Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous disease caused by acantholysis of keratinocytes due to pathogenic desmoglein-3 autoantibodies. Role of vitamin D has been recently implicated in various autoimmune conditions due to its immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive immune responses. One of the key mechanisms of the immune regulation by vitamin D is through its anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of Th17 functions. Thus, vitamin D may be involved in pathogenesis of PV. In this study, the serum vitamin D, IL-17 and TGF-? levels in PV patients as well as healthy controls were estimated in order to understand the underlying immune mechanism involved in disease pathogenesis.
Early walking as part of a perioperative care program benefits patients who have had surgery. However, the impact of early walking by itself on the mental and physical recovery of postoperative patients has not been examined.
Deforestation of mangroves is of global concern given their importance for carbon storage, biogeochemical cycling and the provision of other ecosystem services, but the links between rates of loss and potential drivers or risk factors are rarely evaluated. Here, we identified key drivers of mangrove loss in Kenya and compared two different approaches to predicting risk. Risk factors tested included various possible predictors of anthropogenic deforestation, related to population, suitability for land use change and accessibility. Two approaches were taken to modelling risk; a quantitative statistical approach and a qualitative categorical ranking approach. A quantitative model linking rates of loss to risk factors was constructed based on generalized least squares regression and using mangrove loss data from 1992 to 2000. Population density, soil type and proximity to roads were the most important predictors. In order to validate this model it was used to generate a map of losses of Kenyan mangroves predicted to have occurred between 2000 and 2010. The qualitative categorical model was constructed using data from the same selection of variables, with the coincidence of different risk factors in particular mangrove areas used in an additive manner to create a relative risk index which was then mapped. Quantitative predictions of loss were significantly correlated with the actual loss of mangroves between 2000 and 2010 and the categorical risk index values were also highly correlated with the quantitative predictions. Hence, in this case the relatively simple categorical modelling approach was of similar predictive value to the more complex quantitative model of mangrove deforestation. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed, and the implications for mangroves are outlined.
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in children is a rare infectious emergency warranting prompt intervention. Predisposing factors include immunosuppression, spinal procedures, and local site infections such as vertebral osteomyelitis and paraspinal abscess. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common isolate.
Congenital leukemia (CL) is an extremely rare disorder in the newborn, significant proportion of which is of myeloid origin, primarily of M4 or M5 morphology. As compared to pediatric leukemia, CL is a more aggressive disease. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7) or acute megakaryocytic leukemia is a rare type of AML with an incidence of 0.5 per million per year. Median age of presentation is 6 years, and children may present with a broad variety of symptoms including low-grade fever, diarrhea, easy bruising, failure to gain weight and life-threatening conditions.
The ability to accurately and non-invasively characterize breast lesions and their vasculature would greatly limit the number of unneeded biopsies performed annually. Subharmonic ultrasound imaging (SHI) allows exclusive imaging of vasculature in real time, while completely suppressing tissue signals. Previously, cumulative maximum intensity (CMI) projections of SHI data were shown to be useful for characterization, but lacked means of quantification. In this study we investigate three potential thinning algorithms for defining breast lesion architecture. Sequential thinning, parallel thinning, and distance transformation algorithms were compared using 40 in vitro test images. Sequential thinning was selected due to superior connectivity, minimal rotational variance, and sufficient data reduction. This algorithm was then applied to 16 CMI SHI images of breast lesions, out of which 13 were successfully skeletonized. Average bifurcations were 9.8 ± 8.18 and 6.9 ± 6.50 in malignant and benign lesions, respectively (p > 0.60). Average vessel-chain length was 88.9 ± 79.10 pixels versus 63.2 ± 45.65 pixels in malignant versus benign lesions (p > 0.40). While the sequential thinning algorithm was promising for quantifying breast vasculature, its ability to significantly differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in this study was limited by a high degree of variability and limited sample size.
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common opportunistic infection in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but cryptococcal infection (CI) has also been recognized in HIV-negative patients. Despite the fact that many studies were conducted in adults, limited data exist for pediatric patients.
Genomic DNA was extracted from eight medicinal plants using the present DNA extraction protocols (CTAB extraction method) with some modifications. Leaves were fixed in different fixing solutions containing absolute alcohol (99.99%), chloroform and EDTA, but without liquid nitrogen. DNA quality and quantity obtained were comparable to those isolated with liquid nitrogen, as the lambda260/lambda280 ratio with liquid nitrogen was in range 1.3-1.7 and with other fixing solutions it was 1.1-1.5. Absolute alcohol showed best results as fixing solution. Good quality of DNA was isolated without using liquid nitrogen from different medicinal plant species. DNA isolated by this method was suitable for various molecular biology applications.
Cystic lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital benign tumours of vascular origin with a lymphatic differentiation originating across various anatomical locations. Large intrabdominal cysts may mimic ascites. We report the case of a one-and-a-half-year-old male child with a giant cystic lymphangioma originating in the greater omentum presenting as tubercular ascites. This report aims to highlight the limitations of biochemical investigations such as ascitic adenosine deaminase (ADA) in differentiating the epidemiologically prevalent tubercular ascites from an intrabdominal cyst, especially in a resource-poor nation as ours, where invasive diagnostic procedures pose an economic burden.
Magmas, a conserved mammalian protein essential for eukaryotic development, is overexpressed in prostate carcinomas and cells exposed to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Reduced Magmas expression resulted in decreased proliferative rates in cultured cells. However, the cellular function of Magmas is still elusive. In this report, we have showed that human Magmas is an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pam16 having similar functions and is critical for protein translocation across mitochondrial inner membrane. Human Magmas shows a complete growth complementation of Deltapam16 yeast cells at all temperatures. On the basis of our analysis, we report that Magmas localizes into mitochondria and is peripherally associated with inner mitochondrial membrane in yeast and humans. Magmas forms a stable subcomplex with J-protein Pam18 or DnaJC19 through its C-terminal region and is tethered to TIM23 complex of yeast and humans. Importantly, amino acid alterations in Magmas leads to reduced stability of the subcomplex with Pam18 that results in temperature sensitivity and in vivo protein translocation defects in yeast cells. These observations highlight the central role of Magmas in protein import and mitochondria biogenesis. In humans, absence of a functional DnaJC19 leads to dilated cardiac myophathic syndrome (DCM), a genetic disorder with characteristic features of cardiac myophathy and neurodegeneration. We propose that the mutations resulting in decreased stability of functional Magmas:DnaJC19 subcomplex at human TIM23 channel leads to impaired protein import and cellular respiration in DCM patients. Together, we propose a model showing how Magmas:DnaJC19 subcomplex is associated with TIM23 complex and thus regulates mitochondrial import process.
Hyperthermia is a general term used to define the increase in core body temperature above normal. It is often used to describe the increased core body temperature that is observed during fever. The use of hyperthermia as an adjuvant has emerged as a promising procedure for tumor regression in the field of cancer biology. For this purpose, the most important requirement is to have reliable and uniform heating protocols. We have developed a protocol for hyperthermia (whole body) in mice. In this protocol, animals are exposed to cycles of hyperthermia for 90 min followed by a rest period of 15 min. During this period mice have easy access to food and water. High body temperature spikes in the mice during first few hyperthermia exposure cycles are prevented by immobilizing the animal. Additionally, normal saline is administered in first few cycles to minimize the effects of dehydration. This protocol can simulate fever like conditions in mice up to 12-24 hr. We have used 8-12 weeks old BALB/Cj female mice to demonstrate the protocol.
Hyperthermia enhanced transdermal (HET) immunization is a novel needle free immunization strategy employing application of antigen along with mild local hyperthermia (42°C) to intact skin resulting in detectable antigen specific Ig in serum. In the present study, we investigated the adjuvant effect of thermal component of HET immunization in terms of maturation of dendritic cells and its implication on the quality of the immune outcome in terms of antibody production upon HET immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT). We have shown that in vitro hyperthermia exposure at 42°C for 30 minutes up regulates the surface expression of maturation markers on bone marrow derived DCs. This observation correlated in vivo with an increased and accelerated expression of maturation markers on DCs in the draining lymph node upon HET immunization in mice. This effect was found to be independent of the antigen delivered and depends only on the thermal component of HET immunization. In vitro hyperthermia also led to enhanced capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cells in allo MLR and promotes the secretion of IL-10 by BMDCs, suggesting a potential for Th2 skewing of T cell response. HET immunization also induced a systemic T cell response to TT, as suggested by proliferation of splenocytes from immunized animal upon in vitro stimulation by TT. Exposure to heat during primary immunization led to generation of mainly IgG class of antibodies upon boosting, similar to the use of conventional alum adjuvant, thus highlighting the adjuvant potential of heat during HET immunization. Lastly, we have shown that mice immunized by tetanus toxoid using HET route exhibited protection against challenge with a lethal dose of tetanus toxin. Thus, in addition to being a painless, needle free delivery system it also has an immune modulatory potential.
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