan, Christopher P Nelson, Salma Kotti, Nicolas Danchin, Markus Scholz, Christiane L Haase, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Daniel I Swerdlow, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Eleonora Staines-Urias, Anuj Goel, Ferdinand van 't Hooft, Karl Gertow, Ulf de Faire, Andrie G Panayiotou, Elena Tremoli, Damiano Baldassarre, Fabrizio Veglia, Lesca M Holdt, Frank Beutner, Ron T Gansevoort, Gerjan J Navis, Irene Mateo Leach, Lutz P Breitling, Hermann Brenner, Joachim Thiery, Dhayana Dallmeier, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Jolanda M A Boer, Jeffrey W Stephens, Marten H Hofker, Alain Tedgui, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Vera Adamkova, Jan Piťha, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Maarten J Cramer, Hendrik M Nathoe, Wilko Spiering, Olaf H Klungel, Meena Kumari, Peter H Whincup, David A Morrow, Peter S Braund, Alistair S Hall, Anders G Olsson, Pieter A Doevendans, Mieke D Trip, Martin D Tobin, Anders Hamsten, Hugh Watkins, Wolfgang Koenig, Andrew N Nicolaides, Daniel Teupser, Ian N M Day, John F Carlquist, Tom R Gaunt, Ian Ford, Naveed Sattar, Sotirios Tsimikas, Gregory G Schwartz, Debbie A Lawlor, Richard W Morris, Manjinder S Sandhu, Rudolf Poledne, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Kay-Tee Khaw, Brendan J Keating, Pim van der Harst, Jackie F Price, Shamir R Mehta, Salim Yusuf, Jaqueline C M Witteman, Oscar H Franco, J Wouter Jukema, Peter de Knijff, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Daniel J Rader, Martin Farrall, Nilesh J Samani, Mika Kivimäki, Keith A A Fox, Steve E Humphries, Jeffrey L Anderson, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Tom M Palmer, Per Eriksson, Guillaume Paré, Aroon D Hingorani, Marc S Sabatine, Ziad Mallat, Juan P Casas, Philippa J Talmud.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.
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N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide but not copeptin improves prediction of heart failure over other routine clinical risk parameters in older men with and without cardiovascular disease: population-based study.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Measurement of NT-proBNP and copeptin may help identify those at high risk of heart failure (HF). However the value of NT-proBNP and copeptin has been little studied in the older population in primary care. This study aims to examine the use of NT-proBNP and copeptin in improving risk prediction and stratification of HF in older men with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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Low birth weight, later renal function, and the roles of adulthood blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity in a British birth cohort.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with later renal function, but it is unclear to what extent this is explained by other established kidney disease risk factors. Here we investigate the roles of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity using data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a socially stratified sample of 5362 children born in March 1946 in England, Scotland, and Wales, and followed since. The birth weight of 2192 study members with complete data was related to three markers of renal function at age 60-64 (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using cystatin C (eGFRcys), eGFR calculated using creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys), and the urine albumin-creatinine ratio) using linear regression. Each 1?kg lower birth weight was associated with a 2.25?ml/min per 1.73?m(2) (95% confidence interval 0.80-3.71) lower eGFRcys and a 2.13?ml/min per 1.73?m(2) (0.69-3.58) lower eGFRcr-cys. There was no evidence of an association with urine albumin-creatinine ratio. These associations with eGFR were not confounded by socioeconomic position and were not explained by diabetes or hypertension, but there was some evidence that they were stronger in study members who were overweight in adulthood. Thus, our findings highlight the role of lower birth weight in renal disease and suggest that in those born with lower birth weight particular emphasis should be placed on avoiding becoming overweight.
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Markers of endothelial dysfunction and cerebral blood flow in older adults.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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We investigated the association of 2 markers of endothelial dysfunction, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and Von Willebrand factor (VWF), with cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 541 older participants at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Serum levels of t-PA and VWF were measured at baseline. Participants underwent 2 successive brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, first at baseline and the then after a mean follow-up of 33 months. Total CBF was determined in each scan and also standardized for brain parenchymal volume. At baseline, higher t-PA was associated with lower CBF (p = 0.034). In the longitudinal analysis, higher levels of VWF were associated with a steeper decline in CBF (p = 0.043). There was no association between t-PA and decrease in CBF. These associations were independent of sociodemographic and cardiovascular factors. In conclusion, elevated markers of endothelial dysfunction are associated with lower CBF in older adults at risk for cardiovascular disease.
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Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity.
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Early-life overweight trajectory and CKD in the 1946 British birth cohort study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Few studies have examined the impact of childhood obesity on later kidney disease, and consequently, our understanding is very limited.
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Evaluation of C-reactive protein before and on-treatment as a predictor of benefit of atorvastatin: a cohort analysis from the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial lipid-lowering arm.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline and on-statin C-reactive protein (CRP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) outcome beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
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Ethnic differences in glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Scotland.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Previous studies have investigated the association between ethnicity and processes of care and intermediate outcomes of diabetes, but there are limited population-based studies available. The aim of this study was to use population-based data to investigate the relationships between ethnicity and glycaemic control in men and women with diabetes mellitus living in Scotland.
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Should physical activity recommendations be ethnicity-specific? Evidence from a cross-sectional study of South asian and European men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Expert bodies and health organisations recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week(-1) of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA). However, the underpinning data largely emanate from studies of populations of European descent. It is unclear whether this level of activity is appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have increased cardio-metabolic disease risk compared to Europeans. The aim of this study was to explore the level of MPA required in South Asians to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans undertaking the currently recommended MPA level of 150 min.week(-1).
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Cardio-metabolic risk factors and cortical thickness in a neurologically healthy male population: Results from the psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid) study.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cardio-metabolic risk factors have been associated with poor physical and mental health. Epidemiological studies have shown peripheral risk markers to be associated with poor cognitive functioning in normal healthy population and in disease. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between cardio-metabolic risk factors and cortical thickness in a neurologically healthy middle aged population-based sample.
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Long-term effects of statin treatment in elderly people: extended follow-up of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER), a placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin, demonstrated a 19% reduction in coronary outcomes (p=0.006) after a mean of 3.2 years, with no impact on stroke outcomes or all-cause mortality. However, there was a suggestion of increased cancer risk. Our aim is to determine the long-term benefits and safety of pravastatin treatment in older people using post-trial follow-up of the PROSPER participants.
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Anti-müllerian hormone is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent females.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Epidemiological evidence for associations of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) with cardiometabolic risk factors is lacking. Existing evidence comes from small studies in select adult populations, and findings are conflicting. We aimed to assess whether AMH is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a general population of adolescent females.
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Leptin levels and depressive symptoms in people with type 2 diabetes: the edinburgh type 2 diabetes study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Depression in Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Leptin is a plausible mediating factor because it has been related to obesity, depression, and cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic populations. We sought to assess whether leptin is related to depressive symptoms in people with Type 2 diabetes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.