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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Limited duration of complete remission on ruxolitinib in myeloid neoplasms with PCM1-JAK2 and BCR-JAK2 fusion genes.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Rearrangements of chromosome band 9p24 are known to be associated with JAK2 fusion genes, e.g., t(8;9)(p22;p24) with a PCM1-JAK2 and t(9;22)(p24;q11) with a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene, respectively. In association with myeloid neoplasms, the clinical course is aggressive, and in absence of effective conventional treatment options, long-term remission is usually only observed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). With the discovery of inhibitors of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase and based on encouraging in vitro and in vivo data, we treated two male patients with myeloid neoplasms and a PCM1-JAK2 or a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene, respectively, with the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. After 12 months of treatment, both patients achieved a complete clinical, hematologic, and cytogenetic response. Non-hematologic toxicity was only grade 1 while no hematologic toxicity was observed. However, remission in both patients was only short-term, with relapse occurring after 18 and 24 months, respectively, making ASCT indispensable in both cases. This data highlight (1) the ongoing importance of cytogenetic analysis for the diagnostic work-up of myeloid neoplasms as it may guide targeted therapy and (2) remission under ruxolitinib may only be short-termed in JAK2 fusion genes but it may be an important bridging therapy prior to ASCT.
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Molecular pathogenesis of atypical CML, CMML and MDS/MPN-unclassifiable.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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According to the 2008 WHO classification, the category of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) includes atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) and a "provisional" entity, refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (RARS-T). The remarkable progress in our understanding of the somatic pathogenesis of MDS/MPN has made it clear that there is considerable overlap among these diseases at the molecular level, as well as layers of unexpected complexity. Deregulation of signalling plays an important role in many cases, and is clearly linked to more highly proliferative disease. Other mutations affect a range of other essential, interrelated cellular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation, RNA splicing, transcription, and DNA damage response. The various combinations of mutations indicate a multi-step pathogenesis, which likely contributes to the marked clinical heterogeneity of these disorders. The delineation of complex clonal architectures may serve as the cornerstone for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and lead to better patient outcomes. This review summarizes some of the current knowledge of molecular pathogenetic lesions in the MDS/MPN subtypes that are seen in adults: atypical CML, CMML and MDS/MPN-U.
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Identification and functional characterization of imatinib-sensitive DTD1-PDGFRB and CCDC88C-PDGFRB fusion genes in eosinophilia-associated myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Eosinophilia-associated myeloid neoplasms with rearrangement of chromosome bands 5q31-33 are frequently associated with PDGFRB fusion genes, which are exquisitely sensitive to treatment with imatinib. In search for novel fusion partners of PDGFRB, we analyzed three cases with translocation t(5;20)(q33;p11), t(5;14)(q33;q32), and t(5;17;14)(q33;q11;q32) by 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (5?-RACE-PCR) and DNA-based long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) with primers derived from PDGFRB. LDI-PCR revealed a fusion between CCDC88C exon 25 and PDGFRB exon 11 in the case with t(5;17;14)(q33;q11;q32) while 5?-RACE-PCR identified fusions between CCDC88C exon 10 and PDGFRB exon 12 and between DTD1 exon 4 and PDGFRB exon 12 in the cases with t(5;14)(q33;q32) and t(5;20)(q33;p11), respectively. The PDGFRB tyrosine-kinase domain is predicted to be retained in all three fusion proteins. The partner proteins contained coiled-coil domains or other domains, which putatively lead to constitutive activation of the PDGFRB fusion protein. In vitro functional analyses confirmed transforming activity and imatinib-sensitivity of the fusion proteins. All three patients achieved rapid and durable complete hematologic remissions on imatinib.
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Treatment for peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that is associated with significant morbidity including death, hospitalisation, and need to change from PD to haemodialysis. Treatment is aimed to reduce morbidity and recurrence. This is an update of a review first published in 2008.
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The future of JAK inhibition in myelofibrosis and beyond.
Blood Rev.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The identification of aberrant JAK-STAT signaling in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms has served as the basis for the development of a new class of targeted agents. Ruxolitinib, the first-in-class oral small molecule JAK1/2 inhibitor, has demonstrated clinical efficacy and shown a potential overall survival benefit in two randomized phase III clinical trials. However, this agent has not been associated with improvements in cytopenias, molecular remissions, or resolution of bone marrow fibrosis. Therefore, further translational research is needed to improve the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms driving this myeloid malignancy to ultimately address remaining unmet clinical needs. A number of novel JAK inhibitors are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials and the full clinical potential of these newer agents remains incompletely understood. The use of JAK inhibition in combination therapy approaches, as well as mono- and combination therapies in the treatment of advanced forms of polycythemia vera are also under active investigation. This review will update the reader on the current understanding of oncogenic JAK-STAT pathway activity in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and the current success and limitations of anti-JAK therapy.
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Mosaic loss of chromosome Y in peripheral blood is associated with shorter survival and higher risk of cancer.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Incidence and mortality for sex-unspecific cancers are higher among men, a fact that is largely unexplained. Furthermore, age-related loss of chromosome Y (LOY) is frequent in normal hematopoietic cells, but the phenotypic consequences of LOY have been elusive. From analysis of 1,153 elderly men, we report that LOY in peripheral blood was associated with risks of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-3.13; 637 events) and non-hematological cancer mortality (HR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.56-8.41; 132 events). LOY affected at least 8.2% of the subjects in this cohort, and median survival times among men with LOY were 5.5 years shorter. Association of LOY with risk of all-cause mortality was validated in an independent cohort (HR = 3.66) in which 20.5% of subjects showed LOY. These results illustrate the impact of post-zygotic mosaicism on disease risk, could explain why males are more frequently affected by cancer and suggest that chromosome Y is important in processes beyond sex determination. LOY in blood could become a predictive biomarker of male carcinogenesis.
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Patients with myeloid malignancies bearing PDGFRB fusion genes achieve durable long-term remissions with imatinib.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Myeloid neoplasms and eosinophilia with rearrangements of PDGFRB are uncommon Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Patients are typically male, with morphologic features of a Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia. Reciprocal translocations involving PDGFRB result in fusion genes with constitutively activated receptor tyrosine kinase sensitive to inhibition with imatinib. We present an updated and expanded analysis of a cohort of 26 such patients treated with imatinib. After a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range, 1.8-17 years), the 10-year overall survival rate was 90% (95% confidence interval, 64%-97%); after median imatinib duration of 6.6 years (range, 0.1-12 years), the 6-year progression-free survival rate was 88% (95% confidence interval, 65%-96%). Of the patients, 96% responded; no patients who achieved a complete cytogenetic (n = 13) or molecular (n = 8) remission lost their response or progressed to blast crisis. Imatinib is well-tolerated and achieves excellent long-term responses in patients with PDGFRB rearrangements.
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Megalencephaly syndromes: exome pipeline strategies for detecting low-level mosaic mutations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two megalencephaly (MEG) syndromes, megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polymicrogyriapolydactyly-hydrocephalus (MPPH), have recently been defined on the basis of physical and neuroimaging features. Subsequently, exome sequencing of ten MEG cases identified de-novo postzygotic mutations in PIK3CA which cause MCAP and de-novo mutations in AKT and PIK3R2 which cause MPPH. Here we present findings from exome sequencing three unrelated megalencephaly patients which identified a causal PIK3CA mutation in two cases and a causal PIK3R2 mutation in the third case. However, our patient with the PIK3R2 mutation which is considered to cause MPPH has a marked bifrontal band heterotopia which is a feature of MCAP. Furthermore, one of our patients with a PIK3CA mutation lacks syndactyly/polydactyly which is a characteristic of MCAP. These findings suggest that the overlap between MCAP and MPPH may be greater than the available studies suggest. In addition, the PIK3CA mutation in one of our patients could not be detected using standard exome analysis because the mutation was observed at a low frequency consistent with somatic mosaicism. We have therefore investigated several alternative methods of exome analysis and demonstrate that alteration of the initial allele frequency spectrum (AFS), used as a prior for variant calling in samtools, had the greatest power to detect variants with low mutant allele frequencies in our 3 MEG exomes and in simulated data. We therefore recommend non-default settings of the AFS in combination with stringent quality control when searching for causal mutation(s) that could have low levels of mutant reads due to post-zygotic mutation.
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The KIT D816V expressed allele burden for diagnosis and disease monitoring of systemic mastocytosis.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The activating KIT D816V mutation plays a central role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and targeted treatment of systemic mastocytosis (SM). For improved and reliable identification of KIT D816V, we have developed an allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) with an enhanced sensitivity of 0.01-0.1 %, which was superior to denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (0.5-1 %) or conventional sequencing (10-20 %). Overall, KIT D816 mutations were identified in 146/147 (99 %) of patients (D816V, n?=?142; D816H, n?=?2; D816Y, n?=?2) with SM, including indolent SM (ISM, n?=?63, 43 %), smoldering SM (n?=?8, 5 %), SM with associated hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD, n?=?16, 11 %), and aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia?±?AHNMD (ASM/MCL, n?=?60, 41 %). If positive in BM, the KIT D816V mutation was found in PB of all patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, ASM, and MCL) and in 46 % (23/50) of patients with ISM. There was a strong correlation between the KIT D816V expressed allele burden (KIT D816V EAB) with results obtained from DNA by genomic allele-specific PCR and also with disease activity (e.g., serum tryptase level), disease subtype (e.g., indolent vs. advanced SM) and survival. In terms of monitoring of residual disease, qualitative and quantitative assessment of KIT D816V and KIT D816V EAB was successfully used for sequential analysis after chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We therefore conclude that RQ-PCR assays for KIT D816V are useful complimentary tools for diagnosis, disease monitoring, and evaluation of prognosis in patients with SM.
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Clinical and biological implications of driver mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of chronic hematological malignancies characterized by dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis and a variable risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Sequencing of MDS genomes has identified mutations in genes implicated in RNA splicing, DNA modification, chromatin regulation, and cell signaling. We sequenced 111 genes across 738 patients with MDS or closely related neoplasms (including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and MDS-myeloproliferative neoplasms) to explore the role of acquired mutations in MDS biology and clinical phenotype. Seventy-eight percent of patients had 1 or more oncogenic mutations. We identify complex patterns of pairwise association between genes, indicative of epistatic interactions involving components of the spliceosome machinery and epigenetic modifiers. Coupled with inferences on subclonal mutations, these data suggest a hypothesis of genetic "predestination," in which early driver mutations, typically affecting genes involved in RNA splicing, dictate future trajectories of disease evolution with distinct clinical phenotypes. Driver mutations had equivalent prognostic significance, whether clonal or subclonal, and leukemia-free survival deteriorated steadily as numbers of driver mutations increased. Thus, analysis of oncogenic mutations in large, well-characterized cohorts of patients illustrates the interconnections between the cancer genome and disease biology, with considerable potential for clinical application.
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Comprehensive mutational profiling in advanced systemic mastocytosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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To explore mechanisms contributing to the clinical heterogeneity of systemic mastocytosis (SM) and to suboptimal responses to diverse therapies, we analyzed 39 KIT D816V mutated patients with indolent SM (n = 10), smoldering SM (n = 2), SM with associated clonal hematologic nonmast cell lineage disorder (SM-AHNMD, n = 5), and aggressive SM (n = 15) or mast cell leukemia (n = 7) with (n = 18) or without (n = 4) AHNMD for additional molecular aberrations. We applied next-generation sequencing to investigate ASXL1, CBL, IDH1/2, JAK2, KRAS, MLL-PTD, NPM1, NRAS, TP53, SRSF2, SF3B1, SETBP1, U2AF1 at mutational hotspot regions, and analyzed complete coding regions of EZH2, ETV6, RUNX1, and TET2. We identified additional molecular aberrations in 24/27 (89%) patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, 5/5; aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia, 19/22) whereas only 3/12 (25%) indolent SM/smoldering SM patients carried one additional mutation each (U2AF1, SETBP1, CBL) (P < .001). Most frequently affected genes were TET2, SRSF2, ASXL1, CBL, and RUNX1. In advanced SM, 21/27 patients (78%) carried ?3 mutations, and 11/27 patients (41%) exhibited ?5 mutations. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with additional aberrations as compared to those with KIT D816V only (P = .019). We conclude that biology and prognosis in SM are related to the pattern of mutated genes that are acquired during disease evolution.
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Inherited predisposition to myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Ther Adv Hematol
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are haematological disorders characterized by an overproduction of mature myeloid cells with a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukaemia. Clonal proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells is driven by somatically acquired mutations, most notably JAK2 V617F, but there are important features relating to pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity that cannot be explained by acquired mutations alone. In this review we consider what is currently known about the role that inherited factors play in the development and biology of both sporadic and familial forms of MPN. Although most MPN cases appear to be sporadic, familial predisposition has been recognized for many years in a subset of cases and epidemiological studies have indicated the presence of common susceptibility alleles. Currently the JAK2 46/1 haplotype (also referred to as GGCC) is the strongest known predisposition factor for sporadic MPNs carrying a JAK2 V617F mutation, explaining a large proportion of the heritability of this disorder. Less is known about what genetic variants predispose to MPNs that lack JAK2 V617F, but there have been recent reports of interesting associations in biologically plausible candidates, and more loci are set to emerge with the application of systematic genome-wide association methodologies. Several highly penetrant predisposition variants that affect erythropoietin signalling, thrombopoietin signalling or oxygen sensing have been characterized in families with nonclonal hereditary erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis, but much less is known about familial predisposition to true clonal MPN. The heterogeneous pattern of inheritance and presumed genetic heterogeneity in these families makes analysis difficult, but whole exome or genome sequencing should provide novel insights into these elusive disorders.
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Aberrant DNA methylation profile of chronic and transformed classic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Most DNA methylation studies in classic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms have been performed on a gene-by-gene basis. Therefore, a more comprehensive methylation profiling is needed to study the implications of this epigenetic marker in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Here, we have analyzed 71 chronic (24 polycythemia vera, 23 essential thrombocythemia and 24 primary myelofibrosis) and 13 transformed myeloproliferative neoplasms using genome-wide DNA methylation arrays. The three types of chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms showed a similar aberrant DNA methylation pattern when compared to control samples. Differentially methylated regions were enriched in a gene network centered on the NF-?B pathway, indicating that they may be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the case of transformed myeloproliferative neoplasms, we detected an increased number of differentially methylated regions with respect to chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Interestingly, these genes were enriched in a list of differentially methylated regions in primary acute myeloid leukemia and in a gene network centered around the IFN pathway. Our results suggest that alterations in the DNA methylation landscape play an important role in the pathogenesis and leukemic transformation of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The therapeutic modulation of epigenetically-deregulated pathways may allow us to design targeted therapies for these patients.
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Prognostic score including gene mutations in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Several prognostic scoring systems have been proposed for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), a disease in which some gene mutations-including ASXL1-have been associated with poor prognosis in univariable analyses. We developed and validated a prognostic score for overall survival (OS) based on mutational status and standard clinical variables.
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Mutations in SETBP1 are recurrent in myelodysplastic syndromes and often coexist with cytogenetic markers associated with disease progression.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Whole exome sequencing was performed in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome before and after progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. Mutations in several genes, including SETBP1, were identified following leukaemic transformation. Screening of 328 patients with myeloid disorders revealed SETBP1 mutations in 14 patients (4·3%), 7 of whom had -7/del(7q) and 3 had i(17)(q10), cytogenetic markers associated with shortened overall survival and increased risk of leukaemic evolution. SETBP1 mutations were frequently acquired at the time of leukaemic evolution, coinciding with increase of leukaemic blasts. These data suggest that SETBP1 mutations may play a role in MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia disease progression.
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Establishment and validation of analytical reference panels for the standardization of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements on the international scale.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Current guidelines for managing Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia include monitoring the expression of the BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region/c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) fusion gene by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Our goal was to establish and validate reference panels to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate global standardization on the international scale (IS).
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A dedicated dermatology clinic for renal transplant recipients: first 5 years of a New Zealand experience.
N. Z. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Cancer following organ transplantation is a growing public health concern. We describe the first 5 years experience of a dedicated dermatology clinic for renal transplant recipients, the first of its type in New Zealand.
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Recurrent CEP85L-PDGFRB fusion in patient with t(5;6) and imatinib-responsive myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Fusion genes involving the catalytic domain of tyrosine kinases (TKs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies and solid tumors. In BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) several different tyrosine kinase fusion events have been described, most commonly involving the genes encoding the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) or beta (PDGFRB). Since the introduction of small molecule kinase inhibitors, TK fusions have emerged as prime therapeutic targets. Here, we report a recurrent CEP85L-PDGFRB fusion in a patient with eosinophilia and an MPN. The fusion was confirmed by specific amplification of the genomic breakpoints and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient was treated with imatinib and achieved hematologic and cytogenetic remission. Minimal residual disease screening over 3 years with nested PCR failed to detect CEP85L-PDGFRB mRNA or genomic DNA, confirming a long-term molecular remission on imatinib.
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Genetic and epigenetic complexity in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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The past 7 years have witnessed remarkable progress in our understanding of the genetics of BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and has revealed layers of unexpected complexity. Deregulation of JAK2 signaling has emerged as a central feature, but despite having biological activities that recapitulate the cardinal features MPNs in model systems, JAK2 mutations are often secondary events. Several other mutated genes have been identified with a common theme of involvement in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Remarkably, the somatic mutations identified to date do not seem to be acquired in any preferred order, and it is possible that the disease-initiating events remain to be identified. The finding of complex clonal hierarchies in many cases suggests genetic instability that, in principle, may be inherited or acquired. A common haplotype has been identified that is strongly associated with the acquisition of JAK2 mutations, but the cause of relatively high-penetrance familial predisposition to MPNs remains elusive. This review summarizes the established facts relating to the genetics of MPNs, but highlights recent findings and areas of controversy.
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Decrease in JAK2 V617F allele burden is not a prerequisite to clinical response in patients with polycythemia vera.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Although reduction in the JAK2(V617F) allele burden (%V617F) has been suggested as a criterion for defining disease response to cytoreductive therapy in polycythemia vera, its value as a response monitor is unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a reduction in %V617F in polycythemia vera is a prerequisite to achieving hematologic remission in response to cytoreductive therapy.
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Inactivation of polycomb repressive complex 2 components in myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a highly conserved histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase that regulates the expression of developmental genes. Inactivating mutations of the catalytic component of PRC2, EZH2, are seen in myeloid disorders. We reasoned that the other 2 core PRC2 components, SUZ12 and EED, may also be mutational targets in these diseases, as well as associated factors such as JARID2. SUZ12 mutations were identified in 1 of 2 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms with 17q acquired uniparental disomy and in 2 of 2 myelofibrosis cases with focal 17q11 deletions. All 3 were missense mutations affecting the highly conserved VEFS domain. Analysis of a further 146 myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm patients revealed an additional VEFS domain mutant, yielding a total mutation frequency of 1.4% (2 of 148). We did not find mutations of JARID2 or EED in association with acquired uniparental disomy for chromosome 6p or 11q, respectively; however, screening unselected cases identified missense mutations in EED (1 of 148; 1%) and JARID2 (3 of 148; 2%). All 3 SUZ12 mutations tested and the EED mutation reduced PRC2 histone methyltransferase activity in vitro, demonstrating that PRC2 function may be compromised in myeloid disorders by mutation of distinct genes.
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EZH2 mutational status predicts poor survival in myelofibrosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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We genotyped 370 subjects with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and 148 with postpolycythemia vera/postessential thrombocythemia (PPV/PET) MF for mutations of EZH2. Mutational status at diagnosis was correlated with hematologic parameters, clinical manifestations, and outcome. A total of 25 different EZH2 mutations were detected in 5.9% of PMF, 1.2% of PPV-MF, and 9.4% of PET-MF patients; most were exonic heterozygous missense changes. EZH2 mutation coexisted with JAK2V617F or ASXL1 mutation in 12 of 29 (41.4%) and 6 of 27 (22.2%) evaluated patients; TET2 and CBL mutations were found in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. EZH2-mutated PMF patients had significantly higher leukocyte counts, blast-cell counts, and larger spleens at diagnosis, and most of them (52.6%) were in the high-risk International Prognostic Score System (IPSS) category. After a median follow-up of 39 months, 128 patients (25.9%) died, 81 (63.3%) because of leukemia. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly reduced in EZH2-mutated PMF patients (P = .028 and P < .001, respectively); no such impact was seen for PPV/PET-MF patients, possibly due to the low number of mutated cases. In multivariate analysis, survival of PMF patients was predicted by IPSS high-risk category, a < 25% JAK2V617F allele burden, and EZH2 mutation status. We conclude that EZH2 mutations are independently associated with shorter survival in patients with PMF.
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Response of ETV6-FLT3-positive myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm with eosinophilia to inhibitors of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Imatinib-resistant tyrosine kinase (TK) fusions involving FGFR1, JAK2, or FLT3 are rare but recurrent in patients with eosinophilia-associated neoplasms. We report here 2 male patients with ETV6-FLT3(+) myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia who were treated with the multitargeted TK inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib. Patient 1 achieved rapid complete hematologic response and complete cytogenetic response after 3 months of taking sunitinib. A secondary blast phase caused by clonal evolution was diagnosed after 6 months. He achieved a second complete hematologic response after taking sorafenib but relapsed 2 months later. An N841K point mutation within the TK domain of FLT3, previously reported in acute myeloid leukemia and potentially conferring resistance to sorafenib, was subsequently identified. Patient 2 was heavily pretreated according to the initial diagnosis of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma and died in sunitinib-induced pancytopenia. This report highlights the importance of a careful diagnostic workup for eosinophilia-associated neoplasms to evaluate the possibility of TK inhibitor therapy.
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Renal transplant recipients have elevated frequencies of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cancer, particularly cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is a major cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play a central role in suppressing cancer immunosurveillance but their potential mobilisation in RTRs and levels relative to those of other immunoregulatory dendritic cell (DC) populations have not been analysed.
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Favorable outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome associated with BCR-FGFR1 gene fusion.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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We report the case of a child who presented with nonspecific symptoms suggestive of a rheumatologic disorder, whose bone marrow had a complex translocation involving the FGFR1 locus. Hematopathologic findings were subtle and did not definitively indicate malignancy. Because he responded poorly to initial treatment with hydroxyurea, and in light of the progressive clinical course associated with the 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome, he underwent an unrelated-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This patients atypical presentation highlights the importance of obtaining cytogenetic analysis at the time of bone marrow sampling and considering this uncommon entity in the differential diagnosis of hematologic disorders.
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BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of European LeukemiaNet.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Mutations in the Bcr-Abl kinase domain may cause, or contribute to, resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Recommendations aimed to rationalize the use of BCR-ABL mutation testing in chronic myeloid leukemia have been compiled by a panel of experts appointed by the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) and European Treatment and Outcome Study and are here reported. Based on a critical review of the literature and, whenever necessary, on panelists experience, key issues were identified and discussed concerning: (1) when to perform mutation analysis, (2) how to perform it, and (3) how to translate results into clinical practice. In chronic phase patients receiving imatinib first-line, mutation analysis is recommended only in case of failure or suboptimal response according to the ELN criteria. In imatinib-resistant patients receiving an alternative TKI, mutation analysis is recommended in case of hematologic or cytogenetic failure as provisionally defined by the ELN. The recommended methodology is direct sequencing, although it may be preceded by screening with other techniques, such as denaturing-high performance liquid chromatography. In all the cases outlined within this abstract, a positive result is an indication for therapeutic change. Some specific mutations weigh on TKI selection.
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Guidelines for the measurement of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Molecular testing for the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most sensitive routine approach for monitoring the response to therapy of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. In the context of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, the technique is most appropriate for patients who have achieved complete cytogenetic remission and can be used to define specific therapeutic milestones. To achieve this effectively, standardization of the laboratory procedures and the interpretation of results are essential. We present here consensus best practice guidelines for RT-qPCR testing, data interpretation and reporting that have been drawn up and agreed by a consortium of 21 testing laboratories in the United Kingdom and Ireland in accordance with the procedures of the UK Clinical Molecular Genetics Society.
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Aberrations of EZH2 in cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Control of gene expression is exerted at a number of different levels, one of which is the accessibility of genes and their controlling elements to the transcriptional machinery. Accessibility is dictated broadly by the degree of chromatin compaction, which is influenced in part by polycomb group proteins. EZH2, together with SUZ12 and EED, forms the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). PRC2 may recruit other polycomb complexes, DNA methyltransferases, and histone deacetylases, resulting in additional transcriptional repressive marks and chromatin compaction at key developmental loci. Overexpression of EZH2 is a marker of advanced and metastatic disease in many solid tumors, including prostate and breast cancer. Mutation of EZH2 Y641 is described in lymphoma and results in enhanced activity, whereas inactivating mutations are seen in poor prognosis myeloid neoplasms. No histone demethylating agents are currently available for treatment of patients, but 3-deazaneplanocin (DZNep) reduces EZH2 levels and H3K27 trimethylation, resulting in reduced cell proliferation in breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, synergistic effects are seen for combined treatment with DNA demethylating agents and histone deacetylation inhibitors, opening up the possibility of refined epigenetic treatments in the future.
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Identification of FOXP1 and SNX2 as novel ABL1 fusion partners in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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We have identified two novel ABL1 fusion genes in two patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) associated with a t(3;9)(p12;q34) and a t(5;9)(q23;q34), respectively. Molecular analysis revealed a FOXP1-ABL1 fusion for the t(3;9) and a SNX2-ABL1 fusion for the t(5;9). The fusions were confirmed by specific amplification of the genomic breakpoints using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The identification of ALL with rare ABL1 fusion partners is important because the leukaemia may respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the same way as ALL patients with a classical BCR-ABL1 fusion gene.
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The two faces of myeloproliferative neoplasms: Molecular events underlying lymphoid transformation.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Multipotent haematopoietic stem cells pass through stages of differentiation with the progressive loss of developmental options leading to the production of terminally differentiated mature blood cells. This process is regulated by soluble cytokines binding to a ligand specific cell surface receptor on a precursor cell. Key to signal transduction are tyrosine kinase proteins which can be divided into two sub families, the receptor protein tyrosine kinases which are transmembrane receptors and retain an intact catalytic kinase domain and the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases which bind to cytokine receptors. Abnormalities of tyrosine kinase proteins are well recognised in myeloid malignancies, mutation in the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase JAK2 (V617F) is key in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, and translocations involving ABL key in the development of chronic myeloid leukaemia. However tyrosine kinase mutations are increasingly recognised to play a role in the pathogenesis of a wider range of haematological cancers. This review focuses on the role of deregulated tyrosine kinase genes either as part of novel fusion proteins involving FGFR1, PDGFR?, PDGFR?, JAK2 and ABL, or as a consequence of point mutation in JAK1 or JAK2 in the development of precursor T and B lymphoid malignancies or mixed myeloid/lymphoid disorders. We also set out some of the postulated mechanisms which underlie the association of tyrosine kinase mutations with the development of lymphoid malignancy.
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Impact of BCR-ABL mutations on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Therapies that target BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia, including imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib, have dramatically improved patient outcome. BCR-ABL mutations, however, contribute to treatment resistance by disrupting drug contact sites or causing conformational changes thus making contact sites inaccessible. Clinical data indicate that developing BCR-ABL mutations during imatinib treatment is predictive for shorter progression-free survival, and that outcomes may depend on mutation type or location. In vitro, dasatinib and nilotinib inhibit most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations, except for T315I. In clinical studies, other mutations associated with treatment resistance include V299L, T315A, and F317I/L for dasatinib and Y253F/H, E255K/V, and F359C/V for nilotinib. Evaluating patients with clinical signs of resistance for BCR-ABL mutations is an important component of disease monitoring, potentially facilitating selection of subsequent therapy. First-line treatment with dasatinib or nilotinib instead of imatinib may reduce emergence of resistance but novel agents are needed to overcome the problematic T315I mutation.
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Novel imatinib-sensitive PDGFRA-activating point mutations in hypereosinophilic syndrome induce growth factor independence and leukemia-like disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion is seen in a fraction of cases with a presumptive diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). However, because most HES patients lack FIP1L1-PDGFRA, we studied whether they harbor activating mutations of the PDGFRA gene. Sequencing of 87 FIP1L1-PDGFRA-negative HES patients revealed several novel PDGFRA point mutations (R481G, L507P, I562M, H570R, H650Q, N659S, L705P, R748G, and Y849S). When cloned into 32D cells, N659S and Y849S and-on selection for high expressors-also H650Q and R748G mutants induced growth factor-independent proliferation, clonogenic growth, and constitutive phosphorylation of PDGFRA and Stat5. Imatinib antagonized Stat5 phosphorylation. Mutations involving positions 659 and 849 had been shown previously to possess transforming potential in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Because H650Q and R748G mutants possessed only weak transforming activity, we injected 32D cells harboring these mutants or FIP1L1-PDGFRA into mice and found that they induced a leukemia-like disease. Oral imatinib treatment significantly decreased leukemic growth in vivo and prolonged survival. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that imatinib-sensitive PDGFRA point mutations play an important role in the pathogenesis of HES and we propose that more research should be performed to further define the frequency and treatment response of PDGFRA mutations in FIP1L1-PDGFRA-negative HES patients.
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Establishment of the first World Health Organization International Genetic Reference Panel for quantitation of BCR-ABL mRNA.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Serial quantitation of BCR-ABL mRNA levels is an important indicator of therapeutic response for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but there is substantial variation in the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodologies used by different testing laboratories. To help improve the comparability of results between centers we sought to develop accredited reference reagents that are directly linked to the BCR-ABL international scale. After assessment of candidate cell lines, a reference material panel comprising 4 different dilution levels of freeze-dried preparations of K562 cells diluted in HL60 cells was prepared. After performance evaluation, the materials were assigned fixed percent BCR-ABL/control gene values according to the International Scale. A recommendation that the 4 materials be established as the first World Health Organization International Genetic Reference Panel for quantitation of BCR-ABL translocation by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was approved by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization in November 2009. We consider that the development of these reagents is a significant milestone in the standardization of this clinically important test, but because they are a limited resource we suggest that their availability is restricted to manufacturers of secondary reference materials.
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In search of the original leukemic clone in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in complete molecular remission after stem cell transplantation or imatinib.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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It is not clear if absence of BCR-ABL transcripts--complete molecular response (CMR)--is synonymous with, or required for, cure of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Some patients achieve CMR with imatinib (IM), but most relapse shortly after treatment discontinuation. Furthermore, most patients in long-term remission (LTR) post-stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered functionally cured, although some remain occasionally positive for low-level BCR-ABL mRNA. Interpretation of the latter is complicated because it has been observed in healthy subjects. We designed a patient-specific, highly sensitive, DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction to test follow-up samples for the original leukemic clone, identified by its unique genomic BCR-ABL fusion (gBCR-ABL). In 5 IM-treated patients in CMR, gBCR-ABL was detected in transcript-negative samples; 4 patients became gBCR-ABL-negative with continuing IM therapy. In contrast, of 9 patients in LTR (13-27 years) post-SCT, gBCR-ABL was detected in only 1, despite occasional transcript-positive samples in 8 of them. In conclusion, in IM-treated patients, absence of transcripts should not be interpreted as absence of the leukemic clone, although continuing IM after achievement of CMR may lead to further reduction of residual disease. Post-SCT, we found little evidence that the transcripts occasionally detected originate from the leukemic clone.
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Transcription factor mutations in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Aberrant activation of tyrosine kinases, caused by either mutation or gene fusion, is of major importance for the development of many hematologic malignancies, particularly myeloproliferative neoplasms. We hypothesized that hitherto unrecognized, cytogenetically cryptic tyrosine kinase fusions may be common in non-classical or atypical myeloproliferative neoplasms and related myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.
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The t(14;20) is a poor prognostic factor in myeloma but is associated with long-term stable disease in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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A large series of plasma cell dyscrasias (n=2207) was examined for translocations which deregulate the MAF genes, t(14;20)(q32;q12) and t(14;16)(q32;q23), and their disease behavior was compared to a group characterized by the t(4;14)(p16;q32) where CCND2 is also up-regulated. The t(14;20) showed low prevalence in myeloma (27/1830, 1.5%) and smoldering myeloma (1/148, <1%) with a higher incidence in MGUS (9/193, 5% P=0.005). Strong associations with del(13) (76%), non-hyperdiploidy (83%) and gain of 1q (58%) were seen but no association with an IgA M-protein or absence of bone disease was noted. All three translocations were associated with poor outcome in myeloma, but strikingly all t(14;20) MGUS/smoldering myeloma cases (n=10) had stable, low level disease. In contrast, the 10 t(14;16) and 25 t(4;14) MGUS/smoldering myeloma cases were associated with both evolving and non-evolving disease. None of the associated genetic abnormalities helped to predict for progression from MGUS or smoldering myeloma.
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JAK2(V617F) allele burden in polycythemia vera correlates with grade of myelofibrosis, but is not substantially affected by therapy.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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In a series of 105 patients with polycythemia vera, we retrospectively determined whether the JAK2(V617F) mutation correlated with severity of disease phenotype. Higher JAK2(V617F) allele burden correlated with more advanced myelofibrosis, greater splenomegaly, and higher white blood cell count, but not with age, gender, hematocrit level, or frequency of phlebotomy prior to cytoreductive therapy. Although a subgroup at increased risk for thrombosis was not clearly defined, there was a suggestion that frequency of thrombosis increased as the JAK2(V617F) allele burden increased. The JAK2(V617F) allele burden did not change significantly in treated patients with serial JAK2 analyses.
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How to get the most from the medical literature: searching the medical literature effectively.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Different clinical questions are best answered using different study designs. This paper describes the best methods for finding relevant studies for well-framed clinical questions. We focus on which database is best to search to answer your question, describe the structure of effective search strategies and explore ways to develop appropriate search terms. We illustrate these with sensitive and specific search strategies to answer different clinical questions arising from a hypothetical clinical scenario typical of a nephrologists everyday practice.
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Asking the right question and finding the right answers.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Clinical consultations generate questions that can be informed by published (and unpublished) evidence. This is the basis for evidence-based practice. Finding answers involves searching available electronic databases. We describe a method for rephrasing or framing clinical questions into population, intervention, comparator and outcome terms that helps to determine the best type of study to search for, and aids in the design of search strategies.
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The JAK2 46/1 haplotype predisposes to MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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The 46/1 JAK2 haplotype predisposes to V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the underlying mechanism is obscure. We analyzed essential thrombocythemia patients entered into the PT-1 studies and, as expected, found that 46/1 was overrepresented in V617F-positive cases (n = 404) versus controls (n = 1492, P = 3.9 x 10(-11)). The 46/1 haplotype was also overrepresented in cases without V617F (n = 347, P = .009), with an excess seen for both MPL exon 10 mutated and V617F, MPL exon 10 nonmutated cases. Analysis of further MPL-positive, V617F-negative cases confirmed an excess of 46/1 (n = 176, P = .002), but no association between MPL mutations and MPL haplotype was seen. An excess of 46/1 was also seen in JAK2 exon 12 mutated cases (n = 69, P = .002), and these mutations preferentially arose on the 46/1 chromosome (P = .029). No association between 46/1 and clinical or laboratory features was seen in the PT-1 cohort either with or without V617F. The excess of 46/1 in JAK2 exon 12 cases is compatible with both the "hypermutability" and "fertile ground" hypotheses, but the excess in MPL-mutated cases argues against the former. No difference in sequence, splicing, or expression of JAK2 was found on 46/1 compared with other haplotypes, suggesting that any functional difference of JAK2 on 46/1, if it exists, must be relatively subtle.
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Interlaboratory diagnostic validation of conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis for mutation scanning.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Indirect alternatives to sequencing as a method for mutation scanning are of interest to diagnostic laboratories because they have the potential for considerable savings in both time and costs. Ideally, such methods should be simple, rapid, and highly sensitive, and they should be validated formally to a very high standard. Currently, most reported methods lack one or more of these characteristics. We describe the optimization and validation of conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis (CSCE) for diagnostic mutation scanning.
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Atypical mRNA fusions in PML-RARA positive, RARA-PML negative acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Reciprocal RARA-PML transcripts are not detected in approximately 25% of patients with PML-RARA positive acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but the reasons for this are poorly understood. We studied 21 PML-RARA positive/RARA-PML negative cases by bubble PCR and multiplex long template PCR to identify the genomic breakpoints. Additional RT-PCR analysis was performed based on the DNA findings. Three cases were found to have complex rearrangements involving a third locus: the first had a PML-CDC6-RARA forward DNA fusion and expressed a chimeric PML-CDC6-RARA mRNA in addition to a PML-RARA. The other two had HERC1-PML and NT_009714.17-PML genomic fusion sequences at their respective reciprocal breakpoints. Six patients were falsely classified as RARA-PML negative due to deletions on chromosome 15 and/or 17, or alternative splicing leading to atypical RARA-PML fusion transcripts, which were not identified by conventional RT-PCR assays. This study demonstrates that the frequency of RARA-PML expression has been underestimated and highlights remarkable complexity at chromosomal breakpoint regions in APL even in cases with an apparently simple balanced t(15;17)(q24;q12).
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Screening for diverse PDGFRA or PDGFRB fusion genes is facilitated by generic quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Rapid identification of diverse fusion genes with involvement of PDGFRA or PDGFRB in eosinophilia-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms is essential for adequate clinical management but is complicated by the multitude and heterogeneity of partner genes and breakpoints.
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Fusion of PDGFRB to two distinct loci at 3p21 and a third at 12q13 in imatinib-responsive myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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We identified four patients who presented with BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and cytogenetically visible abnormalities of chromosome band 5q31-35. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta gene (PDGFRB) was disrupted in all four cases and 5 rapid amplification of cDNA ends identified in-frame mRNA fusions between PDGFRB and WDR48 (3p21), GOLGA4 (3p21) and BIN2 (12q13). Strikingly, all three genes encode proteins involving intracellular trafficking. Imatinib, a known inhibitor of PDGFRbeta, selectively blocked the growth of t(3;5) myeloid colonies and produced clinically significant responses in all patients. We conclude that PDGFRB fuses to diverse partner genes in atypical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although very rare, identification of these fusions is critical for proper management of affected individuals.
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Inactivating mutations of the histone methyltransferase gene EZH2 in myeloid disorders.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Abnormalities of chromosome 7q are common in myeloid malignancies, but no specific target genes have yet been identified. Here, we describe the finding of homozygous EZH2 mutations in 9 of 12 individuals with 7q acquired uniparental disomy. Screening of a total of 614 individuals with myeloid disorders revealed 49 monoallelic or biallelic EZH2 mutations in 42 individuals; the mutations were found most commonly in those with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (27 out of 219 individuals, or 12%) and in those with myelofibrosis (4 out of 30 individuals, or 13%). EZH2 encodes the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), a highly conserved histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase that influences stem cell renewal by epigenetic repression of genes involved in cell fate decisions. EZH2 has oncogenic activity, and its overexpression has previously been causally linked to differentiation blocks in epithelial tumors. Notably, the mutations we identified resulted in premature chain termination or direct abrogation of histone methyltransferase activity, suggesting that EZH2 acts as a tumor suppressor for myeloid malignancies.
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A polymorphism associated with STAT3 expression and response of chronic myeloid leukemia to interferon ?.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Interferon alpha (IFN) induces variable responses in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), with 8-30% of early chronic phase cases achieving a complete cytogenetic response. We hypothesized that polymorphic differences in genes encoding IFN signal transduction components might account for different patient responses. We studied 174 IFN-treated patients, of whom 79 achieved less than 35% Philadelphia-chromosome (Ph) positive metaphases (responders) and 95 failed to show any cytogenetic response (more than 95% Ph-positive metaphases; non-responders). We compared 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at IFNAR1, IFNAR2, JAK1, TYK2, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5a/b between the two groups and found a significant difference for rs6503691, a SNP tightly linked to STAT5a, STAT5b and STAT3 (minor allele frequency 0.16 for non-responders; 0.06 for responders, P=0.007). Levels of STAT3 mRNA correlated with rs6503691 genotype (P<0.001) as assessed by real time quantitative PCR and therefore we conclude that rs6503691 is associated with the STAT3 expression levels and response of CML patients to IFN.
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Timing of acquisition of deletion 13 in plasma cell dyscrasias is dependent on genetic context.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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Multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma harbor common chromosomal abnormalities but the prevalence and relative association of aberrations in these diagnostic groups remains controversial. We investigated these aspects in a large series of patients.
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Standardisation of molecular monitoring for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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Molecular monitoring of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients by real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RQ-PCR) is of clinical value, but the use of diverse laboratory protocols and units of measurement make it difficult to compare results between and sometimes within centres. This review explores the intrinsic difficulties in standardising the RQ-PCR analysis, summarises the progress that has been made following the proposal for a new International Scale for BCR-ABL measurement and discusses how further improvements are likely to be made.
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TFG, a target of chromosome translocations in lymphoma and soft tissue tumors, fuses to GPR128 in healthy individuals.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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The formation of fusion genes plays roles in both oncogenesis and evolution by facilitating the acquisition of novel functions. Here we describe the first example of a human polymorphic in-frame fusion of two unrelated genes associated with a copy number variant.
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Identification of a MYO18A-PDGFRB fusion gene in an eosinophilia-associated atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm with a t(5;17)(q33-34;q11.2).
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Chromosomal aberrations of 5q31-33 associated with rearrangements of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) gene are rare but recurrent in patients with eosinophilia-associated atypical myeloproliferative neoplasms (Eos-MPNs). We used a DNA-based "long-distance inverse PCR" (LDI-PCR) to identify a new MYO18A-PDGFRB fusion gene in an Eos-MPN with associated t(5;17)(q33-34;q11.2). MYO18A is the fourth partner gene after BCR, ETV6 and SPTBN1 that fuses to more than one tyrosine kinase gene. Treatment with imatinib (400 mg/day) led to rapid and sustained complete hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular remission. Patients with PDGFRB fusions genes are excellent candidates for treatment with imatinib; complete cytogenetic and even molecular remissions are common while primary or secondary resistance seems to be very rare.
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Antihypertensive treatment for kidney transplant recipients.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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In some nontransplant populations, effects of different antihypertensive drug classes vary. Relative effects in kidney transplant recipients are uncertain.
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Antihypertensives for kidney transplant recipients: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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In nontransplant populations, effects of different antihypertensive drug classes vary. Relative effects in kidney transplant recipients are uncertain. We performed a systematic review including random effects meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, using Cochrane Collaboration methodology. We identified 60 trials, enrolling 3802 recipients. Twenty-nine trials (2262 patients) compared calcium channel blockers (CCB) with placebo or no treatment, 10 trials (445 patients) compared angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) with placebo or no treatment, and seven studies (405 patients) compared CCB with ACEi. CCB compared with placebo or no treatment (plus additional agents in either arm as required) reduced graft loss (risk ratio [RR] 0.75, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.99) and improved glomerular filtration rate (GFR; mean difference [MD] 4.5 mL/min, 95% CI 2.2-6.7). Data on ACEi versus placebo or no treatment were inconclusive for GFR (MD -8.1 mL/min, 95% CI -18.6-2.4) and inconsistent for graft loss, precluding meta-analysis. In direct comparison with CCB, ACEi decreased GFR (MD 11.5 mL/min, 95% CI 7.2-15.8), proteinuria (MD 0.28 g/day, 95% CI 0.10-0.47), hemoglobin (MD 11.5 g/L, 95% CI 7.2-15.8), and increased hyperkalemia (RR 3.7, 95% CI 1.9-7.7). Graft loss data were inconclusive (RR 7.4, 95% CI 0.4-140). These data suggest that CCB may be preferred as first-line agents for hypertensive kidney transplant recipients.
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Loss of 1p and rearrangement of MYC are associated with progression of smouldering myeloma to myeloma: sequential analysis of a single case.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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We report serial genetic studies on a young female patient initially diagnosed with asymptomatic smouldering myeloma who progressed to symptomatic myeloma 4.5 years after presentation. An unbalanced translocation, der(14)t(4;14)(p16;q32), was initially found in all plasma cells plus deletions of other chromosomal regions as detected by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Deletion of chromosome 13 was observed in a minor population of plasma cells (<20%) for the first two years, increasing to 100% of plasma cells by the time of multiple myeloma diagnosis. Loss of 1p and a rearrangement of MYC were first observed in a small population of plasma cells one year prior to the clinical diagnosis of multiple myeloma, but these subclones increased rapidly in size to become the major population suggesting that they were directly involved in the transformation process. This case report provides a unique insight into the mechanisms of disease progression from smouldering multiple myeloma to multiple myeloma.
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Diagnostic accuracy of blood qualitative nucleic acid testing for polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in kidney recipients.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) is an important cause of graft loss following kidney transplantation and may only be diagnosed with kidney transplant biopsy. Early detection may improve outcomes by enabling early intervention. Serum polyomavirus polymerase chain reaction (PVPCR) has been used to identify patients at risk of PVAN, but prior studies have not assessed all patients with negative PVPCR with transplant biopsy, potentially overestimating test performance.
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Frequent upregulation of MYC in plasma cell leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare form of monoclonal gammopathy, which can originate de novo or evolve from multiple myeloma (MM) as a terminal leukemic phase. Previous cytogenetic studies of PCL have reported the presence of complex karyotypes with involvement of multiple unidentified chromosomal regions. We report here the analysis of 12 PCL (10 primary and two secondary) by metaphase and FISH analysis combined with oligonucleotide array data (244 k, Agilent). Interphase-FISH results were compared with those from a series of 861 newly diagnosed patients with MM. Cytogenetic analysis was successful on 11 patients, all of whom showed clonal chromosomal abnormalities. Compared with MM, t(11;14)(q13;q32) (42% versus 15%; P = 0.027) and t(14;16)(q32;q23) (25% versus 4%; P = 0.010) were more frequent in PCL, although neither the specific partner chromosome involved in the IgH translocation nor the ploidy status predicted for survival. Chromosomes 1, 8, 13, and 16 showed the highest number of copy number alterations with 8q24 being the chromosomal region most frequently involved. In eight of 12 patients we found abnormalities (translocations, one amplification, small deletions, and duplications) that directly targeted or were very close to MYC. Only four of these changes were detected by routine FISH analysis using commercial probes with the others exclusively detected by arrays. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that these different abnormalities were associated with increased levels of MYC mRNA. We conclude that MYC dysregulation by complex mechanisms is one of the major molecular events in the oncogenesis of PCL.
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Frequent CBL mutations associated with 11q acquired uniparental disomy in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Recent evidence has demonstrated that acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a novel mechanism by which pathogenetic mutations in cancer may be reduced to homozygosity. To help identify novel mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), we performed a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screen to identify aUPD in 58 patients with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML; n = 30), JAK2 mutation-negative myelofibrosis (MF; n = 18), or JAK2 mutation-negative polycythemia vera (PV; n = 10). Stretches of homozygous, copy neutral SNP calls greater than 20Mb were seen in 10 (33%) aCML and 1 (6%) MF, but were absent in PV. In total, 7 different chromosomes were involved with 7q and 11q each affected in 10% of aCML cases. CBL mutations were identified in all 3 cases with 11q aUPD and analysis of 574 additional MPNs revealed a total of 27 CBL variants in 26 patients with aCML, myelofibrosis or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Most variants were missense substitutions in the RING or linker domains that abrogated CBL ubiquitin ligase activity and conferred a proliferative advantage to 32D cells overexpressing FLT3. We conclude that acquired, transforming CBL mutations are a novel and widespread pathogenetic abnormality in morphologically related, clinically aggressive MPNs.
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JAK2 haplotype is a major risk factor for the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of related conditions characterized by the overproduction of cells from one or more myeloid lineages. More than 95% of cases of polycythemia vera, and roughly half of essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis acquire a unique somatic 1849G>T JAK2 mutation (encoding V617F) that is believed to be a critical driver of excess proliferation. We report here that JAK2(V617F)-associated disease is strongly associated with a specific constitutional JAK2 haplotype, designated 46/1, in all three disease entities compared to healthy controls (polycythemia vera, n = 192, P = 2.9 x 10(-16); essential thrombocythemia, n = 78, P = 8.2 x 10(-9) and myelofibrosis, n = 41, P = 8.0 x 10(-5)). Furthermore, JAK2(V617F) specifically arises on the 46/1 allele in most cases. The 46/1 JAK2 haplotype thus predisposes to the development of JAK2(V617F)-associated MPNs (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 3.1-4.3) and provides a model whereby a constitutional genetic factor is associated with an increased risk of acquiring a specific somatic mutation.
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Clonal diversity in the myeloproliferative neoplasms: independent origins of genetically distinct clones.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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This study looked for clonal diversity in patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with more than one acquired genetic lesion. A tyrosine kinase mutation and a cytogenetic lesion were present in the same clone in six of seven patients. By contrast, the genetic lesions were present in separate clones in all six patients with two tyrosine kinase pathway mutations. Moreover, in two patients the clones were genetically unrelated by X-chromosome inactivation studies. These data demonstrated clonal diversity in a subset of patients with early stage haematopoietic malignancy and showed, for the first time, that such clones may arise independently.
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Recurrent SETBP1 mutations in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
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Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) shares clinical and laboratory features with CML, but it lacks the BCR-ABL1 fusion. We performed exome sequencing of eight aCMLs and identified somatic alterations of SETBP1 (encoding a p.Gly870Ser alteration) in two cases. Targeted resequencing of 70 aCMLs, 574 diverse hematological malignancies and 344 cancer cell lines identified SETBP1 mutations in 24 cases, including 17 of 70 aCMLs (24.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 16-35%). Most mutations (92%) were located between codons 858 and 871 and were identical to changes seen in individuals with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Individuals with mutations had higher white blood cell counts (P = 0.008) and worse prognosis (P = 0.01). The p.Gly870Ser alteration abrogated a site for ubiquitination, and cells exogenously expressing this mutant exhibited higher amounts of SETBP1 and SET protein, lower PP2A activity and higher proliferation rates relative to those expressing the wild-type protein. In summary, mutated SETBP1 represents a newly discovered oncogene present in aCML and closely related diseases.
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The clinical significance of NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations in the UK LRF CLL4 trial.
Blood
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NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations have been previously reported to have prognostic significance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia but to date they have not been validated in a prospective, controlled clinical trial. We have assessed the impact of these mutations in a cohort of 494 patients treated within the randomized phase 3 United Kingdom Leukaemia Research Fund Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 4 (UK LRF CCL4) trial that compared chlorambucil and fludarabine with and without cyclophosphamide in previously untreated patients. We investigated the relationship of mutations in NOTCH1 (exon 34) and SF3B1 (exon 14-16) to treatment response, survival and a panel of established biologic variables. NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations were found in 10% and17% of patients, respectively. NOTCH1 mutations correlated with unmutated IGHV genes, trisomy 12, high CD38/ ZAP-70 expression and were associated with reduced overall (median 54.8 vs 74.6 months, P = .02) and progression-free (median 22.0 vs 26.4 months, P = .02) survival. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with high CD38 expression and with shorter overall survival (median 54.3 vs 79.0 months, P < .001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis, including baseline clinical variables, treatment, and adverse prognostic factors demonstrated that although TP53 alterations remained the most informative marker of dismal survival in this cohort, NOTCH1 (HR 1.58, P = .03) and SF3B1 (HR 1.52, P = .01) mutations have added independent prognostic value.
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Molecular similarity between myelodysplastic form of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts.
Haematologica
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Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is similar to but a separate entity from both myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes, and shows either myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic features. We ask whether this distinction may have a molecular basis. We established the gene expression profiles of 39 samples of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (including 12 CD34-positive) and 32 CD34-positive samples of myelodysplastic syndromes by using Affymetrix microarrays, and studied the status of 18 genes by Sanger sequencing and array-comparative genomic hybridization in 53 samples. Analysis of 12 mRNAS from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia established a gene expression signature of 122 probe sets differentially expressed between proliferative and dysplastic cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. As compared to proliferative cases, dysplastic cases over-expressed genes involved in red blood cell biology. When applied to 32 myelodysplastic syndromes, this gene expression signature was able to discriminate refractory anemias with ring sideroblasts from refractory anemias with excess of blasts. By comparing mRNAS from these two forms of myelodysplastic syndromes we derived a second gene expression signature. This signature separated the myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative forms of chronic myelomonocytic leukemias. These results were validated using two independent gene expression data sets. We found that myelodysplastic chronic myelomonocytic leukemias are characterized by mutations in transcription/epigenetic regulators (ASXL1, RUNX1, TET2) and splicing genes (SRSF2) and the absence of mutations in signaling genes. Myelodysplastic chronic myelomonocytic leukemias and refractory anemias with ring sideroblasts share a common expression program suggesting they are part of a continuum, which is not totally explained by their similar but not, however, identical mutation spectrum.
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Molecular diagnosis of the myeloproliferative neoplasms: UK guidelines for the detection of JAK2 V617F and other relevant mutations.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Molecular genetic assays for the detection of the JAK2 V617F (c.1849G>T) and other pathogenetic mutations within JAK2 exon 12 and MPL exon 10 are part of the routine diagnostic workup for patients presenting with erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis or otherwise suspected to have a myeloproliferative neoplasm. A wide choice of techniques are available for the detection of these mutations, leading to potential difficulties for clinical laboratories in deciding upon the most appropriate assay, which can lead to problems with inter-laboratory standardization. Here, we discuss the most important issues for a clinical diagnostic laboratory in choosing a technique, particularly for detection of the JAK2 V617F mutation at diagnosis. The JAK2 V617F detection assay should be both specific and sensitive enough to detect a mutant allele burden as low as 1-3%. Indeed, the use of sensitive assays increases the detection rate of the JAK2 V617F mutation within myeloproliferative neoplasms. Given their diagnostic relevance, it is also beneficial and relatively straightforward to screen JAK2 V617F negative patients for JAK2 exon 12 mutations (in the case of erythrocytosis) or MPL exon 10 mutations (thrombocytosis or myelofibrosis) using appropriate assays. Molecular results should be considered in the context of clinical findings and other haematological or laboratory results.
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Effect of activated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes on T lymphocyte proliferation and viability.
Immunology
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Human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) are thought to be immunosuppressive. The suppressive mechanism(s) used by PMN are, however, not well defined and in this study they were analysed using T-cell responses to CD3(+) CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as a readout. We demonstrate that in vitro activated PMN (PMN(act)) can, without any T-cell interaction, induce apparent T-cell suppression by inhibiting the stimulatory capacity of the CD3 mAb. However, a cell-directed suppression of T-cell proliferation was observed when PMN(act) were added to pre-activated T cells that are already committed to polyclonal proliferation. This suppression was partially reversed by catalase addition (P < 0·01) and largely reversed by addition of exogenous interleukin-2 (P < 0·001) but was not significantly reduced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition, myeloperoxidase inhibition or addition of excess arginine. Following removal of PMN(act) , suppressed T cells could respond normally to further stimulation. In addition to suppressing proliferation, co-culture with PMN(act) also induced a significant decrease in T-cell viability that was reversed by catalase addition (P < 0·05). The addition of the arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine induced both a further significant, catalase-sensitive, loss in T-cell viability and increased nitrite release (P < 0·001). These data demonstrate that PMN, when activated, can both induce T-cell death and reversibly inhibit proliferation of activated T cells. The mechanisms underlying these distinct processes and the effects of arginase inhibitors on PMN induced cytotoxicity merit further investigation.
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Activating CBL mutations are associated with a distinct MDS/MPN phenotype.
Ann. Hematol.
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Activating point mutations in CBL have recently been identified in diverse subtypes of myeloid neoplasms. Because detailed clinical and hematological characteristics of CBL-mutated cases is lacking, we screened 156 BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F negative patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and overlap syndromes between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MPN (MPS/MPN) for mutations in exons 8 and 9 of CBL by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. CBL mutations were identified in 16/156 patients (10%), of which five also carried mutations in EZH2 (n?=?3) and TET2 (n?=?2). Comprehensive clinical and hematological characteristics were available from 13/16 patients (81%). In addition to splenomegaly (77%), striking common hematological features were CML-like left-shifted leukocytosis (85%) with monocytosis (85%), anemia (100%), and thrombocytopenia (62%). Thrombocytosis was not observed in any patient. Relevant bone marrow features (n?=?12) included hypercellularity (92%) with marked granulopoiesis (92%), nonclustered microlobulated megakaryocytes (83%), and marrow fibrosis (83%). Nine deaths (progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia/blast phase, n?=?7; cytopenia complications, n?=?2) were recorded. Three-year survival rate was 27%, possibly indicating poor prognosis of CBL mutated MDS/MPN patients.
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Acquired uniparental disomy in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
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The finding of somatically acquired uniparental disomy, where both copies of a chromosome pair or parts of chromosomes have originated from one parent, has led to the discovery of several novel mutated genes in myeloproliferative neoplasms and related disorders. This article examines how the development of single nucleotide polymorphism array technology has facilitated the identification of regions of acquired uniparental disomy and has led to a much greater understanding of the molecular pathology of these heterogeneous diseases.
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Ruxolitinib as potential targeted therapy for patients with JAK2 rearrangements.
Haematologica
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JAK2 fusion genes are rare but recurrent abnormalities associated with diverse, clinically heterogeneous hematologic malignancies. Here we assess the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib as therapy for patients with JAK2-rearrangement associated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Ruxolitinib-treated Ba/F3 cells transformed to IL3 independence by ETV6-JAK2 showed reduced proliferation and survival (IC(50) = 370 nM) compared with KG1A or Ba/F3 cells transformed by BCR-ABL1, SPBN1-FLT3 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 (IC(50) > 10 ?M for all). Inhibition was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ETV6-JAK2, ERK, STAT5 and AKT. Primary cell growth from 2 patients with JAK2 rearrangement and one patient with JAK2 amplification was assessed in methylcellulose assays. Reduced colony growth was seen for all patients in ruxolitinib-treated cultures compared with healthy controls (n=7). Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed reduced growth of JAK2-rearrangement positive colonies compared to JAK2-rearrangement negative colonies. Our data, therefore, provide evidence that ruxolitinib is a promising therapy for treatment of patients with JAK2 fusion genes.
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Ponatinib as targeted therapy for FGFR1 fusions associated with the 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome.
Haematologica
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The 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is a rare, aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by constitutively active FGFR1 fusion proteins that arise from specific chromosomal translocations and which drive aberrant proliferation. Although FGFR1 inhibitors have shown in vitro activity against FGFR1 fusions, none are in use clinically and there is a need to assess additional compounds as potential therapy. Here we use cell lines and primary cells to investigate ponatinib (AP24534). Ponatinib-treated Ba/F3 cells transformed by ZMYM2-FGFR1 and BCR-FGFR1 and the FGFR1OP2-FGFR1 positive KG1A cell line showed reduced proliferation and decreased survival when compared to control cells. Inhibition induced apoptosis and reduced phosphorylation of the FGFR1 fusion proteins and substrates. Ponatinib-treated cells from 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome patients (n=5) showed reduced colony growth compared to controls. In one evaluable patient, ponatinib specifically reduced numbers of FGFR1-fusion gene positive colonies. Ponatinib, therefore, shows considerable promise for the treatment of patients with 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome.
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The experiences of commercial kidney donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative research.
Transpl. Int.
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Commercial transplantation has expanded because of the shortage of kidneys for transplantation. This study aims to synthesize qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of living commercial kidney donors. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases to April 2011 and consulted experts to identify unpublished studies. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. Seven studies involving over 676 commercial kidney donors were included. Three major themes were identified: desperation (the participants decision to sell their kidney was forced by poverty, debt, or to fulfill a family obligation); despair (destroyed body integrity, shame and secrecy, dehumanized and dispirited, loss of livelihood, heightened sense of vulnerability, disappointment, and regret); and debasement (deception by brokers and recipients, victimized by the hospital, stigmatized by community, and rejected by family). Commercial kidney transplantation is reported to result in ramifications for the donors mental, physical, and social well-being. Not only do they remain in poverty, they lose dignity, sense of purpose, respect, relationships, and livelihood. Review of this published literature supports the need for effective implementation of the WHO guiding principles and legislated regulation to deter potential recipients and healthcare providers from pursuing commercial transplantation.
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Fast-mode duplex qPCR for BCR-ABL1 molecular monitoring: innovation, automation, and harmonization.
Am. J. Hematol.
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Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR)is currently the most sensitive tool available for the routine monitoring of disease level in patients undergoing treatment for BCRABL1 associated malignancies. Considerable effort has been invested at both the local and international levels to standardise the methodology and reporting criteria used to assess this critical metric. In an effort to accommodate the demands of increasing sample throughput and greater standardization, we adapted the current best-practice guidelines to encompass automation platforms and improved multiplex RT-qPCR technology.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.