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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices.
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Post-treatment appearances, pitfalls, and patterns of failure in head and neck cancer on FDG PET/CT imaging.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Majority of patients with head and neck cancer are treated with combined treatment regimes such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The loss of structural symmetry and imaging landmarks as a result of therapy makes post-treatment imaging a daunting task on conventional modalities like computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as on 18 Fluorine-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (18F FDG PET/CT). Combined multimodality treatment approach causes various tissue changes that give rise to a spectrum of findings on FDG PET/CT imaging, which are depicted in this atlas along with a few commonly encountered imaging pitfalls. The incremental value of FDG PET/CT in detecting locoregional recurrences in the neck as well as distant failures has also been demonstrated.
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Relative value of ultrasound, computed tomography and positron emission tomography imaging in the clinically node-negative neck in oral cancer.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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To determine the most accurate noninvasive imaging modality for occult metastasis in clinically node-negative necks in oral squamous cell carcinoma from a granulomatous disease endemic region.
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Imaging spectrum of peritoneal carcinomatosis on FDG PET/CT.
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Recognition of patterns has always been extremely important in cross-sectional imaging. Peritoneal involvement, both primary and as dissemination from abdominopelvic malignancies, is manifested in different forms, purely because of anatomical complexity. We studied series of peritoneal involvement by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging and derived patterns of tracer uptake on maximum intensity projection and cross-sectional fusion images.
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Segmental "misty mesentery" on FDG PET/CT: an uncommon manifestation of mesenteric lymphoma.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Mesenteric lymphomas are commonly seen as bulky hypermetabolic nodal masses on F-FDG PET/CT. Very rarely, these are seen as mesenteric haziness due to localized hyperattenuation of fat, known as "misty mesentery", which morphological imaging-wise has other differentials as well. We report a unique imaging finding of segmental misty mesentery with hypermetabolic mesenteric nodes on FDG PET/CT in a patient who was kept on observation due to inconclusive biopsy, which on follow-up imaging progressed to extensive lymphomatous involvement. Thus, in retrospect, this imaging feature on baseline PET/CT was diagnostic for mesenteric lymphoma.
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PET reconstruction artifact can be minimized by using sinogram correction and filtered back-projection technique.
Indian J Radiol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) has become an outdated image reconstruction technique in new-generation positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners. Iterative reconstruction used in all new-generation PET scanners is a much improved reconstruction technique. Though a well-calibrated PET system can only be used for clinical imaging in few situations like ours, when compromised PET scanner with one PET module bypassed was used for PET acquisition, FBP with sinogram correction proved to be a better reconstruction technique to minimize streak artifact present in the image reconstructed by the iterative technique.
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Extraskeletal osteosarcoma: An uncommon variant with rare metastatic sites detected with FDG PET/CT.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare malignancy, which commonly presents with metastatic disease. Like their osteogenic counterparts, these tumors commonly metastasize to lungs and bones. We report the fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in a case of ESOS presenting with a combination of rare metastatic sites such as brain, kidney and the bone marrow.
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Response assessment in metronomic chemotherapy: RECIST or PERCIST?
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Metronomic chemotherapy (MC) is a novel therapeutic variation for resistant cancers, wherein chemotherapeutic drugs are administrated in low doses with no prolonged drug-free break. It lessens the level of toxicity, is better tolerated and enhances the quality of life. This retrospective analysis was undertaken to evaluate whether anatomical (computed tomography [CT]) or functional (positron emission tomography [PET]) imaging be used for response assessment in patients on MC.
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Incremental value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in therapeutic decision-making of potentially curable esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The aim of the study was to estimate the incremental value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) in aiding treatment decisions in a specific cohort of patients with lower esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who were considered for potentially curative treatment on the basis of conventional imaging.
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Can Multiparametric MRI and FDG-PET Predict Outcome in Diffuse Brainstem Glioma? A Report from a Prospective Phase-II Study.
Pediatr Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Purpose: To study the impact of multiparametric MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET on the outcome of children with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). Materials and Methods: Imaging data from a phase-II prospective therapeutic study in children with newly diagnosed DIPG were considered for evaluation. They included baseline MRI with contrast enhancement before treatment. Functional imaging included MR spectroscopy, MR perfusion and FDG-PET studies. All patients (n = 20) had baseline MRI and 11 patients had FDG-PET. Response was assessed by MRI and PET 4 weeks after therapy. Baseline imaging findings were correlated with survival. Presence or absence of adverse parameters on MRI (heterogeneous contrast enhancement, hyperperfusion or increased choline:NAA ratio) was used to develop a cumulative radiological prognostic index (RPI). Sensitivity and specificity of each imaging modality in tumour grading was estimated. Results: The cumulative RPI was able to classify the patients into different grades and was predictive of overall survival (p = 0.02). MR perfusion also predicted survival (p = 0.039). Sensitivity and specificity of MRI and FDG-PET to detect low-grade gliomas were low to moderate (33-66%), but moderate to high in detecting high-grade gliomas (50-100%). Baseline FDG uptake on PET scan did not correlate with survival (p = 0.7). Conclusions: Cumulative RPI was able to classify tumours into different grades and predicted clinical outcome. At baseline, MR hyperperfusion indicated a shorter survival for DIPG patients. Sensitivity and specificity of imaging modalities to detect low-grade gliomas were poor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Report of two cases of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography appearance of hibernoma: A rare benign tumor.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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False-positive findings are commonly seen in positron emission tomography computed tomography imaging. One of the most common false positive finding is uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in brown adipose tissue. Herein, we report two cases with incidentally detected hibernomas-a brown fat containing tumor with metabolic activity.
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Stair-step artifact seen in coronal and sagittal reformatted images because of misalignment of computed tomography tube, in a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanner.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Reconstruction artifacts often affect the image quality. An unusual wavy imaging pattern was seen on computed tomography (CT) part of positron emission tomography/CT, on sagittal and coronal images. This pattern was corrected on realignment of CT tube. This artifact, popularly known as stair step artifact, is rarely cited in the literature and our case generates a practical scenario of how it affects the image quality and how it is corrected.
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Broncho-esophageal fistula leading to lung abscess: A life-threatening emergency detected on FDG PET/CT in a case of carcinoma of middle third esophagus.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Sinister undesirable pathologies often accompany malignancies. Though the entire emphasis is on cancer management, these benign conditions are more life-threatening than the primary malignancy itself. We report an interesting imaging finding of broncho-esophageal fistula leading to lung abscess on (18)F- fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in large middle esophageal cancer, which due to early detection, was promptly managed.
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Hepatic metastasis disguised as fat spared area in the background of fatty liver: Detection on FDG PET/CT.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Area of fat sparing in fatty liver is known to pose a diagnostic challenge in an oncological setting, especially in cancers with higher propensity for liver metastases. We report an unusual appearance of hepatic metastases in a fat spared area, on both computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET), in a combined 18 fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) PET/CT study done in metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon.
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Stage IV lung cancer: Is cure possible?
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Reporting a case, 53 years old male with stage IV Nonsamall cell lung cancer in view of cytologically proven malignant pleural effusion. Usually the management of stage IV lung cancer is with palliative intent where the patient receives palliative chemotherapy along with palliative radiotherapy and surgery if required. Most of the data on curative management of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer includes patient with adrenal metastasis and some reports with brain metastasis. There is scarce literature on the surgical management of stage IV lung cancer with pleural effusion.
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Four rare extranodal sites seen on FDG PET/CT in a single patient of disseminated lymphoma.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Extranodal disease refers to lymphomatous infiltration of anatomic sites other than lymph nodes. With the advent of FDG PET/CT for staging, rare sites of extranodal disease have been documented. We report a case of Non- Hodgkins lymphoma with four rare extranodal sites, namely adrenal, peripheral nerves, pancreas and prostate, in the same patient, detected on FDG PET/CT imaging.
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Extensive tumor thrombus of hepatocellular carcinoma in the entire portal venous system detected on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Detection of thrombus is usually an incidental finding on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies. Nevertheless this is an important finding in terms of disease prognostication and in planning the treatment strategy. We herein report a case of a 50-years-old male, a diagnosed case of hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hypermetabolic thrombus involving the entire portal venous system.
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Autoimmune pancreatitis: An incidental detection on FDG PET/CT with response to steroid therapy.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is most often incidentally detected, with the diagnosis being based on radiological characteristics. A steroid regimen for 6 weeks is the standard line of treatment for AIP. In our case, AIP was incidentally suspected on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed for staging a malignancy, and a follow-up PET/CT study after steroid treatment, showed complete metabolic and morphological response; thus confirming the imaging diagnosis of AIP.
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90Y microsphere therapy: does 90Y PET/CT imaging obviate the need for 90Y Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT imaging?
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Transarterial radioembolization using Y microspheres is a novel therapeutic option for inoperable hepatic malignancies. As these spheres are radiolucent, real-time assessment of their distribution during the infusion process under fluoroscopic guidance is not possible. Bremsstrahlung radiations arising from 90Y have conventionally been used for imaging its biodistribution. Recent studies have proved that sources of 90Y also emit positrons, which can further be used for PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of 90Y PET/CT imaging in evaluating microsphere distributions and to compare its findings with those of Bremsstrahlung imaging.
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Identification of a unique cause of ring artifact seen in computed tomography trans-axial images.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Artifacts present in computed tomography (CT) image often degrade the image quality and ultimately, the diagnostic outcome. Ring artifact in trans-axial image is caused by either miscalibrated or defective detector element of detector row, which is often categorized as scanner based artifact. A ring artifact detected on trans-axial CT image of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), was caused by contamination of CT tube aperture by droplet of injectable contrast medium. This artifact was corrected by removal of contrast droplet from CT tube aperture. The ring artifact is a very common artifact, commonly cited in the literature. Our case puts forward an uncommon cause of this artifact and its method of correction, which also, has no mention in the existing literature.
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Intense focal Fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake in the lungs with no corresponding computed tomography abnormality.
Lung India
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Scenario such as uptake of Fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) with no corresponding abnormality on computed tomography (CT) is encountered in case of brown fat uptake. However, it is rarely encountered in the lung parenchyma. We report one such case of a focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no corresponding CT abnormality, in a treated case of hypopharyngeal cancer.
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Isolated mandibular condylar metastases: an uncommon manifestation of recurrent cervical cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Bone metastases from recurrent cervical cancer is a rare scenario, with commonly involved sites being lumbar spine and pelvic bones report an extremely rare manifestation of cervical cancer recurrence presenting as a painful jaw swelling due to metastasis to the mandibular condyle.
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FDG PET/CT detects clinically occult pancreatic cancer in a case of Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare, inherited, multisystem disorder that is characterized by development of a variety of benign and malignant tumors. We report an incidental detection of clinically occult pancreatic malignancy on FDG PET/CT in a patient of VHL who underwent restaging for a previously treated endolymphatic sac tumor.
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Use of FDG/PET CT to diagnose malignancy as the cause of mucocele of the appendix.
Indian J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Mucocele of the appendix is an uncommon condition characterized by luminal distension and accumulation of a mucoid material. Occasionally, it can be caused due to malignancy like cystadenocarcinoma, and the preoperative diagnosis of which is very rare. We report a case of a 64-year-old lady presenting with intermittent abdominal pain diagnosed on ultrasonography as a mucocele where preoperative (18)F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) findings raised a strong suspicion of malignancy. FDG PET/CT findings brought about a change in therapeutic plan, and the patient was considered for a more extensive surgical resection. The final histopathology revealed cystadenocarcinoma as the cause of appendicular mucocele, a finding hitherto undescribed on FDG PET/CT.
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18F-FDG PET/CT-directed biopsy: does it offer incremental benefit?
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To study whether the metabolic information provided by a prior PET/computed tomography (CT) scan can add valuable information and an incremental benefit while performing image-guided biopsies.
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EGFR mutations in Indian lung cancer patients: clinical correlation and outcome to EGFR targeted therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Screening for EGFR mutation is a key molecular test for management of lung cancer patients. Outcome of patients with mutation receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor is known to be better across different ethnic populations. However, frequency of EGFR mutations and the clinical response in most other ethnic populations, including India, remains to be explored. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Indian lung cancer patients who were managed with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Majority of the patients in the study had adenocarcinoma and were non-smokers. 39/111 patients tested positive for EGFR kinase domain mutations determined by Taqman based real time PCR. The overall response to oral TKI therapy was 30%. Patients with an activating mutation of EGFR had a response rate of 74%, while the response rate in patients with wild type EGFR was 5%, which was a statistically significant difference. Progression free survival of patients with EGFR mutations was 10 months compared to 2 months for EGFR mutation negative patients. Overall survival was 19 months for EGFR mutation patients and 13 months for mutation negative patients. This study emphasizes EGFR mutation as an important predictive marker for response to oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the Indian population.
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A rare variant of Caffeys disease - X-rays, bone scan and FDG PET findings.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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An 18-month-old boy with history of fever of 4 months duration and with swelling of the limbs was referred for a bone scan. There were multiple swellings over his upper and lower limbs, with bowing of the lower limbs. His radiological skeletal survey revealed marked periosteal new bone formation surrounding the diaphysis of long bones. A bone scan done with 99m Tc-MDP showed diffusely increased tracer uptake in all the long bones. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan done to assess the metabolic activity showed patchy FDG uptake in the long bones, ankle joint and anterior ends of few ribs. His clinical and imaging findings led to the diagnosis of Caffeys disease.
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"Very Late" isolated para-aortic nodal recurrence of carcinoma cervix mimicking radiation-induced sarcoma.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Only a minority of the patients who develop recurrence after definitive treatment for cervical cancer are detected after 5 years (late recurrence); the numbers are lesser still after 10 years (very late recurrence). Among the infrequent cases that do develop "late" and "very late" recurrence, the commonest site is the pelvis. We report an unusually rare recurrence of treated cervical cancer confined to the para-aortic nodal group after a protracted disease-free interval of 13 years. On the basis of the long disease-free interval, location of the mass at the periphery of the radiation field, and aggressive imaging appearance, a diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma was considered. However, the final diagnosis of isolated para-aortic nodal recurrence of cervical cancer was rendered based on the histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings, supported by the absence of disease elsewhere on whole-body imaging.
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Bone infarct-associated sarcoma detected on FDG PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Secondary sarcomas arising on the background of a bone infarct are extremely uncommon. Based on the knowledge of classic imaging patterns, however, lesions like bone infarcts can be recognized during positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies, which are now being performed increasingly in cancer patients. We demonstrate the detection of this rare entity on positron emission tomography/computed tomography and its correlation on magnetic resonance imaging in a 56-year-old man with asymptomatic multifocal osteonecrosis secondary to steroid treatment for polymyositis.
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Therapeutic response to radiofrequency ablation of neoplastic lesions: FDG PET/CT findings.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Ablation of neoplastic lesions by using radiofrequency energy is gaining popularity in clinical practice because of the minimally invasive nature of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Primary and secondary tumors of the liver and lung are treated with RFA when surgery is precluded because of comorbidity. Benign bone tumors are also treated with RFA to relieve pain and prevent further tumor growth. Differentiation between postablation tissue changes and residual disease is difficult with morphologic imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, thus limiting the use of these modalities to detection of residual disease early after RFA. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality that can be used to study the effects and efficacy of RFA. Lesions that show increased FDG uptake at PET become completely photopenic immediately after RFA, a finding that is suggestive of the completeness of ablation. Focal areas of increased FDG uptake within the ablated zone are suggestive of residual disease. Reactive tissue changes such as inflammation are depicted in the periphery of the ablated lesion and show a uniform low-grade FDG uptake, which can be differentiated from the focal, nodular intense uptake in areas of residual disease. Use of combined FDG PET/CT to detect residual disease early after RFA allows ablation to be repeated, if necessary, to obtain the maximum therapeutic benefit. Note that FDG uptake in the complications sometimes associated with RFA can be a cause of potential false-positive PET results.
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Bilateral renal metastases in a case of Merkel cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Merkel cell carcinoma is a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. It is a highly aggressive tumor which commonly metastasizes to lymph nodes, liver, lung and bone. The diagnosis is based on histology and immunohistochemistry. Renal metastasis, with sparing of other common sites of hematogenous spread (lung and liver), is a unique feature of this case.
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Cervical extension of the thymus mimicking metastatic recurrence of Ewing sarcoma on PET/CT.
Indian J Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2010
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Occasionally the thymus may extend in the neck, from its normal location in the anterior mediastinum. The cervical extension, especially when the native thymus is hyperplastic, can mimic a mass. We describe the detection of cervical extension of the hyperplastic thymus, presenting as a suspicious recurrent soft tissue mass in the neck in a patient with Ewings sarcoma.
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Multiple FDG-avid sclerosing hemangiomas mimicking pulmonary metastases in a case of soft tissue sarcoma.
Cancer Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Non-neoplastic lesions have been known to mimic malignancies and metastases on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We report the rare occurrence of multiple fluorodeoxyglucose-concentrating sclerosing hemangiomas in a patient with soft tissue sarcoma mimicking lung metastases.
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Metastatic recurrence of an intracranial hemangiopericytoma 8 years after treatment: report of a case with emphasis on the role of PET/CT in follow-up.
Cancer Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Intracranial meningeal hemangiopericytomas are rare tumors that can mimic meningioma on imaging and on histopathology. However, these tumors are more aggressive with a tendency for local and metastatic recurrence, sometimes after a prolonged symptom-free interval. We report an unusual metastatic recurrence of an intracranial hemangiopericytoma, 8 years after surgery for the primary tumor and discuss the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the follow-up of these patients.
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Colorectal cancer - patterns of locoregional recurrence and distant metastases as demonstrated by FDG PET / CT.
Indian J Radiol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) can recur locoregionally or at distant sites. Timely diagnosis of recurrence is of paramount importance, as radical treatment of the localized disease can prolong survival. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT) is routinely used in restaging and surveillance of colorectal cancer, as it can demonstrate recurrent disease with good accuracy. This article illustrates the spectrum of standard as well as unusual patterns of local recurrence and distant metastases of colorectal cancer.
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Newer imaging techniques in head and neck cancer.
Indian J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Computerized tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging form the backbone of head and neck cancer imaging. This review describes the role of newer functional imaging techniques like diffusion weighted MR imaging and perfusion imaging in head and neck cancers. A review of the current role of PET-CT in head and neck tumors is also included in this article.
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Oxidised regenerated cellulose: an unusual cause of paraplegia following oesophagectomy.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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Oesophageal resection after neoadjuvant therapy is the treatment of choice in localized oesophageal cancer. Common complications after oesophagectomy include pulmonary infection and anastomotic leaks. Paraplegia or paraparesis after oesophagectomy is an extremely uncommon occurrence and has not been reported in medical literature. Possible causes include injury to the spinal cord due to epidural catheter insertion, epidural haematoma and anterior spinal artery thrombosis. Pressure on the spinal cord due to migrated oxidised regenerated cellulose (ORC) is an extremely rare cause. Meticulous haemostasis at the costovertebral angle with a combination of pressure and electrocautery is advocated to prevent this rare but catastrophic complication. We describe a middle aged woman who developed post-thoracotomy paraplegia following ORC compression on the spinal cord.
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Diagnostic performance of response assessment FDG-PET/CT in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with high-precision definitive (chemo)radiation.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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To prospectively assess diagnostic performance of response assessment fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients with HNSCC treated with high-precision definitive (chemo)radiation.
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Integrated PET/CT in evaluating sarcomatous transformation in osteochondromas.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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To study the role of PET-CT in evaluating sarcomatous transformation in osteochondromas.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma recurring as isolated endobronchial metastasis 8 years after primary surgery.
J Thorac Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Metastasis to the bronchus from an extrathoracic primary is a rare event. Most endobronchial lesions are primary lung malignancies. Breast, colon, and kidney are the most common primary tumors associated with endobronchial metastases. We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma that presented with hemoptysis due to endobronchial metastasis 8 years after primary surgery. Indolent course of the primary hepatocellular carcinoma and the solitary site of endobronchial recurrence prompted a surgical resection of the endobronchial metastasis.
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Duplicated gall bladder detected on 99m Tc HIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy: A report of two cases.
Indian J Nucl Med
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Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare condition often found incidentally; most of these detected on screening Ultrasonography (USG) for abdominal colic. Nuclear hepatobiliary scan, popularly known as hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan, with its biliary kinetics, is highly specific for picking up abnormalities related to biliary tract and GB. We report two cases of duplication of GB visualized on HIDA scan. First case highlights the role of HIDA scan in diagnosis of duplicated GB, where USG was equivocal with a number of differentials, whereas in the second case, HIDA helped to rule out obstruction in this case of duplicated GB identified on USG; ruling out biliary cause for the abdominal colic.
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Incidentally detected grade 3 cystocele on FDG PET/CT in a case of suspected malignancy.
Indian J Nucl Med
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Unexpected findings are seen on FDG PET/CT outside the primary site of abnormality. Such incidental findings are common in the genitourinary tract due to normal urinary excretion of FDG. We report a case of incidentally detected grade 3 cystocele in a patient who underwent FDG PET/CT study for a suspected lung malignancy.
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Hypermetabolic subcutaneous fat in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy treatment: Subtle finding with implications.
Indian J Nucl Med
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Lipodystrophy (LD) is a serious complication of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, characterized by peripheral fat wasting, central adiposity and metabolic changes. Since the disfiguration caused by LD is permanent, the focus of management is on early detection to arrest progression. We report a case where ancillary finding of increased fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake in the sub-cutaneous fat helped early detection of LD and led to early intervention to arrest progression. Though F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan is not recommended to diagnose LD, conscious reporting of this finding when present can greatly influence patient management.
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A pictoral review on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in neuroendocrine tumors: The role of multimodality imaging with SRS and GLUT receptor imaging with FDG PET-CT.
Indian J Radiol Imaging
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Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is considered as a comprehensive imaging modality for many neuroendocrine tumors. Multiple radiotracers using combinations of gamma or positron emitting radionuclides and tracers are now available. Newer radiopharmaceuticals using (99m)Tc labeled with TOC, TATE, NOC are good alternatives to the 68 - Gallium radiotracers where the PET facility is not available. The pictoral depicts the role of SRS using 99m TC - HYNIC -TOC radiotracers in staging and treatment planning of NETs. Characterization of the tumor biology using combined SRS and FDG PET/CT is also demonstrated with a proposed categorization method. The emerging role of SRS in tailored targeted radionuclide therapy is outlined in brief.
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Etiology and significance of incidentally detected focal colonic uptake on FDG PET/CT.
Indian J Radiol Imaging
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Incidental colonic uptake of 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) is not an infrequent finding encountered during whole body positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Almost all studies on this topic are in Western populations, which have a markedly different epidemiological profile for colorectal premalignant and malignant conditions as compared to that of the Indian subcontinent.
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Noninvasive approaches to diagnose intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: 18F-FLT PET/CT and 99mTc-SC SPECT/CT scintigraphy.
Clin Nucl Med
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Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to the presence of hematopoietic elements in locations other than the bone marrow medullary space. It occurs as a compensatory mechanism to impaired hematopoiesis resulting from a variety of pathological conditions. Because of the hazards of biopsy of a highly vascular hematopoietic mass, it is desirable to establish the diagnosis noninvasively. We report a case where 18F-fluoro-3deoxy-L-thymidine PET/CT and 99mTc-SC scintigraphy were used as a noninvasive modality to diagnose extramedullary hematopoiesis.
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Role of delayed imaging to differentiate intense physiological 18F FDG uptake from peritoneal deposits in patients presenting with intestinal obstruction.
Clin Nucl Med
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One of the main limitations of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is false-positive tracer uptake by physiological and inflammatory conditions. Continuing FDG accumulation occurs in tumors, but not in inflammatory lesions, and dual time-point FDG PET can be useful for differentiating benign from malignant conditions. Experience is rather limited, and its application in the assessment of tumors inside peritoneal cavity has been rarely reported. We present 2 cases where dual time-point FDG PET imaging proved essential in differentiating intense physiological tracer uptake from peritoneal deposits in patients with intestinal obstruction.
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18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography-based gross tumor volume estimation and validation with magnetic resonance imaging for locally advanced cervical cancers.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
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Anatomy and morphology-based imaging is routinely used for radiotherapy purpose to deliver precision treatment. There is an interest in using information from functional imaging for conformal radiation therapy planning. These functional imaging techniques need to be validated rigorously before their routine use. We attempted to evaluate and validate the use of 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (¹?FDG PET-CT) on primary tumor of the cervical carcinoma, with an aim of arriving at a cutoff maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at which the tumor volume correlates best with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This observational study was a part of an ethics committee-approved study evaluating pretreatment MRI and FDG PET-CT.
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Comparative analysis of hepatopulmonary shunt obtained from pretherapy 99mTc MAA scintigraphy and post-therapy 90Y Bremsstrahlung imaging in 90Y microsphere therapy.
Nucl Med Commun
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(99m)Tc macroaggregate albumin (MAA) scintigraphy is routinely used to estimate the hepatopulmonary shunt (HPS) of (90)Y microspheres because of their comparable average particle sizes (20-30 µm). However, the MAA particle size can vary from 10 to 90 µm. Therefore, HPS computed from (99m)Tc MAA scintigraphy may not accurately represent the HPS of (90)Y microspheres. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to investigate the accuracy of (99m)Tc MAA scintigraphy in estimating the HPS of (90)Y microspheres.
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Imaging findings in a rare case of extra-articular chondrocalcinosis.
Clin Nucl Med
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We report the imaging findings in extra-articular chondrocalcinosis in a 53-year-old man with swelling and pain in right scapular area for 1 year. Plain radiography showed a right scapular area calcific mass. The clinical suspicion was of a soft tissue sarcoma. As a part of diagnostic workup, a bone scan and a PET/CT scan were done. Bone scan revealed intense MDP uptake in the right scapular area. FDG PET/CT revealed intense FDG uptake in the mass. The biopsy revealed chondrocalcinosis. This is an addition to our long list of causes of extraosseous uptake of MDP.
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Bone Marrow Metastases in an Otherwise Operable Gall Bladder Cancer: Rare Site of Distant Metastases Detected on FDG PET/CT.
Clin Nucl Med
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Primary carcinoma of gall bladder is a highly aggressive malignancy, most often detected in late stage in majority of the affected patients. It commonly spreads to the adjacent liver parenchyma and, via lymphatics, to mesenteric nodes. Extra-abdominal metastatic sites are extremely rare, with lung being the commonest site. We report a rare occurrence of isolated asymptomatic bone marrow metastases from gall bladder cancer, in the absence of locoregional adenopathy, detected on whole-body F-FDG PET/CT at initial staging.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.