Tretinoin has been primarily used for the early stages of acne because of its proven comedolytic end benefits. This article reviews and updates the collective body of evidence of tretinoin in the treatment of acne, which suggests that this drug also possesses a broad range of acne-related immunomodulating properties that are capable of disrupting and hindering the various stages of the inflammatory cascade and the production of proinflammatory factors associated with it.
Background: Acne vulgaris affects individuals of all races and ethnicities. Understanding the safety and efficacy of topical agents benefits the practicing clinician when treating patients with skin of color. Purpose: To report observations in acne patients representing all six Fitzpatrick skin types based on a Phase 3 study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of a clindamycin phosphate 1.2% tretinoin 0.025% gel versus a clindamycin phosphate 1.2% gel alone. Methods: The two treatments were compared in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel, 12-week study employing a total of 2,010 patients with moderate-to-severe acne. Primary efficacy endpoints were 1) treatment success defined as percentage of patients who were clear or almost clear or achieved at least a 2-grade improvement in Evaluators Global Severity Scores at Week 12 and 2) percent change from baseline versus 12-week scores for noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions. Results: The 12-week, 37.8-percent Evaluators Global Severity Scores treatment success for clindamycin phosphate 1.2% tretinoin 0.025% gel was greater than the 31.7 percent observed for clindamycin phosphate 1.2% gel alone (P = 0.002). Percent changes from baseline versus 12-week scores for noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions obtained with clindamycin phosphate 1.2% tretinoin 0.025% gel (49.8, 60.9, and 54.5%, respectively) were significantly greater than those observed for clindamycin phosphate 1.2% gel alone (41.3, 54.8, and 46.9%, respectively); all comparisons P<0.001. Conclusion: Use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% tretinoin 0.025% gel resulted in greater percent reductions of Evaluators Global Severity Scores treatment success scores and acne lesions in patients with all six Fitzpatrick skin types combined than clindamycin phosphate 1.2% gel alone. Both products were well tolerated, with no hypo- or hyperpigmentation noted. Side effects observed were similar to those previously reported for the individual ingredients.
This article reviews anti-inflammatory properties of clindamycin, which is often used topically for the management of acne vulgaris, usually in combination with other agents. The efficacy of clindamycin in acne treatment has been shown to be sustained for more than 3 decades. It is likely that anti-inflammatory effects play an important role in the therapeutic activity of topical clindamycin.
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the United States. Phenological information of A. glycines is limited; specifically, little is known about factors guiding migrating aphids and potential impacts of long distance flights on local population dynamics. Increasing our understanding of A. glycines population dynamics may improve predictions of A. glycines outbreaks and improve management efforts. In 2005 a suction trap network was established in seven Midwest states to monitor the occurrence of alates. By 2006, this network expanded to 10 states and consisted of 42 traps. The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp. to soybean in spring, movement among soybean fields during summer, and emigration from soybean to Rhamnus in fall. The objective of this study was to infer movement patterns of A. glycines on a regional scale based on trap captures, and determine the suitability of certain statistical methods for future analyses. Overall, alates were not commonly collected in suction traps until June. The most alates were collected during a 3-wk period in the summer (late July to mid-August), followed by the fall, with a peak capture period during the last 2 wk of September. Alate captures were positively correlated with latitude, a pattern consistent with the distribution of Rhamnus in the United States, suggesting that more southern regions are infested by immigrants from the north.
Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.