Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data.
As anthropogenic stressors increase exponentially in the coming decades, native vertebrates will likely face increasing threats from these novel challenges. The success or failure of the primary physiological mediator of these stressors--the HPA axis--will likely involve numerous and chaotic outcomes. Among the most challenging of these new threats are invasive species. These have the capacity to simultaneously challenge the HPA axis and the immune system as they are often associated with, or the cause of, emerging infectious diseases, and energetic tradeoffs with the HPA response can have immunosuppressive effects. To determine the effects of invasive species on the vertebrate GC response to a novel stressor, and on immunity, we examined the effects of invasive fire ants on native lizards, comparing lizards from sites with long histories with fire ants to those outside the invasion zone. We demonstrated higher baseline and acute stress (captive restraint) CORT levels in lizards from within fire ant invaded areas; females are more strongly affected than males, suggesting context-specific effects of invasion. We found no effect of fire ant invasion on the immune parameters we measured (complement bacterial lysis and antibody hemagglutination) with the exception of ectoparasite infestation. Mites were far less prevalent on lizards within fire ant invaded sites, suggesting fire ants may actually benefit lizards in this regard. This study suggests that invasive species may impose physiological stress on native vertebrates, but that the consequences of this stress may be complicated and unpredictable.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.