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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of MMP-2 but not MMP-9 influences inner ear spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in modeling of the extracellular matrix. There is increasing evidence that these proteases are important in neurite elongation and axonal guidance during development in the central nervous system and retina. Moreover, they are also expressed after acute injury and can be the key mediators of pathogenesis. However, the role of MMPs in the inner ear is largely unknown. Our group recently demonstrated that general inhibition of MMPs resulted in auditory hair cell loss in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the role of MMPs in inner ear spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival, neuritogenesis and neurite extension by blocking MMPs known to be involved in axonal guidance, neurite elongation, and apoptosis in other neuronal systems. Spiral ganglion (SG) explants from 5-day-old Wistar rats were treated with different concentrations of the general MMP inhibitor GM6001, a specific MMP-2 inhibitor, and a specific MMP-9 inhibitor, in vitro. The general inhibitor of MMPs and the specific inhibition of MMP-2 significantly reduced both the number of neurites that extended from SG explants, as well as the length of individual neurites. However, neither the general inhibitor of MMPs nor the specific inhibition of MMP-2 influenced SGN survival. Inhibition of MMP-9 had no influence on SGNs. The data suggest that MMPs, and more specifically MMP-2, influence the growth of developing afferent neurites in the mammalian inner ear in vivo.
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Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic cyst in Indian population: a 10 year retrospective study.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cyst in an Indian population and compare it with various reports from the other geographic areas of the world. The files on odontogenic jaw cysts treated between 2001 and 2011 at the oral and maxillofacial surgery unit were retrieved retrospectively. Patient's demographic information mainly age, sex and location of the lesion was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The diagnosis of odontogenic cyst accounted in 150 cases and accounted for 15.31 % of all lesions biopsied throughout the period. Mean age of the patient was 32.2 years, and 58 % were males. The overall male to female ratio was 1.38:1. Radicular cyst was most prevalent histological type (48.67 %) followed by dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, lateral periodontal cyst, paradental cyst, residual cyst, adult gingival cyst, glandular odontogenic cyst, calcifying odontogenic cyst. The most common locations of the odontogenic cysts were the mandibular (49.33 %) and posterior region (33.33 %). The distribution pattern of odontogenic cyst in this study is relatively similar to that in other parts of the world but there are some geographic differences with regard to the relative frequency, sex, and anatomic distribution of the odontogenic cyst.
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Prosthodontic status and needs of elderly institutionalized residents in Mangalore: a prospective study.
Indian J Dent Res
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of Kennedys classification, status of existing prosthodontic appliances if any, awareness of the subjects regarding various treatment options, and treatment needs in a group of elderly institutionalized residents.
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Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation results in clinically meaningful improvements in anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known regarding its ability to produce clinically meaningful improvements in these outcomes.
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Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.
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Conserved host-pathogen PPIs. Globally conserved inter-species bacterial PPIs based conserved host-pathogen interactome derived novel target in C. pseudotuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, M. tuberculosis, C. ulcerans, Y. pestis, and E. coli targeted by Piper b
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Although attempts have been made to unveil protein-protein and host-pathogen interactions based on molecular insights of important biological events and pathogenesis in various organisms, these efforts have not yet been reported in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp), the causative agent of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA). In this study, we used computational approaches to develop common conserved intra-species protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks first time for four Cp strains (Cp FRC41, Cp 316, Cp 3/99-5, and Cp P54B96) followed by development of a common conserved inter-species bacterial PPI using conserved proteins in multiple pathogens (Y. pestis, M. tuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, E. coli, and all four Cp strains) and E. Coli based experimentally validated PPI data. Furthermore, the interacting proteins in the common conserved inter-species bacterial PPI were used to generate a conserved host-pathogen interaction (HP-PPI) network considering human, goat, sheep, bovine, and horse as hosts. The HP-PPI network was validated, and acetate kinase (Ack) was identified as a novel broad spectrum target. Ceftiofur, penicillin, and two natural compounds derived from Piper betel were predicted to inhibit Ack activity. One of these Piper betel compounds found to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 growth similar to penicillin. The target specificity of these betel compounds, their effects on other studied pathogens, and other in silico results are currently being validated and the results are promising.
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Structural and Dynamical Insights into the Membrane-Bound ?-Synuclein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Membrane-induced disorder-to-helix transition of ?-synuclein, a presynaptic protein, has been implicated in a number of important neuronal functions as well as in the etiology of Parkinsons disease. In order to obtain structural insights of membrane-bound ?-synuclein at the residue-specific resolution, we took advantage of the fact that the protein is devoid of tryptophan and incorporated single tryptophan at various residue positions along the sequence. These tryptophans were used as site-specific markers to characterize the structural and dynamical aspects of ?-synuclein on the negatively charged small unilamellar lipid vesicles. An array of site-specific fluorescence readouts, such as the spectral-shift, quenching efficiency and anisotropy, allowed us to discern various features of the conformational rearrangements occurring at different locations of ?-synuclein on the lipid membrane. In order to define the spatial localization of various regions of the protein near the membrane surface, we utilized a unique and sensitive indicator, namely, red-edge excitation shift (REES), which originates when a fluorophore is located in a highly ordered micro-environment. The extent of REES observed at different residue positions allowed us to directly identify the residues that are localized at the membrane-water interface comprising a thin (? 15 Å) layer of motionally restrained water molecules and enabled us to construct a dynamic hydration map of the protein. The combination of site-specific fluorescence readouts allowed us to unravel the intriguing molecular details of ?-synuclein on the lipid membrane in a direct model-free fashion. Additionally, the combination of methodologies described here are capable of distinguishing subtle but important structural alterations of ?-synuclein bound to different negatively charged lipids with varied head-group chemistry. We believe that the structural modulations of ?-synuclein on the membrane could potentially be related to its physiological functions as well as to the onset of Parkinsons diseases.
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Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain CIP 52.97, isolated from a horse in Kenya.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism.
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Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of cotton under drought stress reveal significant down-regulation of genes and pathways involved in fibre elongation and up-regulation of defense responsive genes.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Cotton is an important source of natural fibre used in the textile industry and the productivity of the crop is adversely affected by drought stress. High throughput transcriptomic analyses were used to identify genes involved in fibre development. However, not much information is available on cotton genome response in developing fibres under drought stress. In the present study a genome wide transcriptome analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes at various stages of fibre growth under drought stress. Our study identified a number of genes differentially expressed during fibre elongation as compared to other stages. High level up-regulation of genes encoding for enzymes involved in pectin modification and cytoskeleton proteins was observed at fibre initiation stage. While a large number of genes encoding transcription factors (AP2-EREBP, WRKY, NAC and C2H2), osmoprotectants, ion transporters and heat shock proteins and pathways involved in hormone (ABA, ethylene and JA) biosynthesis and signal transduction were up-regulated and genes involved in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways were down-regulated during fibre elongation. This study showed that drought has relatively less impact on fibre initiation but has profound effect on fibre elongation by down-regulating important genes involved in cell wall loosening and expansion process. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis under drought stress has provided valuable information on differentially expressed genes and pathways during fibre development that will be useful in developing drought tolerant cotton cultivars without compromising fibre quality.
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Chain collapse of an amyloidogenic intrinsically disordered protein.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Natively unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are under intense scrutiny due to their involvement in both normal biological functions and abnormal protein misfolding disorders. Polypeptide chain collapse of amyloidogenic IDPs is believed to play a key role in protein misfolding, oligomerization, and aggregation leading to amyloid fibril formation, which is implicated in a number of human diseases. In this work, we used bovine ?-casein, which serves as an archetypal model protein for amyloidogenic IDPs. Using a variety of biophysical tools involving both prediction and spectroscopic techniques, we first established that monomeric ?-casein adopts a collapsed premolten-globule-like conformational ensemble under physiological conditions. Our time-resolved fluorescence and light-scattering data indicate a change in the mean hydrodynamic radius from ?4.6 nm to ?1.9 nm upon chain collapse. We then took the advantage of two cysteines separated by 77 amino-acid residues and covalently labeled them using thiol-reactive pyrene maleimide. This dual-labeled protein demonstrated a strong excimer formation upon renaturation from urea- and acid-denatured states under both equilibrium and kinetic conditions, providing compelling evidence of polypeptide chain collapse under physiological conditions. The implication of the IDP chain collapse in protein aggregation and amyloid formation is also discussed.
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A novel comparative genomics analysis for common drug and vaccine targets in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and other CMN group of human pathogens.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic goat and sheep disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) that accounts for a huge economic loss worldwide. Proper vaccination or medication is not available because of the lack of understanding of molecular biology of the pathogen. In a recent approach, four Cp (CpFrc41, Cp1002, CpC231, and CpI-19) genomes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular pathology of the bacteria. In this study, using these four genome sequences along with other eight genomes (total 12 genomes) and a novel subtractive genomics approach (first time ever applied to a veterinary pathogen), we identified potential conserved common drug and vaccine targets of these four Cp strains along with other Corybacterium, Mycobacterium and Nocardia (CMN) group of human pathogens (Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) considering goat, sheep, bovine, horse, and human as the most affected hosts. The minimal genome of Cp1002 was found to consist of 724 genes, and 20 conserved common targets (to all Cp strains as well as CMN group of pathogens) from various metabolic pathways (13 from host-pathogen common and seven from pathogens unique pathways) are potential targets irrespective of all hosts considered. ubiA from host-pathogen common pathway and an ABC-like transporter from unique pathways may serve dual (drug and vaccine) targets. Two Corynebacterium-specific (mscL and resB) and one broad-spectrum (rpmB) novel targets were also identified. Strain-specific targets are also discussed. Six important targets were subjected to virtual screening, and one compound was found to be potent enough to render two targets (cdc and nrdL). We are currently validating all identified targets and lead compounds.
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Antitumor efficacy, tumor distribution and blood pharmacokinetics of chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate nanostructures containing paclitaxel.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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This investigation compared the tumor distribution, efficacy, blood pharmacokinetic parameters and hematological alterations following treatment with chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate (GMO) nanostructures containing paclitaxel (PTX) to a conventional formulation of PTX (Taxol(®)) in BALB/c female mice.
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Insights into the mechanism of aggregation and fibril formation from bovine serum albumin.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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We have investigated the fibrillation propensity of different conformational isomers of an archetypal, all ?-helical protein, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), under different pH conditions and ionic strengths using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. At low pH and higher protein concentration, the partially folded conformers associate to form oligomers that are converted into ordered amyloid-like fibrils when incubated at elevated temperature. We have elucidated the mechanism of fibril formation, especially the early steps, by monitoring the kinetics of structural changes during the aggregation process. Various structural probes in tandem were utilized to decipher the temporal evolution of both conformational and size changes by measuring the time dependence of fluorescence intensity and anisotropy of intrinsic tryptophans and several extrinsic fluorophores during the aggregation. Additionally, CD spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the changes in protein secondary structural content during fibrillation. Our findings suggest that the conformational conversion occurs in the oligomers that serve as precursors to amyloid fibrils and precedes the overall fibrillar growth.
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Randomized double blind comparative study on the efficacy of Ibuprofen and aceclofenac in controlling post-operative sequelae after third molar surgery.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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To compare the efficacy of Ibuprofen and Aceclofenac in controlling pain, swelling and trismus following removal of impacted mandibular third molar teeth. To assess the patients acceptability of these drugs.
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pH-Induced conformational isomerization of bovine serum albumin studied by extrinsic and intrinsic protein fluorescence.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2010
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Serum albumins are multi-domain all ?-helical proteins that are present in the circulatory system and aid in the transport of a variety of metabolites, endogenous ligands, drugs etc. Earlier observations have indicated that serum albumins adopt a range of reversible conformational isomers depending on the pH of the solution. Herein, we report the concurrent changes in the protein conformation and size that are inherent to the pH-induced conformational isomers of bovine serum albumin (BSA). We have investigated the fluorescence properties of both intrinsic (tryptophan) and extrinsic (ANS, pyrene) fluorophores to shed light into the structural features of the pH-dependent conformers. We have been able to identify a number of conformational isomers using multiple fluorescence observables as a function of pH titration. Our results indicate that at pH 3, a partially-folded, molten-globule-like state is populated. Moreover, equilibrium unfolding studies indicated that the molten-globule-like state unfolds in a non-cooperative fashion and is thermodynamically less stable than the native state. The fluorescence-based approach described in the present work has implications in the study of pH-induced conformational plasticity of other physiologically relevant proteins.
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Kinetics of surfactant-induced aggregation of lysozyme studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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The study of protein conformational changes in the presence of surfactants and lipids is important in the context of protein folding and misfolding. In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of the protein conformational change coupled with aggregation leading to size growth of Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) in the presence of an anionic detergent such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in alkaline pH. We have utilized intrinsic protein fluorescence (tryptophan) and extrinsic fluorescent reporters such as 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS), dansyl and fluorescein to follow the protein conformational change in real-time. By analyzing the kinetics of fluorescence intensity and anisotropy of multiple fluorescent reporters, we have been able to delineate the mechanism of surfactant-induced aggregation of lysozyme. The kinetic parameters reveal that aggregation proceeds with an initial fast-phase (conformational change) followed by a slow-phase (self-assembly). Our results indicate that SDS, below critical micelle concentration, induces conformational expansion that triggers the aggregation process at a micromolar protein concentration range.
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Mesalamine lung toxicity.
Conn Med
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Lung toxicity associated with 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agents is very rare. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with ulcerative colitis who developed progressive shortness of breath while taking oral mesalamine. Chest imaging revealed a ground glass appearance in patchy areas distributed throughout the lung. He had a restrictive ventilatory defect with reduced diffusion capacity. He improved rapidly afterthis drug was discontinued. Mesalamine-induced lung damage must be considered in patients who develop unexplained respiratory symptoms while taking this agent.
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Identification of candidate genes for grain number in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Large number of well-filled grains per panicle is an important yield component trait in rice. A combination of QTL mapping and transcriptome profiling was used to identify candidate genes for grain number. A framework linkage map was constructed using 166 SSR markers evenly distributed over the 12 rice chromosomes. QTL mapping using 3 years phenotyping data on a set of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Pusa 1266 (high grain number) and Pusa Basmati 1 (low grain number) identified one consistent QTL qGN4-1 on the long arm of chromosome 4 with major effect on grain number. This QTL was co-localized with major QTLs for primary and secondary branches per panicle, and number of panicles per plant. The QTL interval was narrowed down to 11.1 cM (0.78 Mbp) by targeted enrichment of the region with six additional markers. Microarray transcriptome profiling revealed eight genes in the qGN4-1 region differentially expressed between the two parents during early panicle development. Synteny of this QTL and potential candidates was examined in wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, and Brachypodium to further validate the association.
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Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Neosartorya hiratsukae from India.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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We report here a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Neosartorya hiratsukae. This fungus was never previously been isolated from any case with fungal rhinosinusitis. The identification of this agent was confirmed by comparing the nucleotide sequence of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA with that in the GenBank DNA database. Identification of N. hiratsukae on the basis of colony morphology and microscopic feature may be difficult due to similarities with a few Aspergillus species. Scanning electron microscopy or DNA sequence analysis is essential for the accurate identification.
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Maxillofacial Injuries in Children: A 10 year Retrospective Study.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg
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Fractures of facial bones in children are relatively uncommon although both children and adults are subjected to similar types of injuries. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of facial bone fractures among children under 14 years, their management and outcome.
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Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis strain P54B96 isolated from antelope in South Africa obtained by rapid next generation sequencing technology.
Stand Genomic Sci
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The Actinobacteria, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain P54B96, a nonmotile, non-sporulating and a mesophile bacterium, was isolated from liver, lung and mediastinal lymph node lesions in an antelope from South Africa. This strain is interesting in the sense that it has been found together with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) which could nevertheless play a role in the lesion formation. In this work, we describe a set of features of C. pseudotuberculosis P54B96, together with the details of the complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprises of 2.34 Mbp long, single circular genome with 2,084 protein-coding genes, 12 rRNA, 49 tRNA and 62 pseudogenes and a G+C content of 52.19%. The analysis of the genome sequence provides means to better understanding the molecular and genetic basis of virulence of this bacterium, enabling a detailed investigation of its pathogenesis.
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Prosthodontic rehabilitation of hereditary ectodermal dysplasia in an 11-year-old patient with flexible denture: a case report.
Case Rep Dent
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Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a rare group of inherited disorders characterized by aplasia or dysplasia of two or more tissues of ectodermal origin such as hair, nails, teeth, and skin. The dental characteristics of this syndrome include anodontia or hypodontia of the primary and/or permanent teeth, hypoplastic conical teeth, and underdevelopment of the alveolar ridges. The options for a definitive treatment plan include fixed, removable or implant-supported prostheses, singly or in combination. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of an 11-year-old boy with hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. Maxillary flexible removable partial denture and mandibular conventional complete denture were fabricated to establish an acceptable masticatory function, speech, and esthetics for the patient.
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?-Adrenoceptor assays.
Curr Protoc Pharmacol
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?-Adrenoceptors mediate responses to activation of both peripheral sympathetic nerves and central noradrenergic neurons. They also serve as autoreceptors that modulate the release of norepinephrine (NE) and other neurotransmitters. There are two major classes of ?-adrenoceptors, the ?(1)- and ?(2). Each class is subdivided into three subtypes: ?(1A), ?(1B), ?(1D), and ?(2A), ?(2B), ?(2C). Described in this unit are in vitro isolated tissue methods used to study ?-adrenoceptor functions and to identify novel ligands for these receptors. Detailed protocols describing use of isolated tissues to study the various ?(1)- and ?(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes are provided.
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Functional genomics of fuzzless-lintless mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. MCU5 reveal key genes and pathways involved in cotton fibre initiation and elongation.
BMC Genomics
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Fuzzless-lintless cotton mutants are considered to be the ideal material to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fibre cell development. Although there are few reports on transcriptome and proteome analyses in cotton at fibre initiation and elongation stages, there is no comprehensive comparative transcriptome analysis of fibre-bearing and fuzzless-lintless cotton ovules covering fibre initiation to secondary cell wall (SCW) synthesis stages. In the present study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out using G. hirsutum L. cv. MCU5 wild-type (WT) and its near isogenic fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant at fibre initiation (0 dpa/days post anthesis), elongation (5, 10 and 15 dpa) and SCW synthesis (20 dpa) stages.
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Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid and sensitive detection of anthrax spores in spiked soil and talcum powder.
Folia Microbiol. (Praha)
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Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) is a laboratory technique based on PCR. This technique is able to detect sequence-specific PCR products as they accumulate in "real time" during the PCR amplification, and also to quantify the number of substrates present in the initial PCR mixture before amplification begins. In the present study, real-time PCR assay was employed for rapid and real-time detection of Bacillus anthracis spores spiked in 0.1 g of soil and talcum powder ranging from 5 to 10(7) spores. DNA was isolated from spiked soil and talcum powder, using PBS containing 1 % Triton-X-100, followed by heat treatment. The isolated DNA was used as template for real-time PCR and PCR. Real-time PCR amplification was obtained in 60 min under the annealing condition at 60°C by employing primers targeting the pag gene of B. anthracis. In the present study, the detection limit of real-time PCR assay in soil was 10(3) spores and 10(2) spores in talcum powder, respectively, whereas PCR could detect 10(4) spores in soil and 10(3) spores in talcum powder, respectively.
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Tight controlled expression and secretion of Lactobacillus brevis SlpA in Lactococcus lactis.
Biotechnol. Lett.
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Prokaryotes commonly present outer cell wall structures composed of a crystalline array of proteinaceous subunits, known as surface layers (S-layers). The ORF encoding the S-layer protein (SlpA) of Lactobacillus brevis was cloned into Lactococcus lactis under the transcriptional control of the xylose-inducible expression system (XIES). SlpA was secreted into the extracellular medium, as determined by immunoblotting, and assays on the kinetics of SlpA production revealed that repression of the system with glucose did not require the depletion of xylose from the medium that allows transitory ORF expression. The successful use of XIES to express S-layer proteins in the versatile and generally recognized as safe species L. lactis opens new possibilities for an efficient production and isolation of SlpA S-layer protein for its various applications in biotechnology and importantly as an antigen-carrying vehicle.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.