Advances in next-generation sequencing offer high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping alternatives, including genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Results have shown that this methodology is efficient for genotyping a variety of species, including those with complex genomes. To assess the utility of GBS in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.), seven bi-parental mapping populations and diverse inbred lines from breeding programs around the world were studied. We examined technical factors that influence GBS SNP calls, established a workflow that combines two bioinformatics pipelines for GBS SNP calling, and provided a nomenclature for oat GBS loci. The high-throughput GBS system enabled us to place 45,117 loci on an oat consensus map, thus establishing a positional reference for further genomic studies. Using the diversity lines, we estimated that a minimum density of one marker per 2 to 2.8 cM would be required for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and GBS markers met this density requirement in most chromosome regions. We also demonstrated the utility of GBS in additional diagnostic applications related to oat breeding. We conclude that GBS is a powerful and useful approach, which will have many additional applications in oat breeding and genomic studies.
The aim of this study was to measure genetic diversity and population structure among 92 Canadian barley cultivars using two types of molecular markers (SSRs and DArTs) and pedigree data. A total of 368 alleles were identified at 50 SSR loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged between 2 and 13 ([Formula: see text] = 7.36) and PIC values ranged from 0.34 to 0.86 ([Formula: see text] = 0.69). For the biallelic DArT markers, the genetic distance matrix was based on 971 markers whose PIC values ranged between 0.06 and 0.50 ([Formula: see text] = 0.39). A third distance matrix was computed based on the kinship coefficient. Clustering of genotypes was performed based on the genetic distance matrix and the three dendrograms obtained showed the genetic relationships among barley cultivars. The topological similarity of the three dendrograms was estimated using a congruence index and showed the three dendrograms to be in very good agreement. Statistical analysis also showed a highly significant correlation between the SSR and DArT matrices (r = 0.80, p < 0.002) compared with lower yet significant correlations of the pedigree data with both marker types (r = 0.46, p < 0.002; r = 0.52, p < 0.002). Finally, we assessed linkage disequilibrium in this germplasm and found it to be quite extensive, as the mean distance between marker pairs with significant (P < 0.001) r(2) values >0.5 was 3.8 cM. Information obtained from comparing results of different genetic diversity estimation methods should be useful for the improvement and conservation of barley genetic resources.
A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
Genetic markers are pivotal to modern genomics research; however, discovery and genotyping of molecular markers in oat has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, and by a scarcity of sequence data. The purpose of this study was to generate oat expressed sequence tag (EST) information, develop a bioinformatics pipeline for SNP discovery, and establish a method for rapid, cost-effective, and straightforward genotyping of SNP markers in complex polyploid genomes such as oat.
SPAGHETTI is a computer program to simulate genetic populations with segregating molecular markers that are influenced by "real-life" complications such as duplicated loci and segregation distortion. It produces output that is readable by popular mapping software, and it can be used to demonstrate or test methods for constructing genetic linkage maps. The source code, sample files, instructions for use, and an executable version compatible with MS Windows are available for free from http://gnomad.agr.ca/software/spaghetti.
Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure, and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) on a genome-wide level in Canadian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Approximately 1,000 DArT markers were polymorphic and scored with high confidence among a collection of 170 barley lines composed mostly of Canadian cultivars and breeding lines. The reproducibility of DArT markers proved very high, as 99.9% of allele calls were identical among seven replicated samples. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of DArT markers ranged between 0.04 and 0.50 with an average of 0.38. Using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), most lines fell into one of two major groups reflecting inflorescence type (two-row versus six-row). Within these two large groups, evidence of geographic clustering of genotypes was also observed. A cluster analysis Unweighted Pair Group Method with Algorithmic Mean suggested the existence of three subgroups within the two-row group and four subgroups within the six-row group. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed highly significant (P < 0.001) genetic variance within subgroups, among subgroups, and among groups. Values of LD, expressed as r (2), declined with increasing genetic distance, and mean values of r (2) fell below 0.2 for markers located 2.6 cM apart. Approximately 8% of marker pairs located on the same chromosome and 3.4% of pairs located on different chromosomes were in LD (r ( 2 ) > 0.2). Within both the subsets of two-row and six-row lines, LD extended slightly further (3.5 cM) than for the entire set, while 7.5% of intra-chromosomal locus pairs and <2% of inter-chromosomal pairs were in LD. We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to the prospects of association mapping of complex traits in barley.
Genomic discovery in oat and its application to oat improvement have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers common to different genetic maps, and by the difficulty of conducting whole-genome analysis using high-throughput markers. This study was intended to develop, characterize, and apply a large set of oat genetic markers based on Diversity Array Technology (DArT).
This study presents a high-throughput proteomic analysis of phosphopeptides from Fusarium graminearum strain DAOM 233423 grown in vitro without nutritional limitation. Using a combination of strong cation exchange (SCX) and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by LC-MS, we identified 2902 putative phosphopeptides with homologous matches to 1496 different proteins. Functional classification of the annotated protein set revealed that phosphopeptides from nuclear proteins with ATP-binding function were the most abundant. There are indications that phosphorylation sites from well-characterized phosphoproteins representing diverse biological processes are conserved in F. graminearum: sequences of three phosphopeptides from known phosphoproteins (transcription elongation factor 1?, acidic ribosomal proteins, and glycogen synthase) revealed phosphorylation site conservation.
We have sequenced, assembled, and characterized a set of complexity-reduced genomic clones derived from a chromosome 18D-specific library from hexaploid oat ( Avena sativa L.). Sequences from 314 clones were assembled into 99 contigs of identical or nearly identical sequence. The Censor tool was used to identify similarity to known and characterized repeat sequences in RepBase. Eight repeat classes were scattered throughout 50 contigs, with most repeats belonging to seven transposon and retrotransposon classes. After accounting for known repeats, additional matches to orthologous genes from other species were identified in 24 regions of 22 contigs, and an additional 47 regions matched genomic sequences from oat and other related species. These results provide information about the types and density of transposable elements in the oat genome, as well as the potential for identifying unique or chromosome-specific sequence elements in oat. Overall, these results predict a low success rate in identifying chromosome-specific coding regions in oat through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction.
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