The dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mouse remains the most commonly used model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Mdx mice show a predominantly covert cardiomyopathy, the hallmark of which is fibrosis. We compared mdx and normal mice at six ages (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months) using in vivo assessment of cardiac function, selective collagen staining, and measures of TGF-? mRNA, Evans blue dye infiltration, macrophage infiltration, and aortic wall thickness. Clear temporal progression was demonstrated, including early fragility of cardiomyocyte membranes, which has an unrelated impact on cardiac function but is associated with macrophage infiltration and fibrosis. Aortic wall thickness is less in older mdx mice. Mdx mice display impaired responses to inotropic challenge from a young age; this is indicative of altered adrenoreceptor function. We draw attention to the paradox of ongoing fibrosis in mdx hearts without a strong molecular signature (in the form of TGF-? mRNA expression).
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.