Thalidomide use in cutaneous sarcoidosis is based on data from small case series or case reports. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in severe cutaneous sarcoidosis.
The virus HHV-8 will celebrate its twentieth birthday by the end of this year and its relationships with Kaposi sarcoma are not completely elucidated. HHV-8 is an enigmatic virus, with an inhomogeneous distribution, a salivary transmission while it is not an ubiquitous virus, at least in western countries. However, HHV-8 has a unique genetic equipment rending is role in Kaposi sarcoma more than plausible. While the virus is necessary, it appears that it is not sufficient as the development of Kaposi sarcoma is frequently associated with immunosuppression whatever the cause (iatrogenic, viral, age-related). Kaposi sarcoma should be more considered as an opportunistic tumour than a viral-induced cancer and the best treatment for Kaposi sarcoma is immune restoration at least when it is possible.
Idiopathic CD4 T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare and severe condition with limited available data. We conducted a French multicenter study to analyze the clinical and immunologic characteristics of a cohort of patients with ICL according to the Centers for Disease Control criteria.We recruited 40 patients (24 female) of mean age 44.2 ± 12.2 (19-70) years. Patients underwent T-lymphocyte phenotyping and lymphoproliferation assay at diagnosis, and experiments related to thymic function and interferon (IFN)-? release by natural killer (NK) cell were performed. Mean follow-up was 6.9 ± 6.7 (0.14-24.3) years. Infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic events were recorded, as were outcomes of interleukin 2 therapy.In all, 25 patients had opportunistic infections (12 with human papillomavirus infection), 14 had autoimmune symptoms, 5 had malignancies, and 8 had mild or no symptoms. At the time of diagnosis, the mean cell counts were as follows: mean CD4 cell count: 127/mm (range, 4-294); mean CD8: 236/mm (range, 1-1293); mean CD19: 113/mm (range, 3-547); and mean NK cell count: 122/mm (range, 5-416). Most patients had deficiency in CD8, CD19, and/or NK cells. Cytotoxic function of NK cells was normal, and patients with infections had a significantly lower NK cell count than those without (p = 0.01). Patients with autoimmune manifestations had increased CD8 T-cell count. Proliferation of thymic precursors, as assessed by T-cell rearrangement excision circles, was increased. Six patients died (15%). CD4 T-cell count <150/mm and NK cell count <100/mm were predictors of death.In conclusion, ICL is a heterogeneous disorder often associated with deficiencies in CD8, CD19, and/or NK cells. Long-term prognosis may be related to initial CD4 and NK cell deficiency.
Two major Treponema pallidum subtypes, 14 d/g and 14 d/f, were identified in a population of 119 patients with syphilis in Paris, France, characterized by a high proportion of men who have sex with men. A new subtype named 11 q/j was characterized, and a reinfection case was determined in 1 patient having consecuitve syphilis infection at 19-month interval.
Syphilitic cardiovascular disease has been described since the 19th century, mainly on autopsy series. Major clinical manifestations are aortic aneurysm, aortic insufficiency, and coronary ostial stenosis. The diagnosis of syphilitic cardiovascular disease is based mainly on positive serologic tests and overt clinical manifestations. We present here a rare and unusual clinical presentation of a tertiary syphilis with recurrent tamponade and type B aortic dissection, whose positive diagnosis was made by polymerase chain reaction on pericardial fluid analysis.
Bacterial culture remains the gold standard for symptomatic infection. Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) have better sensitivity and specificity for rectal and pharyngeal specimens. A bacterial culture with antibiogram must be done for all NAAT positive specimens in order to modify antibiotics prescription if needed. We must fear a diffusion of extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the future. Nevertheless, ceftriaxone 500 mg intramuscular with 1 g of azithromycin against Chlamydia trachomatis remains the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae infections. Screening of partners of identified cases and other STDs is the main measure to add to the treatment of gonorrhea.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a major problem of public health in France. Voluntary networks of physicians (RésIST) and laboratories (Rénago, Rénachla, lymphogranuloma venereum: LGV network) produce indicators showing the evolution of the main bacterial STIs. In 2010, the main findings were the following. The number of gonococcal infections has increased throughout the decade 2000 to 2010. The decrease in susceptibility of gonococcal strains to first-line antibiotics (extended-spectrum cephalosporins) needs to keep great attention. The number of screening and diagnosis of chlamydial urogenital infections also continues to rise in both sexes, particularly due to increased screening among young people. The relatively stable number of cases of early syphilis and of rectal LGV needs to be confirmed over the coming years. Both of these STIs affect overwhelmingly homo/bisexual men. There is still a high level of HIV co-infection with LGV and syphilis, and to a lesser extent with gonorrhea. We observe that condom use is still inadequate, especially during oral sex.
Syphilis is back since 2000. Early syphilis comprises primary syphilis, secondary syphilis and early latent syphilis (less than 1 year duration). During early phases of syphilis, patients are more contagious and neurologic complications are rare. Early neurosyphilis are mostly represented by uveitis or cranial nerves lesions. Treatment of non-neurologic syphilis are based on intramusculary injection of benzathine-penicilline G: one injection in case of early syphilis, three injections in case of late syphilis. The follow-up after treatment is based on clinical evolution and the titer of VDRL. Intravenously infusion of penicillin G is the only treatment recommended for neurosyphilis.
Vemurafenib and erlotinib are two oral kinase inhibitors approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and advanced non-small cell lung cancer, respectively. In contrast with erlotinib, the single published method for analysis of vemurafenib in human plasma is based on mass spectrometry. The purpose of the present study was to develop an HPLC-UV method to simultaneously quantify these two drugs in plasma. Following liquid-liquid extraction, vemurafenib, erlotinib and sorafenib (internal standard) were separated isocratically on a C8 Xterra(®) MS using a mobile phase of glycine buffer (pH 9.0, 100mM)/acetonitrile (45:55, v/v). Samples were eluted at a flow rate of 0.9mL/min throughout the 12-min run. Dual UV wavelength mode was used, with vemurafenib and sorafenib monitored at 249nm, and erlotinib at 331nm. The calibration was linear in the range 1.25-100mg/L and 50-4000?g/L for vemurafenib and erlotinib, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision was less than 6.7% and 6.6% for vemurafenib and erlotinib, respectively. This analytical method was successfully applied to assess the steady state plasma exposure of these drugs in cancer patients. This accurate method can be used in routine clinical practice to monitor vemurafenib or erlotinib concentrations in plasma from cancer patients.
Dermatological adverse events (AEs) are an existing concern during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peginterferon/ribavirin treatment. HCV infection leads to dermatological and muco-cutaneous manifestations including small-vessel vasculitis as part of the mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome. Peginterferon/ribavirin treatment is associated with well-characterized dermatological AEs tending towards a uniform entity of dermatitis. New direct-acting antivirals have led to significant improvements in sustained virologic response rates, but several have led to an increase in dermatological AEs versus peginterferon/ribavirin alone. In telaprevir trials, approximately half of treated patients had rash. More than 90% of these events were Grade 1 or 2 (mild/moderate) and in the majority (92%) of cases, progression to a more severe grade did not occur. In a small number of cases (6%), rash led to telaprevir discontinuation, whereupon symptoms commonly resolved. Dermatological AEs with telaprevir-based triple therapy were generally similar to those observed with peginterferon/ribavirin (xerosis, pruritus, and eczema). A few cases were classified as severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR), also referred to as serious skin reactions, a group of rare conditions that are potentially life-threatening. It is therefore important to distinguish between telaprevir-related dermatitis and SCAR. The telaprevir prescribing information does not require telaprevir discontinuation for Grade 1 or 2 (mild/moderate) rash, which can be treated using emollients/moisturizers and topical corticosteroids. For Grade 3 rash, the prescribing information mandates immediate telaprevir discontinuation, with ribavirin interruption (with or without peginterferon) within 7 days of stopping telaprevir if there is no improvement, or sooner if it worsens. In case of suspicion or confirmed diagnosis of SCAR, all study medication must be discontinued.
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is a rare benign tumor that usually involves the oral cavity. Since the first report of this tumor in 1971, only 9 cases have been reported on the vulva, and 3 of these were associated with another vulvar condition. We describe the clinicopathologic features of 10 patients with vulvar VX and focus on their associated conditions.
So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes; risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension. A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene; it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes. We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (?KXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K-occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer.
Susacs syndrome (SS) is a rare microangiopathy affecting the precapillary arterioles of the brain, retina and inner ear, presumably resulting from an autoimmune endotheliopathy. We report the first case of SS with histologically proven skin involvement, in a 24-year-old male who presented a subacute encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions and bilateral hearing loss, two weeks after the onset of a livedo racemosa of the flanks and feet. Skin biopsies revealed a thrombus in several dermal arterioles, endothelial cells swelling and a mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, which correspond to the same histological findings as previously observed in brain but also in muscle biopsies of patients with SS. A complete recovery was achieved in 4 months with corticosteroids. Follow-up MRI showed centro-callosal "holes". Skin involvement in SS has pathological plausibility since serum antibodies directly binding to central nervous system but also to generic endothelium cells have been reported. Our report supports that SS is a systemic disease that could affect other organs in addition to the brain, retina and inner ear. We suggest careful skin examination should be considered in patients with a suspicion of SS.
Skin eruptions resembling epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) are rarely observed in immunocompromised patients. We focused on the epidemiologic, clinical, virologic, and immunologic features of EV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients.
After reaching an all time low at the turn of the millennium in several industrialized countries, the syphilis incidence is rising again, perhaps as a consequence of unsafe sexual behavior in response to improved antiretroviral therapeutic options for HIV. Since the beginning of the HIV pandemic, numerous reports on the various aspects of the interaction between syphilis and HIV have been published. Controversies persist on many issues of the management of coinfected patients. This contribution presents a critical appraisal of the available literature. Few large-scale, properly designed, controlled studies have compared syphilis baseline presentation and treatment response according to HIV status. Among the weakness are (1) high rates of patients lost to follow-up, (2) lack of long-term follow-up, (3) lack of gold standard criteria for treatment response, (4) small sample size, and (5) lack of stratification according to syphilis stage, ongoing antiretroviral treatment, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load. From the available data, and given the ever-possible publication bias, we conclude that if HIV has an effect on the course of syphilis, it is small and clinically manageable in most cases. The controversial issues discussed should furnish the rational for clinical research during the forthcoming decade.
Despite the continued efficacy of penicillin since the 1940s, many aspects of the natural history, diagnosis, and management of syphilis remain controversial. A key factor among the numerous factors explaining the persistence of significant areas of controversies is the absence of a gold standard direct method for distinguishing between the different stages of syphilis and appraising treatment response. This contribution presents an overview of some of the most debated aspects of the origins, diagnosis, and management of syphilis in immunocompetent patients. The two main current hypotheses on the origins of Treponema pallidum are the "Columbian" and the "Pre-Columbian" hypotheses. Strong evidence supports that Columbus crew brought T pallidum to Europe at the time of discovery of the New World. Because T pallidum culture and inoculation to animals are not readily available methods, the gold standard method for the diagnosis of syphilis is the direct identification of T pallidum by dark field microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody tests. These methods, however, are inapplicable in many patients, and thus the diagnosis of syphilis is usually based on the clinical and serologic picture. Serologic tests should only be considered as surrogate markers of the disease and do not provide definite distinction between syphilis stages. The optimal combination of serologic tests is still undefined. Other areas of controversy include the identification of patients who would benefit from a lumbar puncture, the diagnostic criteria of neurosyphilis, and the most relevant markers of treatment response.
A CD8 cutaneous lymphoinfiltrative disease has been described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients presenting with a severe erythroderma. The true nature of this severe skin infiltrative disorder is still elusive. Although some clinical features of this syndrome have raised the hypothesis of its malignant nature in initial observations, several studies have provided stronger support to the hypothesis that it is a reactive pseudotumoral process.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by the fibrosis of various organs, vascular hyperreactivity, and immunologic dysregulation. Since Notch signaling is known to affect fibroblast homeostasis, angiogenesis, and lymphocyte development, we undertook this study to investigate the role of the Notch pathway in human and murine SSc.
Acne is a multifactorial chronic disease affecting around 80% of teenage population. The pathogenesis of acne involves inflammatory reactions and colonization by the Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) strain. P. acnes stimulates the keratinocytes involved in the innate immune response, the intensity of which could be influenced either by bacterial intrinsic factors or by endogenous factors of the host.
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with Merkel Cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare, aggressive skin cancer with neuroendocrine features. The causal role of MCPyV is highly suggested by monoclonal integration of its genome and expression of the viral large T (LT) antigen in MCC cells. We investigated and characterized MCPyV molecular features in MCC, respiratory, urine and blood samples from 33 patients by quantitative PCR, sequencing and detection of integrated viral DNA. We examined associations between either MCPyV viral load in primary MCC or MCPyV DNAemia and survival. Results were interpreted with respect to the viral molecular signature in each compartment. Patients with MCC containing more than 1 viral genome copy per cell had a longer period in complete remission than patients with less than 1 copy per cell (34 vs 10 months, P = 0.037). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) contained MCPyV more frequently in patients sampled with disease than in patients in complete remission (60% vs 11%, P = 0.00083). Moreover, the detection of MCPyV in at least one PBMC sample during follow-up was associated with a shorter overall survival (P?= 0.003). Sequencing of viral DNA from MCC and non MCC samples characterized common single nucleotide polymorphisms defining 8 patient specific strains. However, specific molecular signatures truncating MCPyV LT were observed in 8/12 MCC cases but not in respiratory and urinary samples from 15 patients. New integration sites were identified in 4 MCC cases. Finally, mutated-integrated forms of MCPyV were detected in PBMC of two patients with disseminated MCC disease, indicating circulation of metastatic cells. We conclude that MCPyV molecular features in primary MCC tumour and PBMC may help to predict the course of the disease.
Since the turn of the millennium, the incidence of syphilis is on the rise in France and in other developed countries. The majority of syphilis cases currently occur in men having sex with men and half of the cases occur in HIV-positive patients. Multiple partners and non protected intercourses are frequently reported. About 80% of syphilis recently diagnosed in France are symptomatic and correspond to primary or secondary syphilis. The other potential circumstances of diagnosis of syphilis include the presence of risk factors, an intercourse with an infected partner, the serological follow-up of a previous syphilis and a systematic screening during pregnancy. Clinical features are mainly represented by skin and mucosal lesions. However, extra-cutaneous involvement and biological abnormalities are quite frequent during secondary syphilis especially ophthalmic complications which are source of sequelae due to the delay for diagnosis. In the post-HAART era, it seems that clinical presentation and serological response after treatment is similar in HIV infected patients in comparison to HIV uninfected patients and that patients with early syphilis shoud be treated with one dose of benzathine penicillin G while the unique treatment for neurosyphilis is intravenous penicilline G.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) or diseases (STD) are sociologic markers reflecting sexual behaviours of individuals belonging to this society. Since 2000, the evolution of STI has been characterized by the recrudescence of syphilis, the appearance of resistance of gonococcus to fluoroquinolones and the emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum. These STI are nearly exclusively observed in men and predominantly in men having sex with men with a high proportion of HIV infected individuals from 15% in those consulting for gonococcemia to 100% in those diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum. The epidemic is relatively stable since 2007 which suggest that it could decline in the next future. Relapse of these STI suggests a relapse of high risks sexual practices in group of patients historically exposed to HIV and that control measures for prevention of STI targeting men having sex with men should be reinforced for controlling the incidence of classical STI and of HIV.
Lipschütz ulcers are characterised by a first flare of non-sexually related acute genital ulcers (AGU) occurring in adolescent girls. Epstein-Barr primary infection is the most frequently reported aetiology but other infectious agents are probably implicated. We report the first case of mumps associated with an AGU in a 21-year-old girl. She presented a bilateral parotitis with genital ulcers, and serology confirmed she had mumps. As in our case, most Lipschütz ulcers heal spontaneously within a couple of weeks and the diagnosis should be reconsidered in case of recurrence.
Local anaesthesia with lidocaine is widely used in dermatology. The aim of this study was to evaluate pain at different times of dermatological surgery when using local anaesthetic agents. 120 consecutive patients were included during a 3 month period in a dermatological day surgery unit. Pain was estimated by a visual analogue scale, before, during and at the end of the operation. At the end, patients were asked about their satisfaction with local anaesthesia or their preference for general anaesthesia. Fifty five patients had lesions on the face and neck. Other localisations were chest (20 cases), limbs (24 cases), perineum (18 cases) and not recorded in 3 cases. Mean diameter of the lesions was 25.3 mm. Pain occurred during anaesthetic injection in 88.5% of the patients and the score was 5 or more in 42 patients. No pain was recorded during and at the end of the operation in 112 and 118 patients respectively. Fifteen patients would have preferred general to local anaesthesia because of intense pain. Local anaesthesia was judged appropriate by 86% of the patients. However, for lesions of the perineum, general anaesthesia would have been preferred by 38.8% of the patients.
Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory disease of the stratified squamous epithelia of unknown etiology. LP affects most frequently the oral mucosa, but it may also involve other mucosa and the skin. Oral LP (OLP) most frequently affects woman aged between 30 and 60 years. Histopathologic examination typically shows orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, basal cell degeneration, and a dense well-defined infiltrate of lymphocytes in the superficial dermis. OLP lesions may result from the induction of keratinocytes apoptosis by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells stimulated by a yet unidentified self-antigen on a genetically predisposed patient. The association of OLP with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been more consistently demonstrated in the Mediterranean area. Although HCV RNA and HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have been retrieved in the mucosal lesions of patients with chronic HCV infection and OLP, the eventual pathophysiology of HCV in OLP lesions remains unclear. Available treatments of OLP are not curative, and many have potentially prominent side effects. The objectives of OLP management should be to prevent and screen for malignant transformation and alleviate symptoms on the long-term. Avoidance of potential precipitating drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and local trauma, as well as strict oral hygiene, is essential. The first-line pharmacologic treatment relies on topical steroids. Systemic steroids should be limited to the short-term cure of severe refractory OLP. Life-long clinical follow-up, at least annually, is fundamental.
Lopinavir is a potent protease inhibitor (PI) used for the treatment of HIV infection. Different lopinavir target trough concentrations (C(troughs)) were previously determined according to patient treatment histories: 1 mg/l for PI-naive patients, and 4 and 5.7 mg/l for PI-experienced patients. However, the probability to achieve these target C(troughs) with the current 400 mg twice-daily or 800 mg once-daily doses of the new tablet form, and the influence of body weight on this probability are unknown.
There is a lack of large studies appraising the effect of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the course of syphilis since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We aimed to appraise the effect of HIV on clinical and serologic features of syphilis at baseline and during follow-up in the post-HAART era.We designed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive syphilis cases, diagnosed between 2000 and 2007, in an academic venereal disease center. Data were collected using standardized medical forms. Patients were treated according to the European guidelines. Serologic failure was defined as either a 4-fold rise in Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titers 30-400 days posttreatment or a lack of 4-fold drop in VDRL titers at 270-400 days posttreatment.Among 279 syphilis cases with informative baseline clinical and serologic data, HIV infection was significantly associated with men having sex with men, French origin, multiple partners, lesser usage of condom, history of sexually transmitted disease, early syphilis, anal primary chancre, and cutaneous eruption. Median baseline titer from the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) was higher in HIV-infected patients (p = 0.02).Among 144 informative syphilis cases, there was a nonsignificant trend for a lower rate of serologic response among HIV-positive patients (91.8% vs. 98.3%, p = 0.14). Serologic failure was significantly associated with a history of previous syphilis (p < 0.05). The median delay to serologic response was similar in HIV-positive (117 d) and in HIV-negative (123 d) patients (p = 0.44).We conclude that for patients under HAART treatment, the effect of HIV on serologic response to syphilis treatment is likely minimal or absent.
Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae rates have increased worldwide since 1994. The objective of this study was to appraise: (i) the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a venereology clinic in Paris, between 2005 and 2007; and (ii) the factors associated with quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. A prospective study of consecutive cases was performed for the period 2005 to 2007. Susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to five antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, penicillin G and tetracycline) was tested systematically. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected using a standardized form. Male-to-female sex ratio was 22.0. Median age was 30.0 years. Of 115 cases, 84 occurred in men having sex with men (72.6%) and 22 involved the anorectal area (19.1%). The rate of quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae was 37.4% (43/115), without significant association with gender, age, sexual behaviour, past history of sexually transmitted diseases and susceptibility to other antibiotics. All N. gonorrhoeae were susceptible to ceftriaxone and spectinomycin. The rate of quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae in Paris has been increasing since 2004. Ceftriaxone remains the gold standard treatment.
Since 2000, the incidence of syphilis has risen in developed countries. An updated knowledge of syphilis features is the key for early diagnosis and treatment. Our objective was to appraise the clinical and epidemiological presentation of syphilis in Paris, France. A retrospective monocentric descriptive study of 284 consecutive syphilis cases was conducted in a venereal disease centre (Paris, France), over the period 2000-2007. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data were systematically collected, using standardized medical forms. Overall, 95% of the cases occurred in men (271/284), 83% in men having sex with men (MSM) (231/278), 58% in patients having more than 10 partners/year (138/240) and 19% in patients who never use a condom (49/253). At least one STD has been previously diagnosed in 79% (220/279) of the cases. In 50.5% of the cases (142/281), HIV serology was positive. Most patients had primary (82/279, 29%) or secondary (125/279, 45%) syphilis. The most frequent physical signs in primary and secondary syphilis were, respectively, a genital chancre (63/82, 77%) and a diffuse exanthema (108/125, 86%). Syphilis occurs chiefly in MSM, often in HIV-positive patients. Many patients never use condoms. These data will help provide the basis for the development of national information and screening campaigns.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris. It has been shown to activate interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by interacting with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) on the surface of keratinocytes. Nicotinamide has been shown to be an effective treatment for skin inflammation in various conditions, including acne vulgaris.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a skin tumour with neuroendocrine features, was recently found to be associated with a new type of human polyomavirus, called Merkel cell virus (MCV). We investigated the specificity of this association as well as a causal role of MCV in oncogenesis. DNA and RNA from ten cases of MCC were analysed using PCR and RT-PCR. DNA from 1241 specimens of a wide range of human tumours was also analysed. The DIPS technique was used to identify the integration locus of viral DNA sequences. Array CGH was performed to analyse structural alterations of the cell genome. MCV DNA sequences were found in all ten cases of MCC and in none of the 1241 specimens of other tumour types. Clonal integration of MCV into the host genome was seen in all MCC cases and was checked by FISH in one case. A recurrent pattern of conserved viral sequences which encompassed the replication origin, the small tumour (ST), and the 5 part of the large tumour (LT) antigen DNA sequences was observed. Both ST and LT viral sequences were found to be significantly expressed in all MCCs. Neither recurrent site of integration nor alteration of cellular genes located near the viral sequences was observed. The tight association of MCV with MCC, the clonal pattern of MCV integration, and the expression of the viral oncoproteins strongly support a causative role for MCV in the tumour process. This information will help the development of novel approaches for the assessment and therapy of MCC and biologically related tumours.
Psoriasis impairs significantly the quality of life. Systemic treatments have inconstant efficiency and dose-dependant toxicity. Since 2004, four biologic therapies - infliximab, etanercept, éfalizumab and adalimumab - are approved in Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, with failure, intolerance or contra-indication to at least 2 "classical" systemic treatments, including phototherapy, methotrexate and ciclosporin. The estimated rate of patients reaching PASI75 at month 3 are as follow: about 80% under infliximab (classical W0-W2-W6 regimen); about 33% and 50% under etanercept, respectively, 25 and 50mg, twice weekly; about 25% under éfalizumab (1mg/kg, weekly); about 70% under adalimumab (40mg, every other week). The 12-month efficiency of biologic therapies in psoriasis is poorly documented. The long term (5-year or more) safety of biologic therapies is not documented. New biologic therapies are under investigation in the treatment of psoriasis: ustekinumab (CNTO-1275), ABT-874, certolizumab (CDP-870), golimumab (CNTO-148). Ustekinumab is approved in Europe since January 2009.
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) is a rare recessive autosomal genodermatosis predisposing to multiple early onset skin cancers, including melanoma. XPV results from mutations of the POLH gene that encodes a DNA translesion polymerase. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that POLH variants could be associated with melanoma risk.
Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous follicles. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a gram-positive anareobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of these inflammatory lesions. This study aimed at determining whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by keratinocytes upon P. acnes infection, dissecting the mechanism of this production, and investigating how this phenomenon integrates in the general inflammatory response induced by P. acnes. In our hands, ROS, and especially superoxide anions (O2(*-)), were rapidly produced by keratinocytes upon stimulation by P. acnes surface proteins. In P. acnes-stimulated keratinocytes, O2(*-) was produced by NAD(P)H oxidase through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36. O2(*-) was dismuted by superoxide dismutase to form hydrogen peroxide which was further detoxified into water by the GSH/GPx system. In addition, P. acnes-induced O2(*-) abrogated P. acnes growth and was involved in keratinocyte lysis through the combination of O2(*-) with nitric oxide to form peroxynitrites. Finally, retinoic acid derivates, the most efficient anti-acneic drugs, prevent O2(*-) production, IL-8 release and keratinocyte apoptosis, suggesting the relevance of this pathway in humans.
Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon soft tissue vascular neoplasm. Intraperitoneal hemangiopericytomas such as primary or secondary liver location have been exceptionally described. Its natural history is mostly benign, but recurrences may occur and determining if these late-discovered tumors are distant metastases or synchronous slow and silent-growing locations is sometimes challenging. The histopathological diagnosis and definition of hemangiopericytoma is based on its distinction with solitary fibrous tumors. Liver resection to treat liver hemangiopericytoma seems to be supported by various published experiences.
Clinical symptoms of syphilis are the consequence of the spirochete propensity to induce persistent chronic inflammation, which could participate to oxidative stress increase. The present study was designed to evaluate the level of oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defences in a cohort of syphilitic patients. Serum oxidative status was explored in 63 patients diagnosed with early syphilis, 34 consulting patients negative for syphilis and 19 healthy controls. Total plasma thioredoxin (Trx) and thiols were determined as antioxidant capacity markers, °NO, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and protein carbonyl levels as oxidative stress status biomarkers, and CRP as marker of inflammation. Mean serum levels of Trx, AOPP, carbonyls, and nitrates/nitrites were significantly higher, whereas thiols level was lower in syphilitic patients compared to non-syphilitic patients and healthy controls (respectively, p < 0.05/p < 0.01 for Trx, p < 0.005/p < 0.0001 for AOPP, p < 0.05/p < 0.005 for carbonyls, p < 0.005/p < 0.05 for nitrates/nitrites and p < 0.01/p < 0.0001 for thiols). According to the stage of the disease, results highlighted a marked and sustained oxidative stress imbalance from the first stage to the latent period of the disease. Moreover, syphilitic patients presented a low inflammation status reflected by median of CRP level (1.7 mg/L, range 5th-95th percentile from <0.1 to 33.7 mg/L), correlated with antioxidant capacity decrease (thiols) at stage 1 (r = -0.725; p < 0.0001) and nitrosative stress increase (nitrates/nitrites) at stage 2 and latent (respectively, r = 0.285, p < 0.05 and r = 0.650, p < 0.05). These findings indicate that at all stages of the disease, despite a low-grade inflammatory state, syphilis infection generates a major oxidative and nitrosative stress which may be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease.
Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a well-characterised antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-positive vasculitis in cocaine abuser patients. However, due to the short half-life of levamisole in serum and urine, the causal role of levamisole is not established. Here we report the detection of both levamisole and cocaine in hair samples of a patient who presented with an ANCA-positive vasculitis. The higher concentration of levamisole in proximal sample of the hair confirms that the patient abused of cocaine added with levamisole in the days preceding the development of skin lesions. Although a direct causative role has not been established, our report strongly suggests that levamisole may have triggered vasculitis in this case.
T-cell responses (proliferation, intracellular cytokine synthesis and IFN? ELISPOT) against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E2 peptides were tested during 18 months in a longitudinal study in eight women presenting with HPV16-related usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and their healthy male partners. In six women, anti-E2 proliferative responses and cytokine production (single IFN? and/or dual IFN?/IL2 and/or single IL2) by CD4+ T lymphocytes became detectable after treating and healing of the usual VIN. In the women presenting with persistent lesions despite therapy, no proliferation was observed. Anti-E2 proliferative responses were also observed with dual IFN?/IL2 production by CD4+ T-cells in six male partners who did not exhibit any genital HPV-related diseases. Ex vivo IFN? ELISPOT showed numerous effector T-cells producing IFN? after stimulation by a dominant E2 peptide in all men and women. Since the E2 protein is absent from the viral particles but is required for viral DNA replication, these results suggest a recent infection with replicative HPV16 in male partners. The presence of polyfunctional anti-E2 T-cell responses in the blood of asymptomatic men unambiguously establishes HPV infection even without detectable lesions. These results, despite the small size of the studied group, provide an argument in favor of prophylactic HPV vaccination of young men in order to prevent HPV16 infection and viral transmission from men to women.
In patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), activated fibroblasts produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that stimulate their proliferation and collagen synthesis. By analogy with tumor cells that undergo apoptosis upon cytotoxic treatment that increases ROS levels beyond a lethal threshold, we tested whether activated fibroblasts could be selectively killed by the cytotoxic molecule arsenic trioxide (As(2) O(3) ) in a murine model of SSc.
Chronic meningococcemia is a form of sepsis with frequent polymorphous skin lesions. Both in vivo and in vitro data suggest that, in these lesions, meningococci gain access from the capillary lumen to the peripheral extravascular compartment, in the absence of vascular dislocation, through a paraendothelial route.
The type I cryoglobulins (CGs) account for 10-15% of all cryoglobulins and are found in patients with hematological disorders. We here describe the largest series of seven cases of type I cryoglobulinemia associated with multiple myeloma (MM) and provide a detailed review of the literature associated with this disorder, with the aim of improving the future diagnosis and therapeutic management of this rare disease. Six of the cases in our series were men aged 28-69 years, and most of the subject patients had an immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal component and stage I indolent MM that manifested as cryoglobulin-related symptoms. The patients were all karyotypically normal. Clinical manifestations in this group were: skin lesions (five cases, 71.4%), rheumatologic failure (four cases, 57.1%), neurological abnormalities (two cases, 28.6%), mixed cutaneous/rheumatologic/renal defects (one case, 14.3%) and one case in which the cryoglobulinemia was asymptomatic. Two patients experienced acute renal failure but underwent a full recovery following treatment for MM. We conclude from our analysis that treatment approaches for severe type I cryoglobulinemia should involve plasmapheresis at the onset to achieve a rapid control of the CG-related symptoms, and that specific MM treatments should be introduced also at an early stage to avoid cryoglobulinemia relapse. In this context, bortezomib and lenalidomide are potentially the most effective therapeutic agents.
: Trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) is a unique clinical and histological entity described in immunosuppressed patients. The recent discovery of genomic DNA from a new Polyomavirus named trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated Polyomavirus in TS lesions and good clinical response to cidofovir strengthens the hypothesis of a viral etiology for the disease. The authors report a case of TS associated with lupus erythematosus in a 26-year-old woman with no history of transplant, hemopathy, or cyclosporine treatment. The patient developed a progressive worsening eruption composed of confluent papules and spiky filiform excrescences concentrated in the midfacial area. Pathological features were characterized by aberrant distended and abnormally maturated hair follicles with sheets of eosinophilic cells containing large purple granules, and the presence of trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated Polyomavirus DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. This case is the first description in a nontransplanted lupus patient without underlying hemopathy.
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