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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Update on oncolytic viral therapy - targeting angiogenesis.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the ability to selectively replicate in and lyse cancer cells. Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for tumor growth. Like OVs, the therapeutic effect of many angiogenesis inhibitors has been limited, leading to the development of more effective approaches to combine antiangiogenic therapy with OVs. Angiogenesis can be targeted either directly by OV infection of vascular endothelial cells, or by arming OVs with antiangiogenic transgenes, which are subsequently expressed locally in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we describe the development and targeting of OVs, the role of angiogenesis in cancer, and the progress made in arming viruses with antiangiogenic transgenes. Future developments required to optimize this approach are addressed.
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Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene: an oncolytic virus superior to dl1520 (ONYX-015) for human head and neck cancer.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Oncolytic viral therapy represents a promising strategy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with dl1520 (ONYX-015) the most widely used oncolytic adenovirus in clinical trials. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus as well as a vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene (VVhEA) as a novel therapy for HNSCC and to compare them with dl1520. The potency and replication of the Lister strain and VVhEA and the expression and function of the fusion protein were determined in human HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of VVhEA was compared with dl1520 in vivo in a human HNSCC model. The Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was more effective than the adenovirus against all HNSCC cell lines tested in vitro. Although the potency of VVhEA was attenuated in vitro, the expression and function of the endostatin-angiostatin fusion protein was confirmed in HNSCC models both in vitro and in vivo. This novel vaccinia virus (VVhEA) demonstrated superior antitumor potency in vivo compared with both dl1520 and the control vaccinia virus. This study suggests that the Lister strain vaccinia virus armed with an endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene may be a potential therapeutic agent for HNSCC.
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PRSS3 promotes tumour growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2010
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Metastasis accounts for the poor outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer. We recently discovered PRSS3 to be over-expressed in metastatic human pancreatic cancer cells. This study aimed to elucidate the role of PRSS3 in the growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer.
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Distinct genomic alterations in prostate cancers in Chinese and Western populations suggest alternative pathways of prostate carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Prostate cancer is significantly more common in Western men than in Asian men, but the basis for this difference remains unknown. Because genomic studies of Asian prostate cancer are very limited, we used a genome-wide approach to reveal the genomic alterations in Chinese prostate cancers. We found a significant reduction in the frequency of certain somatic genomic changes that are commonly found in Western prostate cancers, including the 21q22.2-22.3 deletion, which involves the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene, and 10q deletion, which causes PTEN inactivation. Array results were confirmed by PCR-based molecular copy-number counting in selected samples. The different frequencies of these genomic changes were further evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarray samples. These alterations might be key genetic changes underlying the regional/ethnic difference in clinical incidence and might be induced by specific environmental and/or genetic risk factors that Western men are exposed to. Our findings suggest that tumors arise in Western and Chinese populations by alternative pathogenetic mechanisms.
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Improved potency and selectivity of an oncolytic E1ACR2 and E1B19K deleted adenoviral mutant in prostate and pancreatic cancers.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are a promising class of tumor-targeting agents with proven safety in hundreds of patients. However, clinical responses have been limited and viral mutants with higher potency are needed. Here, we report on the generation of a novel set of mutants with improved efficacy in prostate and pancreatic carcinoma models. Currently, no curative treatments are available for late-stage metastatic prostate or rapidly progressing pancreatic cancers.
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The fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor PD173074 blocks small cell lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Lung cancer is the commonest cancer killer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is initially chemosensitive, but rapidly relapses in a chemoresistant form with an overall survival of <5%. Consequently, novel therapies are urgently required and will likely arise from an improved understanding of the disease biology. Our previous work showed that fibroblast growth factor-2 induces proliferation and chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here, we show that the selective fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor PD173074 blocks H-510 and H-69 SCLC proliferation and clonogenic growth in a dose-dependent fashion and prevents FGF-2-induced chemoresistance. These effects correlate with the inhibition of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 transphosphorylation. We then determined the efficacy of daily oral administration of PD173074 for 28 days in two human SCLC models. In the H-510 xenograft, tumor growth was impaired similar to that seen with single-agent cisplatin administration, increasing median survival compared with control sham-treated animals. Crucially, the effect of cisplatin was significantly potentiated by coadministration of PD173074. More dramatically, in H-69 xenografts, PD173074 induced complete responses lasting >6 months in 50% of mice. These effects were not a consequence of disrupted tumor vasculature but instead correlated with increased apoptosis (caspase 3 and cytokeratin 18 cleavage) in excised tumors. Moreover, in vivo imaging with 3-deoxy-3-[(18)F]fluorothymidine-positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FLT-PET) showed decreased intratumoral proliferation in live animals treated with the compound at 7 to 14 days. Our results suggest that clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors should be undertaken in patients with SCLC and that [(18)F]FLT-PET imaging could provide early in vivo evidence of response.
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Targeted radionuclide therapy using a Wnt-targeted replicating adenovirus encoding the Na/I symporter.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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The Na/I symporter (hNIS) promotes concentration of iodine in cells. In cancer gene therapy, this transgene has potential as a reporter gene for molecular imaging of viral biodistribution and as a therapeutic protein promoting (131)I-mediated radiotherapy. Here, we combined the imaging and therapeutic potential of hNIS in an oncolytic adenoviruses targeting colorectal cancer cells.
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Combination of anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy: arming oncolytic viruses with anti-angiogenic genes.
Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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Angiogenesis is essential for development and tissue repair, and is controlled by a balance of inhibitors and promoters. Overactive angiogenesis promotes tumor progression and other chronic disorders, including diabetic retinopathy and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of angiogenesis inhibitors has resulted in a promising therapeutic approach to these diseases. However, the benefits of anti-angiogenic drugs have been modest, stimulating interest in developing more effective approaches by combining anti-angiogenic therapy with other therapeutics. Oncolytic virotherapies are attractive therapeutics for cancer, but virotherapy alone has had similar problems to anti-angiogenic therapy, with few examples of clinical efficacy. This review summarizes the progress of the emerging field of combinations of anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy, and highlights future challenges in experimental and translational research that need to be addressed in order for these therapeutics to advance into the clinic.
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CEACAM6 attenuates adenovirus infection by antagonizing viral trafficking in cancer cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The changes in cancer cell surface molecules and intracellular signaling pathways during tumorigenesis make delivery of adenovirus-based cancer therapies inefficient. Here we have identified carcinoembryonic antigen- related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a cellular protein that restricts the ability of adenoviral vectors to infect cancer cells. We have demonstrated that CEACAM6 can antagonize the Src signaling pathway, downregulate cancer cell cytoskeleton proteins, and block adenovirus trafficking to the nucleus of human pancreatic cancer cells. Similar to CEACAM6 overexpression, treatment with a Src-selective inhibitor significantly reduced adenovirus replication in these cancer cells and normal human epithelial cells. In a mouse xenograft tumor model, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CEACAM6 also significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of an oncolytic adenovirus. We propose that CEACAM6-associated signaling pathways could be potential targets for the development of biomarkers to predict the response of patients to adenovirus-based therapies, as well as for the development of more potent adenovirus-based therapeutics.
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Oncolytic adenoviral mutants with E1B19K gene deletions enhance gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cells and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a rapidly progressive malignancy that is highly resistant to current chemotherapeutic modalities and almost uniformly fatal. We show that a novel targeting strategy combining oncolytic adenoviral mutants with the standard cytotoxic treatment, gemcitabine, can markedly improve the anticancer potency.
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Adenovirus-mediated sensitization to the cytotoxic drugs docetaxel and mitoxantrone is dependent on regulatory domains in the E1ACR1 gene-region.
PLoS ONE
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Oncolytic adenoviruses have shown promising efficacy in clinical trials targeting prostate cancers that frequently develop resistance to all current therapies. The replication-selective mutants Ad?? and dl922-947, defective in pRb-binding, have been demonstrated to synergise with the current standard of care, mitoxantrone and docetaxel, in prostate cancer models. While expression of the early viral E1A gene is essential for the enhanced cell killing, the specific E1A-regions required for the effects are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that replicating mutants deleted in small E1A-domains, binding pRb (dl1108), p300/CBP (dl1104) and p400/TRRAP or p21 (dl1102) sensitize human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, DU145, 22Rv1) to mitoxantrone and docetaxel. Through generation of non-replicating mutants, we demonstrate that the small E1A12S protein is sufficient to potently sensitize all prostate cancer cells to the drugs even in the absence of viral replication and the E1A transactivating domain, conserved region (CR) 3. Furthermore, the p300/CBP-binding domain in E1ACR1 is essential for drug-sensitisation in the absence (AdE1A1104) but not in the presence of the E1ACR3 (dl1104) domain. AdE1A1104 also failed to increase apoptosis and accumulation of cells in G2/M. All E1A?CR2 mutants (AdE1A1108, dl922-947) and AdE1A1102 or dl1102 enhance cell killing to the same degree as wild type virus. In PC-3 xenografts in vivo the dl1102 mutant significantly prolongs time to tumor progression that is further enhanced in combination with docetaxel. Neither dl1102 nor dl1104 replicates in normal human epithelial cells (NHBE). These findings suggest that additional E1A-deletions might be included when developing more potent replication-selective oncolytic viruses, such as the Ad?CR2-mutants, to further enhance potency through synergistic cell killing in combination with current chemotherapeutics.
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Synergistic and Selective Cancer Cell Killing Mediated by the Oncolytic Adenoviral Mutant Ad?? and Dietary Phytochemicals in Prostate Cancer Models.
Hum. Gene Ther.
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Ad?? is an oncolytic adenoviral mutant that has been engineered to selectively target tumors with deregulated cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Ad?? potentiates apoptotic cell death induced by drugs, including mitoxantrone and docetaxel, which are commonly used to treat prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that Ad?? can also interact synergistically with dietary phytochemicals known to have anti-cancer activities, without incurring the toxic side effects of chemodrugs. Curcumin, genistein, epigallocatechin-gallate, equol, and resveratrol efficiently killed both androgen-receptor positive (22Rv1) and negative cell lines (PC-3, DU145) in combination with adenoviral mutants. Synergistic cell killing was demonstrated with wild-type virus (Ad5) and Ad?? in combination with equol and resveratrol. EC(50) values for both phytochemicals and viruses were reduced three- to eightfold in all three combination-treated cell lines. The most potent efficacy was achieved in the cytotoxic drug- and virus-insensitive PC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo, while cell killing in normal bronchial epithelial cells was not enhanced. Although equol and resveratrol induced only low levels of apoptosis when administered alone, in combination with wild-type virus or Ad??, the level of apoptotic cell death was significantly increased in PC-3 and DU145 cells. In vivo studies using suboptimal doses of Ad?? and equol or resveratrol, showed reduced tumor growth without toxicity to normal tissue. These findings identify novel functions for Ad?? and phytochemicals in promoting cancer cell killing and apoptosis, suggesting the use of these natural nontoxic compounds might be a feasible and currently unexploited anti-cancer strategy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.