Delayed tooth eruption is a common problem in many orthodontic patients. This delay may lead to other problems, such as injury to the adjacent tooth, non-vitalization, mucogingival and esthetic problems, etc. Multidisciplinary management is essential when the canines of orthodontic patients have failed to erupt on time. This involves combined surgical and orthodontic intervention. This overview and case report presents special considerations required in treating such cases. Methods: A combined surgical and orthodontic treatment approach is essential in dealing with such cases. The type of surgery depends on correct localization of the canine along with evaluation of certain criteria to determine the correct method for uncovering the tooth. Results: Success of the treatment in such cases should be defined as long-term desirable esthetics and sound periodontal condition. Thorough treatment planning based on specific criteria would ensure this. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach, atraumatic surgery, and judicious use of orthodontic forces can ensure an excellent result in form, function, and esthetics in cases with delayed canine eruption.
Salmonella Typhi, first isolated in 1884, results in infection of the intestines and can end in death and disability. Due to serious adverse events post vaccination, whole cell killed vaccines have been replaced with new generation vaccines. The efficacy of Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine, a new generation, single-dose intramuscular typhoid vaccine was assessed in Nepal in 1987. However, despite the availability of ViPS vaccine for more than 25 years, Nepal has one of the highest incidence of typhoid fever. Therefore we collected information from hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley from over the past five years. There were 9901 enteric fever cases between January 2008 and July 2012. 1,881 of these were confirmed typhoid cases from five hospitals in the Kathmandu district. Approximately 70% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. 1281 cases were confirmed as S. Paratyphi. Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa.
The Helicobacter pylori (Hp) Asp-tRNA(Asn)/Glu-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase (AdT) plays important roles in indirect aminoacylation and translational fidelity. AdT has two active sites, in two separate subunits. Kinetic studies have suggested that interdomain communication occurs between these subunits; however, this mechanism is not well understood. To explore domain-domain communication in AdT, we adapted an assay and optimized it to kinetically characterize the kinase activity of Hp AdT. This assay was applied to the analysis of a series of point mutations at conserved positions throughout the putative AdT ammonia tunnel that connects the two active sites. Several mutations that caused significant decreases in AdTs kinase activity (reduced by 55-75%) were identified. Mutations at Thr149 (37 Å distal to the GatB kinase active site) and Lys89 (located at the interface of GatA and GatB) were detrimental to AdTs kinase activity, suggesting that these mutations have disrupted interdomain communication between the two active sites. Models of wild-type AdT, a valine mutation at Thr149, and an arginine mutation at Lys89 were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison of wild-type, T149V, and K89R AdT simulation results unmasks 59 common residues that are likely involved in connecting the two active sites.
Papillon-Lefevre syndrome is a rare (1-4 cases per million) autosomal recessive disorder showing predominantly oral and dermatological manifestations in the form of aggressive periodontitis affecting both primary and permanent dentition and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Genetic studies have shown that mutations in the major gene locus of chromosome 11q14 with loss of function of cathepsin C gene are responsible for Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. This report presents two siblings with classic signs and symptoms of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. The exact cause for periodontal destruction in patients with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome is not known but it is thought to be due to defect in neutrophil function, immune suppression and mutations in cathepsin C gene.
Many bacteria lack genes encoding asparaginyl- and/or glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase and consequently rely on an indirect path for the synthesis of both Asn-tRNA(Asn) and Gln-tRNA(Gln). In some bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus, efficient delivery of misacylated tRNA to the downstream amidotransferase (AdT) is ensured by formation of a stable, tRNA-dependent macromolecular complex called the Asn-transamidosome. This complex enables direct delivery of Asp-tRNA(Asn) from the non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase to AdT, where it is converted into Asn-tRNA(Asn). Previous characterization of the analogous Helicobacter pylori Asn-transamidosome revealed that it is dynamic and cannot be stably isolated, suggesting the possibility of an alternative mechanism to facilitate assembly of a stable complex. We have identified a novel protein partner called Hp0100 as a component of a stable, tRNA-independent H. pylori Asn-transamidosome; this complex contains a non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, AdT, and Hp0100 but does not require tRNA(Asn) for assembly. Hp0100 also enhances the capacity of AdT to convert Asp-tRNA(Asn) into Asn-tRNA(Asn) by ?35-fold. Our results demonstrate that bacteria have adopted multiple divergent methods for transamidosome assembly and function.
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