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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz and Treatment of HIV-1 Among Pregnant Women With and Without Tuberculosis Coinfection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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?Pregnancy and tuberculosis treatment or prophylaxis can affect efavirenz pharmacokinetics, maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment outcomes, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk.
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A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40-50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012.
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Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa are widely reported. However rural-urban disparities and their association with all-cause mortality remain unclear. Furthermore, commonly used classical Cox regression ignores unmeasured variables and frailty.
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Maternal hepatitis B and infant infection among pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of liver-related mortality. Newborn vaccination, maternal antiviral therapy and administering hepatitis B immune globulin shortly after birth can greatly reduce the risk of perinatal and infant infection. However, evidence-based policy regarding these interventions in Africa is hampered by gaps in knowledge of HBV epidemiology. We describe maternal chronic hepatitis B (CHB) prevalence and infant infection during the first year of life within a cohort of women living with HIV.
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CD4 and viral load dynamics in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults from Soweto, South Africa: a prospective cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD4 count is a proxy for the extent of immune deficiency and declines in CD4 count are a measure of disease progression. Decline in CD4 count is an important component: for estimating benefits of ARV treatment; for individual level counselling on the rapidity of untreated disease progression and prognosis; and can be used in planning demand for health services. Our objective is to report CD4 decline and changes in viral load (VL) in a group of HIV-infected adults enrolled in a randomized trial of preventive treatment for TB in South Africa where clade C infection predominates.
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Incidence of TB and HIV in prospectively followed household contacts of TB index patients in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To report the incidence rates of TB and HIV in household contacts of index patients diagnosed with TB.
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CD4 counts and viral loads of newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals: implications for treatment as prevention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To report the viral load and CD4 count in HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve, first -time HIV-testers, not immediately eligible for treatment initiation by current South Africa treatment guidelines.
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A review of the study designs and statistical methods used in the determination of predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected cohorts: 2002-2011.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Research in the predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people has widely been reported in literature. Making an informed decision requires understanding the methods used.
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Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and tuberculosis risk among people living with HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many randomized and cohort studies have reported a survival benefit with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis without detecting a difference in tuberculosis (TB) incidence by cotrimoxazole status. However, several in vitro studies have reported that cotrimoxazole possesses anti-TB activity. We sought to compare TB incidence and TB diagnostic yield by cotrimoxazole use among participants in a well characterized cohort of HIV-infected adults living in a high TB prevalence region.
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Rates and cost of hospitalization before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in urban and rural settings in South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Few studies have compared hospitalizations before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in the same patients. We analyzed the cost of hospitalizations among 3906 adult patients in 2 South African hospitals, 30% of whom initiated ART. Hospitalizations were 50% and 40% more frequent and 1.5 and 2.6 times more costly at a CD4 cell count, 100 cells/mm(3) when compared with 200–350 cells/mm(3) in the pre-ART and ART period, respectively. Mean inpatient cost per patient year was USD 117 (95%confidence interval, 85 to 158) for patients on ART and USD 72(95% confidence interval, 56 to 89) for pre-ART patients. Raising ART eligibility thresholds could avoid the high cost of hospitalization before and immediately after ART initiation.
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Does routine prophylactic oral flucloxacillin reduce the incidence of post-circumcision infections?
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Cost-effective and safe practices are required for the scale-up of medical male circumcision (MMC), a strategy recommended for biomedical HIV prevention.
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Mortality associated with delays between clinic entry and ART initiation in resource-limited settings: results of a transition-state model.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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To estimate the mortality impact of delay in antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation from the time of entry into care.
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Concordant Oral-Genital HPV Infection in South Africa Couples: Evidence for Transmission.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Objective: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in South Africa. However, little is known about oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence settings. Method: Thirty-four adult heterosexual couples attending an HIV testing center in Soweto, South Africa were enrolled. Each participant provided an oral rinse sample and genital swab, which were tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and completed a risk behavior survey. Results: Median age was 31?years and 9% (3/34) of men and 29% (10/34) of women enrolled tested HIV-positive; median CD4 count was 437?cells/mm(3). Oral HPV prevalence was similar in women and men (12 vs. 18%, p?=?0.48), and was non-significantly higher in HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected (23 vs. 13%, p?=?0.34) subjects. Most men (82%) and women (84%) reported ever performing oral sex. Median number of lifetime sexual partners was "2-5" while median number of lifetime oral sex partners was 1. Oncogenic HPV subtypes were detected in 4% of oral, 26% of penile, and 74% of vaginal samples, including HPV16 in 1, 12, and 21% of these samples respectively. Genital HPV prevalence was significantly higher than oral HPV prevalence (75 vs. 15%, p???0.001). Thirty-five percent of couples (12/34) had at least one type-specific concordant vaginal-penile HPV infection but only one of nine couples with oral HPV had concordant oral-oral infection. However, 67% (4/6) of men and 25% (1/4) of women with oral HPV infection had partners with concordant genital HPV infection. Implications and Impact: Oral-oral HPV concordance between couples is low, but oral-genital and genital-genital HPV concordance is higher, including concordance of male oral HPV infection with their partners vaginal HPV infection. This data is consistent with possible transmission of vaginal HPV infection to the oral cavity of sexual partners performing oral sex.
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High prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis but low sensitivity of symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF) for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly laboratory investigation. Those with laboratory evaluations negative for pulmonary TB or who lack symptoms may be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and/or TB isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). A four-part symptom screen has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for identifying TB suspects and those unlikely to have TB. A meta-analysis of studies among HIV-infected individuals calculated a sensitivity of 90.1% for the four-part symptoms screen--of any of cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss--among patients in clinical care, making it an effective tool for identifying most patients with TB. An important population for intensified case-finding not included in that meta-analysis was HIV-infected pregnant women. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving prenatal care at community clinics in South Africa. We obtained a four-symptom review and sputum smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture on all participants. Among 1415 women, 226 (16%) had a positive symptom screen, and 35 (2.5%) were newly diagnosed with culture-positive TB. Twelve were on TB treatment at the time of screening, yielding 47 (3.3%) women with prevalent TB. Symptom screening among women without known TB had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 84%. The poor performance of symptom screening to identify women with TB suggests that other approaches may be needed for intensified case-finding to be effective for this population.
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Antiretroviral therapy refusal among newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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To determine rates and predictors of treatment refusal in newly identified HIV-infected individuals in Soweto, South Africa.
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New regimens to prevent tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Treatment of latent tuberculosis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is efficacious, but few patients around the world receive such treatment. We evaluated three new regimens for latent tuberculosis that may be more potent and durable than standard isoniazid treatment.
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Epidemiology of tuberculosis and HIV: recent advances in understanding and responses.
Proc Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Although tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause enormous suffering and overwhelm health care systems in areas with high HIV prevalence, there have been a number of recent significant advances in knowledge regarding the epidemiology, management, and control of HIV-related TB. TB remains the most common serious opportunistic infection in people with HIV infection and the leading cause of death. However, there is some reason for optimism. First, two trials addressing when to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults with newly diagnosed TB have shown that earlier initiation of ART reduces mortality significantly. Second, there is trial evidence of efficacy in giving long-term isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) to HIV-infected adults in high HIV-prevalence settings where TB reinfection is frequent (much like cotrimoxazole). Third, the search for an inexpensive, rapid, sensitive, and specific TB diagnostic that is able to replace smear and delayed mycobacterial culture has yielded promising results. Responding to massive TB epidemics in high HIV-prevalence settings, the World Health Organization has supplemented its directly observed treatment short-course strategy with one called the 3Is to actively screen and diagnose TB cases (intensified case finding), prevent new cases of TB with IPT, and prevent transmission of TB in congregate settings such as hospitals and clinics (infection control). Combating TB in high HIV-prevalence settings requires rapid and massive implementation of the 3Is with initiation of antiretrovirals and more effective efforts to prevent new HIV infections.
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Short-course Combivir after single-dose nevirapine reduces but does not eliminate the emergence of nevirapine resistance in women.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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In the Treatment Options Preservation Study (TOPS) trial, 4 or 7 days of Combivir (CBV; zidovudine/lamivudine) with maternal single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) significantly reduced the emergence of NVP resistance as determined by virus population genotyping. To detect NVP resistance with greater sensitivity, we analysed TOPS samples by allele-specific real-time PCR (ASP).
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Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin testing (TST) in children who were household contacts of adults with pulmonary TB in South Africa, and explored factors associated with QFT-GIT conversions and reversions.
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Active tuberculosis case-finding among pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are among the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age worldwide. TB is a significant cause of maternal morbidity. Detection of TB during pregnancy could provide substantial benefits to women and their children.
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Missed opportunities in TB diagnosis: a TB process-based performance review tool to evaluate and improve clinical care.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Traditional tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome measures, such as cure rate, do not provide insight into the underlying reasons for missing clinical targets. We evaluated a TB Process-Based Performance Review (TB-PBPR) tool, developed to identify "missed opportunities" for timely and accurate diagnosis of TB. The tool enables performance assessment at the level of process and quality of care.
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Parametric variable selection in generalized partially linear models with an application to assess condom use by HIV-infected patients.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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To study significant predictors of condom use in HIV-infected adults, we propose the use of generalized partially linear models and develop a variable selection procedure incorporating a least squares approximation. Local polynomial regression and spline smoothing techniques are used to estimate the baseline nonparametric function. The asymptotic normality of the resulting estimate is established. We further demonstrate that, with the proper choice of the penalty functions and the regularization parameter, the resulting estimate performs as well as an oracle procedure. Finite sample performance of the proposed inference procedure is assessed by Monte Carlo simulation studies. An application to assess condom use by HIV-infected patients gains some interesting results, which cannot be obtained when an ordinary logistic model is used.
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Detection of low-level K65R variants in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-naive chronic and acute HIV-1 subtype C infections.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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To substantiate reports of greater emergence of the K65R nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C, we examined natural low-level K65R expression in subtype C relative to subtypes B and AE. We used allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to screen HIV-1 amplified by reverse-transcription high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction from subtype C-infected South African women and infants and CRF01(subtype AE) from Thailand; all subjects were NRTI naive. We found low-level K65R of unknown clinical significance in NRTI-naive subtype C-infected women and infants at frequencies above the natural occurrence in subtypes B and AE. The frequent appearance of subtype C frameshift deletions at codon 65 supports a propensity for transcription error in this region.
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The clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of routine, voluntary HIV screening in South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Although 900,000 HIV-infected South Africans receive antiretroviral therapy, the majority of South Africans with HIV remain undiagnosed.
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Condom avoidance and determinants of demand for male circumcision in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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BACKGROUND Circumcision is efficacious in reducing HIV acquisition in heterosexual males. The South Africa government has been reluctant to adopt a national circumcision programme, possibly due to concerns that circumcision may result in decreased condom use. OBJECTIVE To identify the determinants of demand for male circumcision, to examine variations by ethnicity, and to determine whether it is demanded to avoid condom use. METHODS 403 parents and 237 sons in Johannesburg, South Africa, were recruited through a randomized household survey, with oversampling to balance between blacks (n ?= ?220), coloured (mixed ethnicity) (n ?=? 202) and whites (n ?=? 218). The demand for male circumcision was estimated using a conjoint analysis, with each respondent randomly receiving four tasks comparing seven possible benefits-six identified through key informant interviews and one for condom avoidance. Respondents choices were analysed using logistic regression, including stratified analyses to test for homogeneity. RESULTS Overall, circumcisions beneficial effects on HIV transmission (P ?< ?0.001), sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission (P?< ?0.001), hygiene (P ?< ?0.05) and sex (P? < ?0.05) were identified as determinants of demand, but the condom avoidance hypothesis was rejected as it was repulsive to respondents (P? < ?0.001). Consistent results were found for blacks (P ?< ?0.001) and coloured (P?
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Decreased sexual risk behavior in the era of HAART among HIV-infected urban and rural South Africans attending primary care clinics.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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In light of increasing access to HAART in sub-Saharan Africa, we conducted a longitudinal study to assess the impact of HAART on sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected South Africans in urban and rural primary care clinics.
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Patient referral from nurses to doctors in a nurse-led HIV primary care clinic in South Africa: implications for training and support.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Health services in sub-Saharan Africa are under great pressure to provide adequate clinical care due to the continued HIV epidemic, and nurse-driven models of care are one means to address physician shortages. This case-control study examines the reasons for and correlates of patient referral from nurses to physicians at HIV primary care clinics in South Africa prior to initiating antiretroviral treatment. Ninety-seven HIV-infected cases who required physician consolation and 160 controls who did not require physician consultation (matched on gender, age, and date of clinic visit) were consecutively enrolled at both an urban and rural HIV primary care clinic during a 12-month period beginning in March 2006. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess correlates of patient referral to a physician. Cases were more likely to have lower CD4 cell counts and have WHO Stages III and IV disease compared to controls (p<0.05). Predictors of patient referral were a CD4 cell count between 50 and 200 cells/µl (adj OR: 5.27, 95% CI: 2.16-12.88, p<0.0001), a CD4 cell count below 50 cells/µl (adj OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.12-10.78, p=0.032), and Stage IV disease (adj OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 1.35-15.60, p=0.015). Additionally, the following ICD-10 clinical diagnoses were associated with patient referral: tuberculosis, aplastic and other anemias, and lower respiratory tract infection (p<0.05). Nurses can provide adequate clinical and diagnostic management for certain clinical conditions to HIV-infected patients. Further studies are needed to examine specifically how HIV healthcare delivery can be scaled-up in resource-limited settings with a high burden of HIV, but with a minimal healthcare infrastructure.
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Quantitative analysis of a urine-based assay for detection of lipoarabinomannan in patients with tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection is a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). In microbiologically confirmed TB patients, quantitative LAM detection results increased progressively with bacillary burden and immunosuppression. Patients with disseminated TB and/or advanced HIV are target populations for whom urine LAM detection may be particularly useful.
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Body mass index and risk of tuberculosis and death.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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High BMI has been shown to be protective against tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-uninfected individuals, as well as against disease progression and mortality among those with HIV. We examined the effect of BMI on all-cause mortality and TB incidence among a cohort of HIV-infected adults in Soweto, South Africa.
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Role of menstruation in contraceptive choice among HIV-infected women in Soweto, South Africa.
Contraception
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Contraceptive preferences of HIV-infected women must be considered in efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services. In South Africa, contraception is often discontinued due to bleeding pattern changes. It is unknown whether HIV-infected women are more sensitive to menstrual changes and how this affects contraceptive choice. This study describes perceptions toward menses and contraceptive-induced amenorrhea among HIV-infected women.
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Mortality and loss to follow-up among HAART initiators in rural South Africa.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2009
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A retrospective cohort study of mortality rates and potential predictors of death was conducted in public-sector patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between October 2005 and September 2007 in a rural, under-resourced region of South Africa. The aims were to determine the relative contribution of death to cohort exit and the causes and predictors of mortality among HAART initiators. A community outreach programme traced non-attenders. Patients categorised as dying at home underwent a verbal autopsy (by interviewing family members) and case-file review, and those dying in hospital a case-file review, to determine the probable cause of death. At 24 months 1131 (83.6%) patients were retained on treatment in the programme, 124 (9.2%) had died, 63 (4.7%) had transferred out, and 35 (2.6%) were lost to follow-up. The most common causes of death were tuberculosis (44.3%) and diarrhoeal diseases (24.5%). Death was the major reason for cohort exit. As experience is gained with rural HAART programmes mortality rates may decrease. These results draw attention to the need for early HIV diagnosis, increased access to HAART services with earlier treatment initiation, and routine screening and aggressive management of opportunistic infections, particularly tuberculosis.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a High HIV prevalence setting.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Effective tuberculosis (TB) control in HIV-prevalent settings is hindered by absence of accurate, rapid TB diagnostic tests. We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa.
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When to start antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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The results of international clinical trials that are assessing when to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will not be available for several years.
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HAART and risk of tuberculosis in HIV-infected South African children: a multi-site retrospective cohort.
Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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Four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics located at South African tertiary hospitals.
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Isoniazid preventive therapy, HAART and tuberculosis risk in HIV-infected adults in South Africa: a prospective cohort.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults, although few countries have instituted this policy. Both IPT and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) used separately result in reductions in tuberculosis risk. There is less information on the combined effect of IPT and HAART. We assessed the effect of IPT, HAART or both IPT and HAART on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-infected adults in South Africa.
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Optimization of allele-specific PCR using patient-specific HIV consensus sequences for primer design.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Allele-specific PCR based on subtype consensus sequences is a powerful technique for detecting low frequency drug resistant mutants in HIV-1 infected patients. However, this approach can be limited by genetic variation in the region complementary to the primers, leading to variability in allele detection. The goals of this study were to quantify this effect and then to improve assay performance.
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Preferences for characteristics of antiretroviral therapy provision in Johannesburg, South Africa: results of a conjoint analysis.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2009
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A survey was administered to HIV-infected patients and a sample in Soweto and the Johannesburg inner city to measure preferences for antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision. The 25 to 49-year-old male and female respondents viewed 20 sets of three hypothetical ART clinic choices after reading information on ART. Each set had a permutation of four levels of: monthly ART price, clinic waiting times, HIV clinic branding and clinic staff attitudes. For each set, respondents selected the preferred mix of characteristics and indicated if they would pay for it. For every ZAR 100 (USD PPP 25) increase in price, the average probability of selecting a clinic decreased by 2.8 and 3.0% in the HIV patient and household samples, respectively. Cost as well as staff attitude, wait time, and clinic branding may constitute important barriers to ART uptake and adherence in resource-poor settings.
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Socioeconomic disparities in access to HIV/AIDS treatment programs in resource-limited settings.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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This study employs data from rural South Africa to determine whether there were socioeconomic differences in the profile of HIV-infected persons living in the community and HIV-infected patients presenting for hospital-based outpatient HIV/AIDS care and related services. There were 776 HIV-infected persons aged 18-35 years in Limpopo Province, South Africa who were included in the study, including 534 consecutive patients who presented for care at a hospital-based outpatient HIV clinic, and 242 persons living in the community. Persons seen in clinic had a higher overall socioeconomic profile compared to the community sample. They were more likely to have completed matric or tertiary education (P=0.04), less likely to be unemployed (P<0.001), and more likely to live in households with access to a private tap water supply (P<0.001). These differences persisted after multivariable adjustment. Our findings demonstrate that important socioeconomic differences in uptake of hospital-based HIV/AIDS care were identified among HIV-infected adults living in a rural region of South Africa. This suggests an important limitation in hospital-based HIV/AIDS care and underscores the need to monitor the equity implications of highly active antiretroviral therapy scale-up in resource-limited settings.
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Identification of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 in the latent reservoir after single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine decreases mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but promotes nevirapine resistance. Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells, potentially complicating future treatment.
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Women exposed to single-dose nevirapine in successive pregnancies: effectiveness and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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To assess the impact of prior exposure to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) on mother-to-child transmission and genotypic resistance in HIV-infected women.
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Costs of providing care for HIV-infected adults in an urban HIV clinic in Soweto, South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa expands, estimates of the costs of initiating and maintaining patients on ART are important to program planning, budgeting, and cost-effectiveness analyses.
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Efficacy of short-course AZT plus 3TC to reduce nevirapine resistance in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: a randomized clinical trial.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP)-which prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV-selects non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations in the majority of women and HIV-infected infants receiving it. This open-label, randomised trial examined the efficacy of short-course zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) with sdNVP in reducing NNRTI resistance in mothers, and as a secondary objective, in infants, in a setting where sdNVP was standard-of-care.
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Costs of inpatient treatment for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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In South Africa, patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are hospitalised from MDR-TB treatment initiation until culture conversion. Although MDR-TB accounts for <3% of incident TB in South Africa, 55% of the public sector TB budget is spent on MDR-TB. To inform new strategies for MDR-TB management, we estimated the per-patient cost (USD 2011) of inpatient MDR-TB treatment.
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Causes of death on antiretroviral therapy: a post-mortem study from South Africa.
PLoS ONE
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Mortality in the first months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a significant clinical problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, no post-mortem study has investigated the causes of mortality in these patients.
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The clinical and economic impact of genotype testing at first-line antiretroviral therapy failure for HIV-infected patients in South Africa.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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In resource-limited settings, genotype testing at virologic failure on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) may identify patients with wild-type (WT) virus. After adherence counseling, these patients may safely and effectively continue first-line ART, thereby delaying more expensive second-line ART.
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Hepatitis B virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus infected southern African adults: occult or overt--that is the question.
PLoS ONE
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share transmission routes and are endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to use the Taormina definition of occult HBV infection, together with stringent amplification conditions, to determine the prevalence and characteristics of HBV infection in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve HIV(+ve) adults in a rural cohort in South Africa. The presence of HBV serological markers was determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) tests. HBV DNA-positivity was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of at least two of three different regions of the HBV genome. HBV viral loads were determined by real-time PCR. Liver fibrosis was determined using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index. Of the 298 participants, 231 (77.5%) showed at least one HBV marker, with 53.7% HBV DNA(-ve) (resolved) and 23.8% HBV DNA(+ve) (current) [8.7% HBsAg(+ve): 15.1% HBsAg(-ve)]. Only the total number of sexual partners distinguished HBV DNA(+ve) and HBV DNA(-ve) participants, implicating sexual transmission of HBV and/or HIV. It is plausible that sexual transmission of HBV and/or HIV may result in a new HBV infection, superinfection and re-activation as a consequence of immunesuppression. Three HBsAg(-ve) HBV DNA(+ve) participants had HBV viral loads <200 IU/ml and were therefore true occult HBV infections. The majority of HBsAg(-ve) HBV DNA(+ve) participants did not differ from HBsAg(+ve) HBV DNA(+ve) (overt) participants in terms of HBV viral loads, ALT levels or frequency of liver fibrosis. Close to a quarter of HIV(+ve) participants were HBV DNA(+ve), of which the majority were HBsAg(-ve) and were only detected using nucleic acid testing. Detection of HBsAg(-ve) HBV DNA(+ve) subjects is advisable considering they were clinically indistinguishable from HBsAg(+ve) HBV DNA(+ve) individuals and should not be overlooked, especially if lamivudine is included in the ART.
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Increased regression and decreased incidence of human papillomavirus-related cervical lesions among HIV-infected women on HAART.
AIDS
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To determine the impact of HAART on incidence, regression, and progression of cytopathological abnormalities in HIV-infected women.
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Designing family-centered male circumcision services: a conjoint analysis approach.
Patient
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Male circumcision (MC) has become an important weapon in the fight against HIV/AIDS in many Sub-Saharan African countries. The successful implementation of a national MC program requires the design of circumcision services that are attractive to young men of various ages. For many potential clients, mothers and/or fathers will play an important role in the decision to be circumcised, and hence services will need to be designed with the preferences of mothers, fathers, and sons in mind.
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Community-based targeted case finding for tuberculosis and HIV in household contacts of patients with tuberculosis in South Africa.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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South Africa has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-coinfected adults in whom TB is often diagnosed late in the course of disease.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.