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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sulforaphane prevents the development of cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetic mice probably by reversing oxidative stress-induced inhibition of LKB1/AMPK pathway.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, and remodeling. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally presenting in widely consumed vegetables, particularly broccoli, plays an important role in cardiac protection from diabetes. We investigated the effect of SFN on T2DM-induced cardiac lipid accumulation and subsequent cardiomyopathy. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 3months to induce insulin resistance, followed by a treatment with 100mg/kg body-weight streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia; we referred to it as the T2DM mouse model. Other age-matched mice were fed a normal diet as control. T2DM and control mice were treated with or without 4-month SFN at 0.5mg/kg daily five days a week. At the study's end, cardiac function was assessed. SFN treatment significantly attenuated cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by T2DM. SFN treatment also significantly inhibited cardiac lipid accumulation, measured by Oil Red O staining, and improved cardiac inflammation oxidative stress and fibrosis, shown by down-regulating diabetes-induced PAI-1, TNF-?, CTGF, TGF-?, 3-NT, and 4-HNE expression. Elevated 4-HNE resulted in the increase of 4-HNE-LKB1 adducts that should inhibit LKB1 and subsequent AMPK activity. SFN upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes, NQO1 and HO-1, decreased 4-HNE-LKB1 adducts and then reversed diabetes-induced inhibition of LKB1/AMPK and its downstream targets, including sirtuin 1, PGC-1?, phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, ULK1, and light chain-3 II. These results suggest that SFN treatment to T2DM mice may attenuate the cardiac oxidative stress-induced inhibition of LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway, thereby preventing T2DM-induced lipotoxicity and cardiomyopathy.
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Zinc rescue of Akt2 gene deletion-linked murine cardiac dysfunction and pathological changes is metallothionein-dependent.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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We have demonstrated that zinc supplementation provides cardiac protection from diabetes in mice, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Since zinc mimics the function of insulin, it may provide benefit to the heart via stimulating Akt-mediated glucose metabolism. Akt2 plays an important role in cardiac glucose metabolism and mice with Akt2 gene deletion (Akt2-KO) exhibit a type 2 diabetes phenotype; therefore, we assumed that no cardiac protection by zinc supplementation from diabetes would be observed in Akt2-KO mice. Surprisingly, despite Akt2 gene deletion, zinc supplementation provided protection against cardiac dysfunction and other pathological changes in Akt2-KO mice, which were accompanied by significant decreases in Akt and GSK-3? phosphorylation. Correspondingly, glycogen synthase phosphorylation and hexokinase II and PGC-1? expression, all involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, were significantly altered in diabetic hearts, along with a significantly increased expression of Akt negative regulators: PTEN, PTP1B, and TRB3. All these molecular, pathological, and functional changes were significantly prevented by 3-month zinc supplementation. Furthermore, the stimulation of Akt-mediated glucose metabolic kinases or enzymes by zinc treatment was metallothionein-dependent since it could not be observed in metallothionein-knockout mice. These results suggest that zinc preserves cardiac function and structure in Akt2-KO mice presumably due to its insulin mimetic effect on cardiac glucose-metabolism. The cardioprotective effects of zinc are metallothionein-dependent. This is very important since zinc supplementation may be required for patients with Akt2 gene deficiency or insulin resistance.
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The preBötzinger complex as a hub for network activity along the ventral respiratory column in the neonate rat.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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In vertebrates, respiratory control is ascribed to heterogeneous respiration-modulated neurons along the Ventral Respiratory Column (VRC) in medulla, which includes the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the putative respiratory rhythm generator. Here, the functional anatomy of the VRC was characterized via optical recordings in the sagittaly sectioned neonate rat hindbrain, at sampling rates permitting coupling estimation between neuron pairs, so that each neuron was described using unitary, neuron-system, and coupling attributes. Structured coupling relations in local networks, significantly oriented coupling in the peri-inspiratory interval detected in pooled data, and significant correlations between firing rate and expiratory duration in subsets of neurons revealed network regulation at multiple timescales. Spatially averaged neuronal attributes, including coupling vectors, revealed a sharp boundary at the rostral margin of the preBötC, as well as other functional anatomical features congruent with identified structures, including the parafacial respiratory group and the nucleus ambiguus. Cluster analysis of attributes identified two spatially compact, homogenous groups: the first overlapped with the preBötC, and was characterized by strong respiratory modulation and dense bidirectional coupling with itself and other groups, consistent with a central role for the preBötC in respiratory control; the second lay between preBötC and the facial nucleus, and was characterized by weak respiratory modulation and weak coupling with other respiratory neurons, which is congruent with cardiovascular regulatory networks that are found in this region. Other groups identified using cluster analysis suggested that networks along VRC regulated expiratory duration, and the transition to and from inspiration, but these groups were heterogeneous and anatomically dispersed. Thus, by recording local networks in parallel, this study found evidence for respiratory regulation at multiple timescales along the VRC, as well as a role for the preBötC in the integration of functionally disparate respiratory neurons.
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Ceftriaxone preserves glutamate transporters and prevents intermittent hypoxia-induced vulnerability to brain excitotoxic injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hypoxia alters cellular metabolism and although the effects of sustained hypoxia (SH) have been extensively studied, less is known about chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH), commonly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and stroke. We hypothesize that impaired glutamate homeostasis after chronic IH may underlie vulnerability to stroke-induced excitotoxicity. P16 organotypic hippocampal slices, cultured for 7 days were exposed for 7 days to IH (alternating 2 min 5% O2-15 min 21% O2), SH (5% O2) or RA (21% O2), then 3 glutamate challenges. The first and last exposures were intended as a metabolic stimulus (200 µM glutamate, 15 min); the second emulated excitotoxicity (10 mM glutamate, 10 min). GFAP, MAP2, and EAAT1, EAAT2 glutamate transporters expression were assessed after exposure to each hypoxic protocol. Additionally, cell viability was determined at baseline and after each glutamate challenge, in presence or absence of ceftriaxone that increases glutamate transporter expression. GFAP and MAP2 decreased after 7 days IH and SH. Long-term IH but not SH decreased EAAT1 and EAAT2. Excitotoxic glutamate challenge decreased cell viability and the following 200 µM exposure further increased cell death, particularly in IH-exposed slices. Ceftriaxone prevented glutamate transporter decrease and improved cell viability after IH and excitotoxicity. We conclude that IH is more detrimental to cell survival and glutamate homeostasis than SH. These findings suggest that impaired regulation of extracellular glutamate levels is implicated in the increased brain susceptibility to excitotoxic insult after long-term IH.
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Functional organization of locomotor interneurons in the ventral lumbar spinal cord of the newborn rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Although the mammalian locomotor CPG has been localized to the lumbar spinal cord, the functional-anatomical organization of flexor and extensor interneurons has not been characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flexor and extensor interneuronal networks for walking are physically segregated in the lumbar spinal cord. For this purpose, we performed optical recordings and lesion experiments from a horizontally sectioned lumbar spinal cord isolated from neonate rats. This ventral hemi spinal cord preparation produces well-organized fictive locomotion when superfused with 5-HT/NMDA. The dorsal surface of the preparation was visualized using the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4 AM, while simultaneously monitoring motor output at ventral roots L2 and L5. Using calcium imaging, we provided a general mapping view of the interneurons that maintained a stable phase relationship with motor output. We showed that the dorsal surface of L1 segment contains a higher density of locomotor rhythmic cells than the other segments. Moreover, L1 segment lesioning induced the most important changes in the locomotor activity in comparison with lesions at the T13 or L2 segments. However, no lesions led to selective disruption of either flexor or extensor output. In addition, this study found no evidence of functional parcellation of locomotor interneurons into flexor and extensor pools at the dorsal-ventral midline of the lumbar spinal cord of the rat.
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Exacerbation of diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis by zinc deficiency is most likely associated with oxidative stress, p38 MAPK activation, and p53 activation in mice.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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Since diabetes induces testicular oxidative damage and cell death, and zinc (Zn) plays an important role in the spermatogenesis, the objective of the present study was to define the effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis and associated mechanisms. Zn deficiency was induced by chronic treatment of normal and diabetic mice with N,N,N,N-tetrakis (2-pyridylemethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) chelation. After diabetes onset, mice were given intraperitoneally TPEN at 5mg/kg daily for four months, which, like diabetes, induced a significant decrease in testicular Zn level. TUNEL staining revealed that testicular apoptosis was significantly increased along with an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, in diabetic mice and TPEN-treated normal mice. Zn deficiency significantly exacerbated diabetes-induced testicular apoptosis, along with significantly increased oxidative and nitrosative damage and down-regulation of antioxidant Nrf2 expression. Increased oxidative stress was associated with an increase in activation of p38 MAPK and p53 protein in diabetic testis, which was worsened in the testes of diabetic mice with Zn deficiency. Diabetes also induced a significant increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated cell death, which was not affected by Zn deficiency. These results suggest that like diabetes, chronic depletion of Zn with TPEN induces testicular oxidative stress and damage, along with the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 signaling and mitochondria-related apoptotic cell death. Therefore, prevention of Zn deficiency for diabetic patients is important in order to avoid the exacerbation of diabetic effects on testicular cells death.
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Functional anatomical evidence for respiratory rhythmogenic function of endogenous bursters in rat medulla.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Endogenous burster neurons (EBs) have been found at the level of the facial nucleus (VIIn), and 500 mum caudally, within the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). They have been proposed as either causal to or playing no role in respiratory rhythmogenesis. Little is known about their broader distribution in ventrolateral medulla. Here, a Ca(2+) indicator was used to record respiratory network activity in ventrolateral medulla, and, following synaptic blockade, to identify EBs active at perfusate K(+) concentrations ([K(+)](o)) of 3, 6, and 9 mm. Recordings were made along the respiratory column, extending 300 mum rostrally, and 1100 mum caudally from the caudal pole of VIIn (VIIc), in the in vitro tilted sagittal slab preparation, isolated from neonate male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Activity under matching [K(+)](o) in the intact respiratory network was subsequently investigated. Respiratory neurons (n = 401) formed statistically significant clusters at the VIIc, within the preBötC, and 100 mum caudal to the preBötC. EBs (n = 693) formed statistically significant clusters that overlapped with respiratory clusters at the VIIc and preBötC. EB activity increased significantly as [K(+)](o) was increased, as did neurons that remained coupled following synaptic blockade. The overlap between respiratory and EB clusters in regions of ventrolateral medulla identified as rhythmogenic supports the hypothesis that EBs are constituents of rhythmogenic networks. In addition, the observation of truncated inspiratory bursts and ectopic bursting in respiratory neurons when [K(+)](o) was elevated in the intact network is consistent with a causal role for EBs in respiratory rhythmogenesis.
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Degeneracy as a substrate for respiratory regulation.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Recent studies in vivo and in vitro suggest that both respiratory rhythmogenesis and its central chemosensory modulation arise from multiple, mechanistically and/or anatomically distinct networks whose outputs are similar. These observations are consistent with degeneracy, defined as the ability of structurally distinct elements to generate similar function. This review argues that degeneracy is an essential feature of respiratory networks, ensuring the survival of the individual organism over the course of development, and accounting for the transformation of respiratory biomechanics over evolutionary time. At faster timescales, respiration must adapt continuously and rapidly to changes in metabolic demand and ambient conditions to maintain blood-gas homeostasis. Control theory, which formalizes homeostasis, states axiomatically that rapid responsiveness can only be achieved with high gain, but high gain comes at the cost of instability. Homeostatic systems displaying highly optimized tolerance (HOT) mitigate the instability accompanying high gain by incorporating regulatory mechanisms that provide protection against expected perturbations, yet these systems remain fragile to catastrophic failure in response to rare events. Because the multiple mechanisms that are conjectured to mediate respiratory rhythmogenesis and chemosensation have distinct ranges of activity and responses to modulatory input, they provide a richer substrate for respiratory regulation than those of any single mechanism. Respiration, though robust, remains fragile to rare perturbations, matching a key feature of HOT. These observations support the conclusion that degeneracy provides the substrate for respiratory regulation, and that the resulting regulatory system conforms to HOT.
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Semi-automated region of interest generation for the analysis of optically recorded neuronal activity.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Bath-applied membrane-permeant Ca(2+) indicators offer access to network function with single-cell resolution. A barrier to wider and more efficient use of this technique is the difficulty of extracting fluorescence signals from the active constituents of the network under study. Here we present a method for semi-automatic region of interest (ROI) detection that exploits the spatially compact, slowly time-varying character of the somatic signals that these indicators typically produce. First, the image series is differenced to eliminate static and very slowly varying fluorescence values, and then the differenced image series undergoes low-pass filtering in the spatial domain, to eliminate temporally isolated fluctuations in brightness. This processed image series is then thresholded so that pixel regions of fluctuating brightness are set to white, while all other regions are set to black. Binary images are averaged, and then subjected to iterative thresholding to extract ROIs associated with both dim and bright cells. The original image series is then analyzed using the generated ROIs, after which the end-user rejects spurious signals. These methods are applied to respiratory networks in the neonate rat tilted sagittal slab preparation, and to simulations with signal-to-noise ratios ranging between 1.0-0.2. Simulations established that algorithm performance degraded gracefully with increasing noise. Because signal extraction is the necessary first step in the analysis of time-varying Ca(2+) signals, semi-automated ROI detection frees the researcher to focus on the next step: selecting traces of interest from the relatively complete set generated using these methods.
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Respiratory circuits: development, function and models.
Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.
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Breathing is a rhythmic motor behavior generated and controlled by hindbrain neuronal networks. Respiratory motor output arises from two distinct, but functionally interacting, rhythmogenic networks: the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and the retrotrapezoïd nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG). This review outlines recent advances in delineating the genetic specification of the neuronal constituents of these two rhythmogenic networks, their respective roles in respiratory function and how they interact to constitute a functional respiratory circuit ensemble. The often lethal consequences of disruption to these networks found in naturally occurring developmental disorders, transgenic animals, and highly specific lesion studies are described. In addition, we discuss how recent computational models enhance our understanding of how respiratory networks generate and regulate respiratory behavior.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.