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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transarterial embolization for acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transarterial embolization for management of acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer. Methods Twenty-two patients with duodenal ulcer underwent transarterial embolization for acute massive hemorrhage in our hospital between January 2007 and December 2012. Embolic agents were coils and gelatin sponge. The clinical data and embolization procedures of these patients were retrospective analyzed. Results Bleeding was controlled in 20 of 23 patients after the first embolization procedures. In the other 3 patients with rebleeding,one patient was successfully managed by repeat embolization and two patient underwent surgical treatment. The overall clinical success rate for acute hemorrhage after transarterial embolization was 91%(21/23). No severe complication occurred. Conclusion Transarterial embolization is safe and effective for acute massive hemorrhage in patients with duodenal ulcer.
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Genetic analysis for dynamic changes of egg weight in 2 chicken lines.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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One of the main concerns for poultry producers is how to maintain egg uniformity and stability in size and weight following the rapid growth during the early laying period. In this study, we aimed to investigate the increase in egg weight with advancing hen age, and to estimate genetic parameters of these increment traits in 2 pure lines of chickens (i.e., 2,010 White Leghorn and 1,200 brown-egg dwarf hens), using the restricted maximum likelihood method with the DMU procedure. We collected age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW) and kept records of egg weight per 10 wk from 30 to 60 wk of age. Meanwhile, the increments of egg weight were calculated for the evaluation of age-dependent dynamic changes. The increment of egg weight gained dramatically before 30 wk of age and became slower with the advance of age. Heritability estimates of AFE were larger than 0.32, and the low to moderate genetic correlations between AFE and FEW were observed in the 2 lines. The FEW showed high variation level compared with egg weights at later ages in the 2 lines, and had moderate heritability estimates in ?White Leghorns (0.20) and dwarf hens (0.33). Egg weights at different ages were highly heritable in the 2 lines (h(2) ? 0.35), and had strong genetic and phenotypic correlations among different ages. The estimates of heritability for most increment traits were low to moderate, especially those increments for 10-wk intervals ranging from 0.00 to 0.14. The genetic correlations among 3 consecutive egg weight increments for 10-wk intervals were low to moderate. Our results in the 2 lines should provide important insights into the genetic architecture of increment traits and offer some suggestions for producing uniform and stable eggs in response to advancing age.
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[Changes of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with hepatitis C].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Objective To investigate the changes of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of patients with hepatitis C. Methods A total of 219 patients with hepatitis C and 66 healthy individuals served as normal controls were enrolled in the study. The proportions of T-lymphocytes (CD45(+)CD3(+), CD45(+)CD3(+)CD4(+), CD45(+)CD3(+)CD8(+)), B-lymphocytes (CD45(+)CD3(-)CD19(+)), NK-lymphocyte (CD45(+)CD3(-)CD16(+)56(+)) in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. Results The count of peripheral lymphocyte subsets of patients with hepatitis C decreased from the stage of chronic infection to decompensated cirrhosis. The numbers of CD4(+), CD8(+)and NK lymphocytes of patients with chronic hepatitis C were significantly lower than those in healthy individuals (P<0.05). In the early and decompensated stage of hepatic cirrhosis, the numbers of lymphocyte subsets of patients were significantly lower than those in patients with chronic hepatitis C (P<0.01), and they were significantly lower in decompensated cirrhosis than in early cirrhosis (P<0.01). The proportion of B lymphocyte and CD4/CD8 ratio of patients increased from chronic infection to decompensated cirrhosis. Compared with chronic infection, the proportion of B lymphocyte and CD4/CD8 ratio in early and decompensated cirrhosis increased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while the proportion of NK lymphocyte was significantly reduced (P<0.01). Conclusion From the stage of chronic infection to decompensated cirrhosis, patients with hepatitis C were found with the decreased numbers of CD4(+)T, CD8(+) T and NK lymphocytes, and the increased proportion of B lymphocyte and CD4/CD8 ratio.
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A genome-wide association study identifies novel single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with dermal shank pigmentation in chickens.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Shank color of domestic chickens varies from black to blue, green, yellow, or white, which is controlled by the combination of melanin and xanthophylls in dermis and epidermis. Dermal shank pigmentation of chickens is determined by sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id), which is located on the distal end of the long arm of Z chromosome, through controlling dermal melanin pigmentation. Although previous studies have focused on the identification of Id and the linear relationship with barring and recessive white skin, no causal mutations have yet been identified in relation to the mutant dermal pigment inhibiting allele at the Id locus. In this study, we first used the 600K Affymetrix Axiom HD genotyping array, which includes ~580,961 SNP of which 26,642 SNP were on the Z chromosome to perform a genome-wide association study on pure lines of 19 Tibetan hens with dermal pigmentation shank and 21 Tibetan hens with yellow shank to refine the Id location. Association analysis was conducted by the PLINK software using the standard chi-squared test, and then Bonferroni correction was used to adjust multiple testing. The genome-wide study revealed that 3 SNP located at 78.5 to 79.2 Mb on the Z chromosome in the current assembly of chicken genome (galGal4) were significantly associated with dermal shank pigmentation of chickens, but none of them were located in known genes. The interval we refined was partly converged with previous results, suggesting that the Id gene is in or near our refined genome region. However, the genomic context of this region was complex. There were only 15 SNP markers developed by the genotyping array within the interval region, in which only 1 SNP marker passed quality control. Additionally, there were about 5.8-Mb gaps on both sides of the refined interval. The follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNP.
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The association between CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Uygur and Han of China.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) gene is expressed in the vascular endothelium, which metabolizes arachidonic acid into 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). 20-HETE mediates cardiovascular homeostasis and growth response in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the anti-platelet effect. EETs are potent endogenous vasodilators and inhibitors of vascular inflammation. This study assessed the association between human CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Uygur and Han in China.
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Genome wide association studies using a new nonparametric model reveal the genetic architecture of 17 agronomic traits in an enlarged maize association panel.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Association mapping is a powerful approach for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits using high-density SNP markers in maize. Here, we expanded our association panel size from 368 to 513 inbred lines with 0.5 million high quality SNPs using a two-step data-imputation method which combines identity by descent (IBD) based projection and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were carried out for 17 agronomic traits with a panel of 513 inbred lines applying both mixed linear model (MLM) and a new method, the Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Ten loci for five traits were identified using the MLM method at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >5.74 (?=1). Many loci ranging from one to 34 loci (107 loci for plant height) were identified for 17 traits using the A-D test at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold -log10 (P) >7.05 (?=0.05) using 556809 SNPs. Many known loci and new candidate loci were only observed by the A-D test, a few of which were also detected in independent linkage analysis. This study indicates that combining IBD based projection and KNN algorithm is an efficient imputation method for inferring large missing genotype segments. In addition, we showed that the A-D test is a useful complement for GWAS analysis of complex quantitative traits. Especially for traits with abnormal phenotype distribution, controlled by moderate effect loci or rare variations, the A-D test balances false positives and statistical power. The candidate SNPs and associated genes also provide a rich resource for maize genetics and breeding.
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MARCH2: comparative assessment of therapeutic effects of acarbose and metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The data of MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycaemic treatment) trial demonstrated that acarbose and metformin have similar efficacy as initial therapy for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the therapeutic efficacy was diversified under different body mass index (BMI) status.
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Genome-wide characterization of insertion and deletion variation in chicken using next generation sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Insertion and deletion (INDEL) is one of the main events contributing to genetic and phenotypic diversity, which receives less attention than SNP and large structural variation. To gain a better knowledge of INDEL variation in chicken genome, we applied next generation sequencing on 12 diverse chicken breeds at an average effective depth of 8.6. Over 1.3 million non-redundant short INDELs (1-49 bp) were obtained, the vast majority (92.48%) of which were novel. Follow-up validation assays confirmed that most (88.00%) of the randomly selected INDELs represent true variations. The majority (95.76%) of INDELs were less than 10 bp. Both the detected number and affected bases were larger for deletions than insertions. In total, INDELs covered 3.8 Mbp, corresponding to 0.36% of the chicken genome. The average genomic INDEL density was estimated as 0.49 per kb. INDELs were ubiquitous and distributed in a non-uniform fashion across chromosomes, with lower INDEL density in micro-chromosomes than in others, and some functional regions like exons and UTRs were prone to less INDELs than introns and intergenic regions. Nearly 620,253 INDELs fell in genic regions, 1,765 (0.28%) of which located in exons, spanning 1,358 (7.56%) unique Ensembl genes. Many of them are associated with economically important traits and some are the homologues of human disease-related genes. We demonstrate that sequencing multiple individuals at a medium depth offers a promising way for reliable identification of INDELs. The coding INDELs are valuable candidates for further elucidation of the association between genotypes and phenotypes. The chicken INDELs revealed by our study can be useful for future studies, including development of INDEL markers, construction of high density linkage map, INDEL arrays design, and hopefully, molecular breeding programs in chicken.
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Hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p inhibitors can reduce the cytotoxicity of Ebola virus glycoprotein in vitro.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and has been associated with mortality rates of up to 91% in Zaire, the most lethal strain. Though the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) mediates widespread inflammation and cellular damage, these changes have mainly focused on alterations at the protein level, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the molecular pathogenesis underlying this lethal disease is not fully understood. Here, we report that the mi-RNAs hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p were induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) following expression of EBOV GP. Among the proteins encoded by predicted targets of these miRNAs, the adhesion-related molecules tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), dystroglycan1 (DAG1) and the caspase 8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR) were significantly downregulated in EBOV GP-expressing HUVECs. Moreover, inhibition of hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p, or overexpression of TFPI, DAG1 and CFLAR rescued the cell viability that was induced by EBOV GP. Our results provide a novel molecular basis for EBOV pathogenesis and may contribute to the development of strategies to protect against future EBOV pandemics.
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Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis in an "immortalized F?" maize population.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Genetic basis of grain yield heterosis relies on the cumulative effects of dominance, overdominance, and epistasis in maize hybrid Yuyu22. Heterosis, i.e., when F1 hybrid phenotypes are superior to those of the parents, continues to play a critical role in boosting global grain yield. Notwithstanding our limited insight into the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis, it has been exploited extensively using different breeding approaches. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of grain yield and its components using "immortalized F2" and recombinant inbred line populations derived from the elite hybrid Yuyu22. A high-density linkage map consisting of 3,184 bins was used to assess (1) the additive and additive-by-additive effects determined using recombinant inbred lines; (2) the dominance and dominance-by-dominance effects from a mid-parent heterosis dataset; and (3) the various genetic effects in the "immortalized F2" population. Compared with a low-density simple sequence repeat map, the bin map identified more quantitative trait loci, with higher LOD scores and better accuracy of detecting quantitative trait loci. The bin map showed that, among all traits, dominance was more important to heterosis than other genetic effects. The importance of overdominance/pseudo-overdominance was proportional to the amount of heterosis. In addition, epistasis contributed to heterosis as well. Phenotypic variances explained by the QTLs detected were close to the broad-sense heritabilities of the observed traits. Comparison of the analyzed results obtained for the "immortalized F2" population with those for the mid-parent heterosis dataset indicated identical genetic modes of action for mid-parent heterosis and grain yield performance of the hybrid.
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Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients with positive aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies and evaluate the relationship between SIADH and hypothalamic lesions in patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). AQP4 antibodies were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence assay employing HEK-293 cells transfected with recombinant human AQP4. Clinical data of patients were analyzed retrospectively. In total, 192 patients with AQP4 antibodies were certified, of which 41 patients (21.4 %) were included in the present study. Six patients (14.6 %, 6/41) met the criteria of SIADH, of which hyponatremia was mild in one patient, and severe in five. Five patients experienced confusion or decreased consciousness. Four patients were diagnosed with NMO and two were diagnosed with recurrent optic neuritis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 11 of 41 patients (26.8 %) had hypothalamic lesions. All patients with SIADH had hypothalamic abnormalities. Hyponatremia resolved in all patients after intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. SIADH is not rare in patients with NMO/NMOSD, especially in patients with lesions close to the hypothalamus.
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Impact of occult hepatitis B virus infection on outcome after resection for non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with both hepatitis B virus-surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody negative hepatocellular carcinoma (non-B non-C HCC [NBNC-HCC]) and examine the impact of occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) on patients' survival.
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Is plasma C3 and C4 levels useful in young cerebral ischemic stroke patients? Associations with prognosis at 3 months.
J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Plasma complement C3 and C4 act as risk factor for vascular diseases related to atherosclerosis. The association C3 and C4 levels in young ischemic stroke patients with the prognosis were still not unknown. We conducted this study to establish the significance of admission C3 and C4 levels as a possible predictor of 3 months prognosis in young patients with acute ischemic stroke. We conducted this study in 1,451 young Chinese patients as determined by the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors of outcome in male and female patients. Stepwise logistic regression analysis confirmed only the lowest quartile of C3 level (0.17-0.90 g/L) was independently associated with prognosis in male patient after adjustment the confounding risk factors of stroke [0.558 (0.382-0.815); P = 0.003], but not the association for plasma C4 levels. Meanwhile, serum SUA and WBC concentrations, TIA history are typically related to prognosis at 3 months after acute ischemic stroke. Our analysis does provide compelling information regarding the baseline complement C3 levels in young ischemic stroke patients as possible predictors of early prognosis after 3 months of acute phase. Thus, our results must be seen as a hypothesis only and will have to be confirmed in larger trials.
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Association of leptin receptor gene polymorphisms with growth and feed efficiency in meat-type chickens.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Many genetic factors influence the growth and feed intake of birds. In the current study, we evaluated the association of 8 previously reported SNP in the chicken leptin receptor (LEPR) gene with BW, BW gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Four SNP with a very low minor allele frequency were removed by genotype quality control. The experimental population consisted of 796 pedigreed males from 2 genetically unrelated yellow meat-type chicken strains, 335 chickens from N202, and 461 chickens from N301. The BW at 49 (BW49) and 70 d of age (BW70) and FI (from 49 to 70 d of age) were measured individually. The BWG and FCR were calculated based on BW and FI in the interval between 49 to 70 d. The results indicated that rs14657336, rs13684613, rs13684615, and rs13684616 were found in strong linkage disequilibrium. This linkage disequilibrium block was significantly associated with BW49 (P < 0.05), BW70 (P < 0.05), and FI (P < 0.05) in the N202 strain, and FCR (P < 0.01) in the N301 strain, respectively. In addition, the GTACGTAC diplotype had the highest BWG and FI in both strains. The association revealed in this study suggests the need for further functional study on the role of LEPR gene in regulating feed intake and FCR of chickens.
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A co-culture model with brain tumor-specific bioluminescence demonstrates astrocytes-induced drug resistance in glioblastoma.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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BackgroundAlthough several studies suggest that stromal fibroblasts mediate treatment resistance in several cancer types, little is known about how tumor-associated astrocytes modulate the treatment response in brain tumors. Since traditionally used metabolic assays do not distinguish metabolic activity between stromal and tumor cells as well as 2-dimensional co-culture system does not recreate the formidable complexity of the microenvironment within 3-dimensional structures such as solid tumor tissue, we instead established a glioblastoma (GBM) cell-specific bioluminescent assay for direct measurements of tumor cell viability in the treatment of clinical relevant drugs.MethodsUsing lentiviral transfection, we established a panel of human GBM cell lines constitutively expressing a fusion transgene encoding luciferase and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). We then initiated co-cultures with immortalized astrocytes, TNC-1, and the eGFP/Luc GBM cell lines. We then treated all eGFP/Luc GBM cell lines with Temozolomide (TMZ) and Doxorubicin, comparing co-cultures of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and TNC-1 astrocytes with mono-cultures of eGFP/Luc GBM cells. Cell viability was quantitated by measuring the luciferase expression.ResultsTitration experiments demonstrated that luciferase expression was proportional to the number of eGFP/Luc GBM cells, whereas it was not influenced by the number of TNC-1 cells present. Notably, the presence of TNC-1 astrocytes mediated significantly higher cell survival after TMZ treatment in the U251, C6, A172 cell lines as well as the in vivo propagated primary GBM tumor cell line (P3). Moreover, TNC-1 astrocytes mediated significantly higher survival after Doxorubicin treatment in the U251, and LN18 glioma cell lines.ConclusionGlioma cell-specific bioluminescent assay is a reliable tool for assessment of cell viability in the brain tumor cell compartment following drug treatment. Moreover, we have applied this assay to demonstrate that astrocytes can modulate chemo sensitivity of GBM tumor cells. These effects varied both with the cell line and cytotoxic drug that were used, suggesting that several mechanisms may be involved.
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The Ciliopathy Gene Rpgrip1l Is Essential For Hair Follicle Development.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The primary cilium is essential for skin morphogenesis through regulating the Notch, Wnt, and hedgehog signaling pathways. Prior studies on the functions of primary cilia in the skin were based on the investigations of genes that are essential for cilium formation. However, none of these ciliogenic genes has been linked to ciliopathy, a group of disorders caused by abnormal formation or function of cilia. To determine whether there is a genetic and molecular link between ciliopathies and skin morphogenesis, we investigated the role of RPGRIP1L, a gene mutated in Joubert (JBTS) and Meckel (MKS) syndromes, two severe forms of ciliopathy, in the context of skin development. We found that RPGRIP1L is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis. Specifically, disrupting the Rpgril1l gene in mice resulted in reduced proliferation and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes, leading to hair follicle developmental defects. These defects were associated with significantly decreased primary cilium formation and attenuated hedgehog signaling. In contrast, we found that hair follicle induction and polarization and the development of interfollicular epidermis were unaffected. This study indicates that RPGRIP1L, a ciliopathy gene, is essential for hair follicle morphogenesis likely through regulating primary cilia formation and the hedgehog signaling pathway.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 14 November 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.483.
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Best Anthropometric and Atherogenic Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in the Chinese Han Population in Xinjiang: The Cardiovascular Risk Survey.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Objective: This study aimed to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by comparing the predicting ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters in the Chinese Han population in Xinjiang. Methods: A representative, cross-sectional sample of 5,757 Chinese Han adults were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. MetS prevalence, area under the curve (AUC), distance on the receiver operating characteristic curve and the cut-offs of each variable were compared for the presence of MetS. Results: According to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) and the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII), 32.1, 48.5, 39.3% of men and 38.0, 45.1, 44.9% of women had MetS in Xinjiang. According to the IDF criteria, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) had the highest AUC value in men (0.836) and women (0.837), with the optimal cut-off of 0.54 in men and 0.53 in women. According to both the JIS and ATPIII criteria, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol TG/HDL-C had the highest AUC value in men (0.830 and 0.833, respectively) and women (0.832 and 0.827, respectively), with the optimal cut-offs being 1.6 and 1.2 in men and 1.1 and 1.1 in women, respectively. Conclusion: WHtR was the best predictor of MetS according to the IDF criteria while TG/HDL-C was the best predictor of MetS according to the JIS and ATPIII criteria. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Effects of ribosomal protein l39-L on the drug resistance mechanisms of lung cancer A549 cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Background: Cancer is a major threat to the public health whether in developed or in developing countries. As the most common primary malignant tumor, the morbidity and mortality rate of lung cancer continues to rise in recent ten years worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the main methods in the treatment of lung cancer, but this is hampered by chemotherapy drug resistance, especially MDR. As a component of the 60S large ribosomal subunit, ribosomal protein L39-L gene was reported to be expressed specifically in the human testis and human cancer samples of various tissue origins. Materials and Methods: Total RNA of cultured drug-resistant and susceptible A549 cells was isolated, and real time quantitative RT-PCR were used to indicate the transcribe difference between amycin resistant and susceptible strain of A549 cells. Viability assay were used to show the amycin resistance difference in RPL39-L transfected A549 cell line than control vector and null-transfected A549 cell line. Results: The ribosomal protein L39-L transcription level was 8.2 times higher in drug-resistant human lung cancer A549 cell line than in susceptible A549 cell line by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The ribosomal protein L39-L transfected cells showed enhanced drug resistance compared to plasmid vector-transfected or null-transfected cells as determined by methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: The ribosomal protein L39-L gene may have effects on the drug resistance mechanism of lung cancer A549 cells.
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Hydrogen sulfide reduces kidney injury due to urinary-derived sepsis by inhibiting NF-?B expression, decreasing TNF-? levels and increasing IL-10 levels.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on kidney injury induced by urinary-derived sepsis. Rabbits were randomly divided into control, sham, sepsis, NaHS 2.8 ?mol/kg and NaHS 8.4 ?mol/kg groups, with six rabbits in each group. Upper urinary tract obstruction and acute infection was induced to establish the sepsis model. Blood was collected to carry out a white blood cell (WBC) count, and creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) analysis. Morphological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-10 and nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B). Cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) activity was measured by the spectrophotometric methylene blue method and the blood H2S concentration was measured by deproteinization. WBC, Cr and BUN levels were significantly elevated in the sepsis group compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Following treatment with NaHS, the WBC, Cr and BUN levels were significantly decreased in the NaHS groups compared with those in the sepsis group (P<0.05). The pathological features of kidney injury were also alleviated by NaHS. In the sepsis group, the levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and NF-?B were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). In the NaHS groups, the TNF-? and NF-?B levels were significantly reduced whereas the IL-10 level was significantly increased compared with the respective levels in the sepsis group (P<0.05). The H2S concentration was significantly decreased in the sepsis group and this reduction was attenuated in the NaHS groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the NaHS 8.4 ?mol/kg dose revealed a more potent effect than the NaHS 2.8 ?mol/kg dose. Thus, exogenous H2S reduced kidney injury from urinary-derived sepsis by decreasing the levels of NF-?B and TNF-?, and increasing the level of IL-10.
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gga-miR-26a targets NEK6 and suppresses Marek's disease lymphoma cell proliferation.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of highly conserved, small noncoding RNA that emerge as key posttranscriptional regulators in various neoplastic transformations. Our previous study profiling the miRNA transcriptome in Marek's disease virus (MDV)-induced lymphoma revealed many novel and differentially expressed miRNA, including gga-miR-26a, which was downregulated in MDV-infected spleens of chickens. In this study, differential expression of gga-miR-26a between MDV-infected and noninfected spleens at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection was analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed gga-miR-26a were downregulated in MDV-infected spleens at cytolytic infection, latency, and tumor transformation phases. Subsequent cell proliferation assay revealed cell viability was lower in gga-miR-26a mimic transfection group than that in negative controls. Target genes of gga-miR-26a were identified by luciferase reporter gene assay. The results showed significant interaction between gga-miR-26a and Never In Mitosis Gene A (NIMA)-related kinase 6 (NEK6) gene. Subsequent gain of function experiment and Western blot assay showed that mRNA and protein levels of NEK6 were downregulated after gga-miR-26 mimic was transfected into MDV-transformed lymphoid cell line (MSB-1), indicating that NEK6 was modulated by gga-miR-26a. The expression of NEK6 showed a higher trend in MDV-infected samples including tumorous spleen and MD lymphoma from liver than that in noninfected controls. The results suggested that gga-miR-26a inhibited MSB-1 cell proliferation. Gga-miR-26a and its direct target, NEK6, might play important roles in MDV infection.
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[Clinical features of carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas in 23 patients].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To analyze the clinical features of carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas(CCFs).
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Alpha-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystal with near-infrared to near-infrared luminescence for bioimaging applications.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Nd3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 nanocrystals with size of about 15 nm were successfully synthesized through hydrothermal method. Nearly pure near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) luminescence can be realized. Moreover, the excitation and the emission at 880 and 1060 nm, respectively, are away from the visible region. These are beneficial to deeper tissue penetration and reduced auto-fluorescence. This material exhibits an excellent NIR-to-NIR emission performance and is thus potentially applicable as a high-contrast in vitro and in vivo imaging probe.
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Upregulated expression level of the growth factor, progranulin, is associated with the development of primary Sjögren's syndrome.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and effect of progranulin (PGRN) in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). In total, 26 newly diagnosed pSS patients and 26 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of PGRN and the inflammatory factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), were detected using ELISA. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of these molecules were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The serum levels of PGRN and IL-6 in the pSS patients increased significantly compared with the healthy controls (P<0.05). During the remission stages, the levels of PGRN and IL-6 were comparable to those of the healthy controls. The serum level of PGRN in the pSS patients was shown to correlate with that of IL-6 in the pre-treatment and post-treatment stages. PGRN was upregulated in the pSS patients, indicating a possible role of PGRN in the pathogenesis and development of pSS.
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Coexistence of JAK2V617F Mutation and BCR-ABL Translocation in a Pregnant Woman with Essential Thrombocythemia.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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In 2012, a 25-years-old pregnant woman presented with thromocytosis for 4 months, blood counts showed platelets 701 × 10(9)/L. Bone marrow examination disclosed a feature of hypercellular marrow in erythrocytic,granulocytic and megakaryocytic series. Cytogenetic analysis showed t(9;22)(q34;q11) in 100 % of metaphase. The percentage of BCR-ABL-positive FISH signals was 37 % in the peripheral blood. Molecular analysis showed the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation and BCR-ABL mRNA b3a2 transcript. A diagnosis of concomitant presence of essential thrombocythemia and chronic myelocytic leukemia was made. Based on this case and literatures reported before, it might be necessary to detect JAK2-V617F mutation and BCR-ABL fusion gene concomitantly in myeloproliferative neoplasms patients.
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Suppression of the production of transforming growth factor ?1, interleukin-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the B16F10 cells by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are three of the commonly studied cytokines playing an important role in tumor initiation and progression. Besides their promotional effects on tumor progression, the three cytokines have immunosuppressive effects that facilitate tumor initiation and progression as well. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) with multiple bioactivities may have the effect on B16F10 melanoma cells to induce stronger antitumor immune response that has been demonstrated. Gl-PS may have the suppressive effects on the production of these three cytokines, which has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we tested these effects of Gl-PS by incubating Gl-PS with malignant tumor cells such as B16F10 cells, a melanoma cell line, and LA795 cells, a lung carcinoma cell line. RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the production of TGF-?1, IL-10, and VEGF in B16F10 melanoma cells and LA795 lung carcinoma cells was suppressed by Gl-PS at both mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that the suppression on production of TGF-?, IL-10, and VEGF in B16F10 melanoma cells and LA795 lung carcinoma cells by Gl-PS may contribute to the therapy on melanoma and lung carcinoma along with the induction of stronger antitumor immune response.
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Acanthoic acid, a diterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, ameliorates the development of liver fibrosis via LXRs signals.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Liver X receptors (LXRs)-mediated signals in acanthoic acid (AA) ameliorating liver fibrosis were examined in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mice and TGF-? stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). AA was isolated from the root of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae). CCl4-treated mice were intraperitoneally injected with 10% CCl4 in olive oil (2 mL/kg for 8 weeks). In AA treated groups, mice were intragastrically administrated with AA (20 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Administration of AA reduced serum aminotransferase and tissue necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels evoked by CCl4, and the reverse of liver damage was further confirmed by histopathological staining. Administration of AA reduced the expression of fibrosis markers and regulated the ratio of MMP-13/TIMP-1, further reversed the development of liver fibrosis. TGF-? (5 ng/ml) was added to activate HSC-T6 cells for 2 h, and then treated with AA (1, 3, or 10 ?mol/l) for 24 h before analysis. Cells were collected and proteins were extracted to detect the expressions of LXRs. AA could inhibit the expression of ?-SMA stimulated by TGF-? and increase the expression of LXR?. In vivo and in vitro experiments, AA could modulate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4-treatment via activation of LXR? and LXR?, while inhibit HSCs activation only via activation of LXR?. Acanthoic acid might ameliorate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 via LXRs signals.
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Posttreatment with ma-xing-shi-gan-tang, a chinese medicine formula, ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung microvessel hyperpermeability and inflammatory reaction in rat.
Microcirculation
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The aim of present study was to investigate the efficacy of MXSGT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula used for treatment of respiratory system diseases, in the LPS-induced rat ALI particularly with a focus on its effect on lung microvascular hyperpermeability and inflammatory reaction.
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Quantitative expression of candidate genes affecting eggshell color.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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There are three pigments that affect the color of an eggshell: protoporphyrin, biliverdin and biliverdin-zinc chelate. Protoporphyrin is the main pigment in brown and light-brown eggshells, whereas very little protoporphyrin is found in white eggshells. Eggshell protoporphyrin is derived from the heme formation in birds. Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX) and ferrochelatase (FECH) represent rate-limiting enzymes for the heme-biosynthetic pathway. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), feline leukemia virus receptor (FLVCR), and heme-responsive gene-1 (HRG1) serve as primary transporters for both protoporphyrinogen and heme. Finally, four organic anion transporting polypeptide family members (including solute carrier organic anion transporter family, SLCO1C1, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B3 and LOC418189) may affect pigment transport within eggshells. Here we measured gene expression levels in key tissues of egg-producing hens. We analyzed three different types of hens that generated distinct eggshell colors: white, pink or brown. Our data revealed three ways in which eggshell color was genetically influenced. First, high-level expression of CPOX generated more protoporphyrinogen and a brown eggshell color. In contrast, high expression of FECH likely converted more protoporphyrinogen into heme, reduced protoporphyrinogen levels within the eggshell and generated a light color. Second, heme transporters also affected eggshell color. High-level expression of BCRP, HRG1 and FLVCR were associated with brown, white and generally lighter eggshell colors, respectively. Finally, protoporphyrin precipitation also affected eggshell color, as high expression of both SLCO1A2 and SLCO1C1 were associated with brown eggshell color. As such, we have identified seven genes in which expression levels in different tissues were associated with eggshell color.
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Oncofetal long noncoding RNA PVT1 promotes proliferation and stem cell-like property of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by stabilizing NOP2.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Many protein-coding oncofetal genes are highly expressed in murine and human fetal liver and silenced in adult liver. The protein products of these hepatic oncofetal genes have been used as clinical markers for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and as therapeutic targets for HCC. Herein we examined the expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) found in fetal and adult liver in mice. Many fetal hepatic lncRNAs were identified; one of these, lncRNA-mPvt1, is an oncofetal RNA that was found to promote cell proliferation, cell cycling, and the expression of stem cell-like properties of murine cells. Interestingly, we found that human lncRNA-hPVT1 was up-regulated in HCC tissues and that patients with higher lncRNA-hPVT1 expression had a poor clinical prognosis. The protumorigenic effects of lncRNA-hPVT1 on cell proliferation, cell cycling, and stem cell-like properties of HCC cells were confirmed both in vitro and in vivo by gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Moreover, mRNA expression profile data showed that lncRNA-hPVT1 up-regulated a series of cell cycle genes in SMMC-7721 cells. By RNA pulldown and mass spectrum experiments, we identified NOP2 as an RNA-binding protein that binds to lncRNA-hPVT1. We confirmed that lncRNA-hPVT1 up-regulated NOP2 by enhancing the stability of NOP2 proteins and that lncRNA-hPVT1 function depends on the presence of NOP2.
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Development of a cell-based assay for the detection of anti-aquaporin 1 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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To develop a cell-based assay (CBA) to detect aquaporin 1 (AQP1) antibodies and determine sensitivity/specificity in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders.
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Genome-wide patterns of copy number variation in the diversified chicken genomes using next-generation sequencing.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Copy number variation (CNV) is important and widespread in the genome, and is a major cause of disease and phenotypic diversity. Herein, we performed a genome-wide CNV analysis in 12 diversified chicken genomes based on whole genome sequencing.
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Unconventional interventional therapy for cavernous transformation of the portal vein.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a mass-like network of collateral veins around the portal vein as the sequel to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The common clinical manifestations include esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism. The patient may present with recurrent hematemesis and tarry stool. We report a woman who presented with CTPV, which was managed with an unconventional interventional method to recanalize the superior mesenteric vein and main portal vein.
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Downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by the neuraminidase protein of influenza A (H1N1) virus.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Influenza A (H1N1) virus, a high-risk infectious pathogen, can cause severe acute lung injury leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays a protective role in pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Here, we showed that ACE2 protein levels were significantly downregulated after infection with H1N1 viruses but was dispensable for viral replication. ACE2 protein downregulation was most likely related to ACE2 protein degradation by proteasome pathway rather than ACE2 shedding. Finally, we found that ACE2 cleavage could be regulated by influenza neuraminidase (NA), which was fundamentally different from the classically sheddase-induced proteolytic cleavage of ACE2.
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Effects of honokiol on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in an experimental model of sepsis in rats.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication of sepsis, which largely contributes to the high mortality rate of sepsis. Honokiol, a natural product isolated from Magnolia officinalis (Houpo), has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Here, we investigated the effects of honokiol on sepsis-associated AKI in rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that the administration of honokiol improved the survival of septic rats. Periodic acid-Schiff stain revealed that the morphological changes of kidney tissues in CLP rats were restored after honokiol treatment. Furthermore, honokiol reduced CLP-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) were attenuated by honokiol in septic rats. Finally, honokiol inhibited CLP-induced activation of NF-?B signaling in CLP rats. Our findings suggest that honokiol might be used as a potential therapeutic agent for complications of sepsis, especially for sepsis-induced AKI.
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SOX2 promotes the migration and invasion of laryngeal cancer cells by induction of MMP-2 via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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SOX2 is a high mobility group box containing transcription factor that has been reported to be aberrantly overexpressed in various human malignancies, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). However, the potential role of SOX2 in LSCC migration and invasion remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated stable transformants of human LSCC cells constitutively overexpressing SOX2 and investigated the effects of SOX2 overexpression on migration and invasion in LSCC cells as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that ectopic overexpression of SOX2 in LSCC cells enhanced their migratory and invasive ability in vitro, accompanied by increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Meanwhile, SOX2-induced cell migration and invasion were significantly abrogated by a neutralizing anti-MMP-2 antibody or small interfering RNA targeting MMP-2. Furthermore, overexpression of SOX2 induced phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which are downstream effectors of the PI3K pathway. Finally, LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, also markedly abolished SOX2-induced activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway and increased cell invasion and MMP-2 expression. Taken together, we conclude that SOX2 promotes migration and invasion of laryngeal cancer cells by inducing MMP-2 via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our findings suggest that SOX2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for LSCC.
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Different types of nitrogen deposition show variable effects on the soil carbon cycle process of temperate forests.
Glob Chang Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects the soil carbon (C) cycle process of forests. However, the influence of different types of N on it still remained unclear. In this work, ammonium nitrate was selected as an inorganic N (IN) source, while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON) sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (1 : 4, 2 : 3, 3 : 2, 4 : 1, and 5 : 0) were mixed with equal total amounts and then used to fertilize temperate forest soils for 2 years. Results showed that IN deposition inhibited soil C cycle processes, such as soil respiration, soil organic C decomposition, and enzymatic activities, and induced the accumulation of recalcitrant organic C. By contrast, ON deposition promoted these processes. Addition of ON also resulted in accelerated transformation of recalcitrant compounds into labile compounds and increased CO2 efflux. Meanwhile, greater ON deposition may convert C sequestration in forest soils into C source. These results indicated the importance of the IN to ON ratio in controlling the soil C cycle, which can consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition.
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Associations of polymorphisms in GHRL, GHSR, and IGF1R genes with feed efficiency in chickens.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The ghrelin (GHRL), ghrelin receptor (GHSR), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) genes have crucial effects on body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in many species. However, few studies on associations of GHRL, GHSR, and IGF1R with BWG, FI, and FCR have been reported in chickens. In this study, 16 SNPs in GHRL, GHSR, and IGF1R genes were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The objective of this study was to examine the associations of GHRL, GHSR, and IGF1R genes polymorphisms with BW at 49 days (BW49) and 70 days (BW70) of age, BWG, FI, and FCR in the interval in two yellow meat-type populations with a total of 724 birds. The results showed that rs15675067 of GHRL was significantly associated with BW70, BWG, and FCR (P < 0.05). For GHSR, rs16675844 had significant effects on FI and FCR (P < 0.01), and that rs14678932 showed significant association with BWG and FI (P < 0.05). Rs14011780 of IGF1R was strongly associated with BW49, BW70, and FCR (P < 0.05). Furthermore, haplotypes based on three SNPs of rs14986828, rs15675067, and rs15675065 in GHRL were significantly associated with BW70 and FCR (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a three-SNP haplotype comprising rs14011783, rs14011780, and rs14011776 in IGF1R showed significant effects on BW49, BW70, and FCR (P < 0.05). Therefore, it was concluded that the identified SNPs and analyzed haplotypes in this study might be useful for broiler breeding programs.
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The association baseline NIH Stroke Scale score with ABO blood-subtypes in young patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The presence of the A and B blood group antigens has been associated with risk of arterial thrombosis. The aim of the current study was to design a new simpler form of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) for use on admission, and assess the association of blood groups with NIHSS score in young stroke patients.
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Overexpression of SOX2 promotes migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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SOX2 is a high-mobility group box containing transcription factor essential for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells. Recent evidence indicates that SOX2 overexpression correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with laryngeal squamous cell cancer. To investigate how SOX2 contributes to this aggressive phenotype, we introduced the human SOX2 gene into a low SOX2-expressing human laryngeal cancer cell line Hep-2. Cell migration and invasion were determined by the Transwell assay with or without Matrigel coating. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers were assayed by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence. Our results showed that exogenous expression of SOX2 in Hep-2 cells substantially promoted their migratory and invasive capabilities in culture. Moreover, Hep-2 cells stably overexpressing SOX2 underwent EMT phenotype, as evidenced by mesenchymal morphology, decreased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin), and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, and ?-smooth muscle actin). Strikingly, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence also showed that overexpression of SOX2 resulted in substantial increase and nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin in Hep-2 cells. However, small interfering RNA targeting ?-catenin significantly attenuated the reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased cell migration and invasion abilities in SOX2-overexpressing cells, suggesting that SOX2-induced EMT process, migration, and invasion are dependent on ?-catenin activation. Taken together, our findings underscore a novel role for SOX2 in laryngeal cancer migration and invasion.
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Successful pregnancy following conservative management of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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It is uncommon that fertility is preserved in young nulliparous females with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). Therefore, successful pregnancy following such conservative management has been rarely reported in previous literature. A 25-year-old female (gravida, 0; para, 0) underwent hysteroscopic surgery and was pathologically diagnosed with an endometrial stromal nodule. The patient underwent fertility-preserving local resection and uterine reconstruction, with a final pathological diagnosis of low-grade ESS. Endocrine therapy was then administered. Conservative management resulted in the complete remission of low-grade ESS. The patient naturally conceived and successfully delivered a healthy baby at 42 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, ~30 months following diagnosis with low-grade ESS. In conclusion, conservative management, including fertility-preserving local mass resection and endocrine therapy, can be effective for low-grade ESS and may yield a favorable outcome for young nulliparous females desiring fertility preservation.
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Chronic obstructive sleep apnea causes atrial remodeling in canines: mechanisms and implications.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is closely related to atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the roles and mechanisms of chronic OSA in atrial remodeling are still unclear. Canine model of chronic OSA was simulated by stopping the ventilator and closing the airway for 4 h per day and lasting for 12 weeks. AF inducibility and duration was increased while atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was shortened after chronic apnea. Meanwhile, upregulation of proteins encoding inward rectifier K(+) current (IK1), delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr and IKs), acetylcholine activated K(+) current (IKACh), transient outward K(+) current (Ito) and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKur) as well as downregulation of protein encoding L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) were found after chronic OSA. Besides abnormal electrical activity, chronic OSA induced apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis of atrial myocytes, which was partly mediated by caspase 9, phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, and ?-smooth muscle actin. In addition, atrial sympathetic and parasympathetic hyperinnervation were found manifesting by enhanced growth-associated protein 43, tyrosine hydroxylase and elevated choline acetyltransferase. Moreover, protein expression of ?1, ?2, and M2 receptor were markedly increased by chronic OSA. In summary, we firstly demonstrated in canine model that chronic OSA could shorten AERP and lead to altered expression of important channel proteins, moreover, induce atrial structure remodeling by increased atrial apoptosis, fibrosis, and autonomic remodeling, eventually promoting the development of a substrate of AF. Our findings suggested that reversing atrial remodeling might be a potential therapeutic strategy for OSA-induced AF.
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A rhodamine derivative as selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for mercury (II) in buffer solution, test strips and living cells.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In this paper, we reported a new rhodamine derivative bearing 2,4-dichloroquinazoline as a selective fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(2+). The ring-opening process of spirolactam enabled the large fluorescent enhancement and colorimetric change by Hg(2+) induced configuration transformation of the rhodamine. Moreover, the fluorescence changes of the chemosensor were dramatically specific for Hg(2+) in the presence of other metal ions, which could meet the selective requirements for practical application. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear response range covered the concentration range of Hg(2+) from 0 to 1.0×10(-6)M, and the limit of detection was calculated to be 2.7×10(-8)M. In addition, the probe was also successfully applied to the determination of Hg(2+) in water samples, test strips and living cells.
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Paxillin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of paxillin in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF?A)?induced adhesion, proliferation, migration and capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used to evaluate these four processes in vitro. The HUVECs were either mock?transfected (control), transfected with scramble small interference RNA (siRNA) or transfected with siRNA specifically targeting paxillin. VEGF?A (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate angiogenesis. The VEGF?A treatment significantly increased the adhesion, proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HUVECs in the control and scramble siRNA groups, whereas the siRNA?-mediated knockdown of paxillin inhibited these VEGF?A?induced effects. Paxillin is essential for VEGF?A?mediated angiogenesis in ECs and its inhibition may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies.
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Cation exchange resin immobilized bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles to facilitate their application in pollutants degradation.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) usually suffers from reduction of reactivity by aggregation, difficulty of assembling, environmental release and health concerns. Furthermore, data are lacking on the effect of cheap nickel on debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) by immobilized nZVI in aqueous system. In this study, strong acid polystyrene cation-exchange resins with particle diameter from 0.4 to 0.6 mm were utilized as matrices to immobilize bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles in order to minimize aggregation and environmental leakage risks of nZVI and to enhance their reactivity. Elemental distribution mapping showed that iron particles distributed uniformly on the surface of the resin and nickel particles were dispersed homogeneously into Fe phase. The reaction rate of resin-bound nZVI is about 55% higher than that of dispersed nZVI. The immobilized bimetallic nanoparticles with 9.69% Ni had the highest debromination percent (96%) and reaction rate (0.493 1/h). The existence of Ni significantly improved the debromination rate, due to the surface coverage of catalytic metal on the reductive metal and the formation of a galvanic cell. The environmental dominant congeners, such as BDE 154, 153, 100, 99 and 47, were produced during the process. Outstanding reactive performance, along with magnetic separation assured that resin-bound bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles are promising material that can be utilized to remediate a wide variety of pollutants contaminated sites including polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
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The influences of SE infection on layers' production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers' performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed.
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A long noncoding RNA activated by TGF-? promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The role of TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell dissemination is well established, but the involvement of lncRNAs in TGF-? signaling is still unknown. In this study, we observed that the lncRNA-activated by TGF-? (lncRNA-ATB) was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases and associated with poor prognosis. lncRNA-ATB upregulated ZEB1 and ZEB2 by competitively binding the miR-200 family and then induced EMT and invasion. In addition, lncRNA-ATB promoted organ colonization of disseminated tumor cells by binding IL-11 mRNA, autocrine induction of IL-11, and triggering STAT3 signaling. Globally, lncRNA-ATB promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade. Thus, these findings suggest that lncRNA-ATB, a mediator of TGF-? signaling, could predispose HCC patients to metastases and may serve as a potential target for antimetastatic therapies.
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Protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced lymphocyte suppression by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-?, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients.
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Reconstruction of ancestral gene orders using probabilistic and gene encoding approaches.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Current tools used in the reconstruction of ancestral gene orders often fall into event-based and adjacency-based methods according to the principles they follow. Event-based methods such as GRAPPA are very accurate but with extremely high complexity, while more recent methods based on gene adjacencies such as InferCARsPro is relatively faster, but often produces an excessive number of chromosomes. This issue is mitigated by newer methods such as GapAdj, however it sacrifices a considerable portion of accuracy. We recently developed an adjacency-based method in the probabilistic framework called PMAG to infer ancestral gene orders. PMAG relies on calculating the conditional probabilities of gene adjacencies that are found in the leaf genomes using the Bayes' theorem. It uses a novel transition model which accounts for adjacency changes along the tree branches as well as a re-rooting procedure to prevent any information loss. In this paper, we improved PMAG with a new method to assemble gene adjacencies into valid gene orders, using an exact solver for traveling salesman problem (TSP) to maximize the overall conditional probabilities. We conducted a series of simulation experiments using a wide range of configurations. The first set of experiments was to verify the effectiveness of our strategy of using the better transition model and re-rooting the tree under the targeted ancestral genome. PMAG was then thoroughly compared in terms of three measurements with its four major competitors including InferCARsPro, GapAdj, GASTS and SCJ in order to assess their performances. According to the results, PMAG demonstrates superior performance in terms of adjacency, distance and assembly accuracies, and yet achieves comparable running time, even all TSP instances were solved exactly. PMAG is available for free at http://phylo.cse.sc.edu.
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Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and anti-thyroglobulin antibody are independently associated with lesions in spinal cord in central nervous system demyelinating diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transverse myelitis (TM) is associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Early recognition of useful parameters may be helpful to distinguish their difference. This retrospective study analyzed thyroid parameters from 243 serum samples (relapse = 128; remission = 115) of 178 patients with demyelinating diseases (NMO, n = 25; TM, n = 48; MS, n = 105). The relationship between thyroid and clinical parameters was analyzed. Patients with NMO and TM had a higher frequency of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab), and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) than MS patients (p<0.05). The level of TSH and TG-Ab returned to normal levels after administration of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (p<0.05). In 96 patients (NMO, n = 19; TM, n = 25; MS, n = 52) without treatment, serum levels of TSH, TG-Ab and TPO-Ab were significantly different between patients with and without myelitis (p<0.01). Patients positive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies showed higher abnormalities of TSH (p = 0.001), TG-Ab (p = 0.004) and TPO-Ab (p<0.0001) levels than AQP4 antibodies negative patients. Logistic regression analyses revealed independent relationships between TSH (odds ratio [OR] ?= 33.994; p<0.0001), TG-Ab (OR = 7.703; p = 0.017) and myelitis occurrence in 96 patients at the active stage. In 52 MS patients experiencing their first attack, MS patients with myelitis were associated with TSH abnormalities (OR = 42.778; p<0.0001). This study showed increased abnormalities of thyroid parameters in patients with NMO and TM than in MS patients. MS patients with myelitis also had greater TSH abnormality than in MS patients without myelitis. Abnormal TSH and TG-Ab were independently associated with myelitis occurrence in central nervous system demyelinating disorders.
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Loss of expression of MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) is a frequent event and predicts poor survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells for the first line of defense against tumor. Distant MHC class I homolog MICA has been identified as human ligand for NK cell activating receptor NKG2D. Engagement of MICA triggers NK cells and augments antigen-specific CTL anti-tumor immunity. However, the expression level of MICA and its clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, a hospital-based study cohort of 143 HCC patients was involved. MICA expression levels were determined by immunohistochemical staining. The association of MICA expression with tumor clinicopathologic features, disease-free survival, and overall survival of HCC patients were analyzed. Significantly decreased expression of MICA was detected in tumor specimens. MICA expression was significantly associated with AFP level (P < 0.001) and tumor node metastasis stage (P = 0.003). Patients with reduced level of MICA had a statistically significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival duration than patients with preserved expression of MICA. However, in multivariate analysis, MICA expression level was found not to be an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free survival and overall survival of HCC patients. Our findings suggest that decreased MICA expression may play an important role in HCC tumor evasion of host immunity, which warrants further investigation in future studies.
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Karyotype characterization of in vivo- and in vitro-derived porcine parthenogenetic cell lines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mammalian haploid cell lines provide useful tools for both genetic studies and transgenic animal production. To derive porcine haploid cells, three sets of experiments were conducted. First, genomes of blastomeres from 8-cell to 16-cell porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were examined by chromosome spread analysis. An intact haploid genome was maintained by 48.15% of blastomeres. Based on this result, two major approaches for amplifying the haploid cell population were tested. First, embryonic stem-like (ES-like) cells were cultured from PA blastocyst stage embryos, and second, fetal fibroblasts from implanted day 30 PA fetuses were cultured. A total of six ES-like cell lines were derived from PA blastocysts. No chromosome spread with exactly 19 chromosomes (the normal haploid complement) was found. Four cell lines showed a tendency to develop to polyploidy (more than 38 chromosomes). The karyotypes of the fetal fibroblasts showed different abnormalities. Cells with 19-38 chromosomes were the predominant karyotype (59.48-60.91%). The diploid cells were the second most observed karyotype (16.17%-22.73%). Although a low percentage (3.45-8.33%) of cells with 19 chromosomes were detected in 18.52% of the fetus-derived cell lines, these cells were not authentic haploid cells since they exhibited random losses or gains of some chromosomes. The haploid fibroblasts were not efficiently enriched via flow cytometry sorting. On the contrary, the diploid cells were efficiently enriched. The enriched parthenogenetic diploid cells showed normal karyotypes and expressed paternally imprinted genes at extremely low levels. We concluded that only a limited number of authentic haploid cells could be obtained from porcine cleavage-stage parthenogenetic embryos. Unlike mouse, the karyotype of porcine PA embryo-derived haploid cells is not stable, long-term culture of parthenogenetic embryos, either in vivo or in vitro, resulted in abnormal karyotypes. The porcine PA embryo-derived diploid fibroblasts enriched from sorting might be candidate cells for paternally imprinted gene research.
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Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.
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Integrating de novo transcriptome assembly and cloning to obtain chicken Ovocleidin-17 full-length cDNA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Efficiently obtaining full-length cDNA for a target gene is the key step for functional studies and probing genetic variations. However, almost all sequenced domestic animal genomes are not 'finished'. Many functionally important genes are located in these gapped regions. It can be difficult to obtain full-length cDNA for which only partial amino acid/EST sequences exist. In this study we report a general pipeline to obtain full-length cDNA, and illustrate this approach for one important gene (Ovocleidin-17, OC-17) that is associated with chicken eggshell biomineralization. Chicken OC-17 is one of the best candidates to control and regulate the deposition of calcium carbonate in the calcified eggshell layer. OC-17 protein has been purified, sequenced, and has had its three-dimensional structure solved. However, researchers still cannot conduct OC-17 mRNA related studies because the mRNA sequence is unknown and the gene is absent from the current chicken genome. We used RNA-Seq to obtain the entire transcriptome of the adult hen uterus, and then conducted de novo transcriptome assembling with bioinformatics analysis to obtain candidate OC-17 transcripts. Based on this sequence, we used RACE and PCR cloning methods to successfully obtain the full-length OC-17 cDNA. Temporal and spatial OC-17 mRNA expression analyses were also performed to demonstrate that OC-17 is predominantly expressed in the adult hen uterus during the laying cycle and barely at immature developmental stages. Differential uterine expression of OC-17 was observed in hens laying eggs with weak versus strong eggshell, confirming its important role in the regulation of eggshell mineralization and providing a new tool for genetic selection for eggshell quality parameters. This study is the first one to report the full-length OC-17 cDNA sequence, and builds a foundation for OC-17 mRNA related studies. We provide a general method for biologists experiencing difficulty in obtaining candidate gene full-length cDNA sequences.
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Chloroquine stimulates Cl- secretion by Ca2+ activated Cl- channels in rat ileum.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chloroquine (CQ), a bitter tasting drug widely used in treatment of malaria, is associated gastrointestinal side effects including nausea or diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CQ on electrolyte transport in rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. The results showed that CQ evoked an increase in short circuit current (ISC) in rat ileum at lower concentration (?5×10(-4) M) but induced a decrease at higher concentrations (?10(-3) M). These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Other bitter compounds, such as denatoniumbenzoate and quinine, exhibited similar effects. CQ-evoked increase in ISC was partly reduced by amiloride(10(-4) M), a blocker of epithelial Na(+) channels. Furosemide (10(-4) M), an inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter, also inhibited the increased ISC response to CQ, whereas another Cl(-) channel inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172(10(-5) M), had no effect. Intriguingly, CQ-evoked increases were almost completely abolished by niflumic acid (10(-4) M), a relatively specific Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) inhibitor. Furthermore, other CaCC inhibitors, such as DIDS and NPPB, also exhibited similar effects. CQ-induced increases in ISC were also abolished by thapsigargin(10(-6) M), a Ca(2+) pump inhibitor and in the absence of either Cl(-) or Ca(2+) from bathing solutions. Further studies demonstrated that T2R and CaCC-TMEM16A were colocalized in small intestinal epithelial cells and the T2R agonist CQ evoked an increase of intracelluar Ca(2+) in small intestinal epithelial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CQ induces Cl(-) secretion in rat ileum through CaCC at low concentrations, suggesting a novel explanation for CQ-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during the treatment of malaria.
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MiRNA-218, a new regulator of HMGB1, suppresses cell migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as negative regulators of gene expression involved in cancer metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential roles of miR-218 in non-small cell lung cancer and validate its regulation mechanism. Functional studies showed that miR-218 overexpression inhibited cell migration and invasion, but had no effect on cell viability. Enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis confirmed that miR-218 suppressed the expression of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) by directly targeting its 3-untranslated region. Accordingly, silencing of HMGB1 accorded with the effects of miR-218 on cell migration and invasion, and overexpression of HMGB1 can restore cell migration and invasion which were reduced by miR-218. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-218 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer. Furthermore, miR-218 may act as a potential therapeutic biomarker for metastatic lung cancer patients.
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Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.
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Abundant polymorphisms at the microsatellite locus LEI0258 in indigenous chickens.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has abundant SNP and indels, and is closely related with host genetic resistance or susceptibility to disease. The LEI0258 locus is the most variable in the MHC region, and is a useful marker in reflecting the variability of MHC. In this study, we applied the LEI0258 microsatellite marker to investigate polymorphism of MHC in Chinese indigenous chickens. The size of LEI0258 fragments in 1,617 individuals from 33 Chinese chicken breeds was detected by capillary electrophoresis, and 213 samples with different fragment sizes were further sequenced. A total of 69 alleles ranging from 193 to 489 bp were found, including 21 novel alleles and 28 private alleles that existed in only one breed. Three alleles, 249 bp (7.04%), 489 bp (6.57%), and 309 bp (6.10%), were the most frequent in the indigenous chickens. A 489-bp novel allele was unique in Chinese local chicken breeds. Three indels and 4 SNP of upstream/downstream of 2 repeat regions (R13/R12) were found. Abundant variations indicate high genetic diversity at the MHC region in indigenous chickens. Rare alleles are vulnerable to genetic drift in small populations, and can be used as molecular markers for monitoring the dynamic conservation of many indigenous breeds.
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CACTA-like transposable element in ZmCCT attenuated photoperiod sensitivity and accelerated the postdomestication spread of maize.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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The postdomestication adaptation of maize to longer days required reduced photoperiod sensitivity to optimize flowering time. We performed a genome-wide association study and confirmed that ZmCCT, encoding a CCT domain-containing protein, is associated with the photoperiod response. In early-flowering maize we detected a CACTA-like transposable element (TE) within the ZmCCT promoter that dramatically reduced flowering time. TE insertion likely occurred after domestication and was selected as maize adapted to temperate zones. This process resulted in a strong selective sweep within the TE-related block of linkage disequilibrium. Functional validations indicated that the TE represses ZmCCT expression to reduce photoperiod sensitivity, thus accelerating maize spread to long-day environments.
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Expression and significance of biglycan in endometrial cancer.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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This study aimed to determine the expression level of biglycan in different lesion properties of endometrium and to investigate the possible function and prognostic value of biglycan in endometrial cancer.
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Morphine improved the antitumor effects on MCF-7 cells in combination with 5-Fluorouracil.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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The most frequently used opioid in cancer pain management is morphine which remains a cornerstone for the management of cancer pain, due to the largest experience existing among physicians and widely availability in a variety of formulation. Considering that analgesics on cancer pain is often under the condition of chemotherapy and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used today as a potent drug for the treatment of advanced cancers, whether analgesics such as morphine, interferes the chemotherapy such as 5-FU, arose as a considerable problem.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of generative and sperm cells reveals molecular characteristics associated with sperm development and function specialization.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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In flowering plants, two sperm cells (SCs) are generated from a generative cell (GC) in the developing pollen grain or growing pollen tube and are then delivered to the embryo sac to initiate double fertilization. SC development and function specialization involve the strict control of the protein (gene) expression program and coordination of diverse cellular processes. However, because methods for collecting a large amount of highly purified GCs and SCs for proteomic and transcriptomic studies from a plant are not available, molecular information about the program and the interconnections is lacking. Here, we describe a method for obtaining a large quantity of highly purified GCs and SCs from just-germinated lily pollen grains and growing pollen tubes for proteomic analysis. Our observation showed that SCs had less condensed chromatin and more vacuole-like structures than GCs and that mature SCs were arrested at the G2 phase. Comparison of SC and GC proteomes revealed 101 proteins differentially expressed in the two proteomes. These proteins are involved in diverse cellular and metabolic processes, with preferential involvement in metabolism, the cell cycle, signaling, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, and chromatin remodeling. Impressively, almost all proteins in SCF complex-mediated proteolysis and the cell cycle were up-regulated in SCs, whereas those in chromatin remodeling and stress response were down-regulated. Our data also reveal the coordination of SCF complex-mediated proteolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA repair in SC development and function specialization. This study revealed for the first time a difference in protein profiles between GCs and SCs.
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Routine lymph node dissection may be not suitable for all intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients: Results of a monocentric series.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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To investigate the indications for lymph node dissection (LND) in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients.
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The output power and beam divergence behaviors of tapered terahertz quantum cascade lasers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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We report on Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with tapered waveguide structure operating at ? 103 ?m. The tapered waveguide effect on the output power and the laser beam divergence are experimentally studied with the tapered angle ranging from 0° to 8°. It is found that the peak output power of the devices with same length reaches the maximum at about 5° ? 6° tapered angle. Meanwhile, the horizontal divergence angle of the laser beam can be greatly reduced. The existence of such optimal tapered angle is explained by the finite-element simulation with the consideration of the self-focusing effect for the devices with larger tapered angle.
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Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of avian eggshell matrix and uterine fluid proteins associated with eggshell mechanical property.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production. During the process of eggshell formation, uncalcified eggs are bathed in uterine fluid that plays regulatory roles in eggshell calcification. In this study, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology was used to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs (shell matrix protein from strong eggshells and shell matrix protein from weak eggshells) and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs (uterine fluid bathing strong eggs and uterine fluid bathing weak eggs) in a chicken population. Here, we reported the first global proteomic analysis of uterine fluid. A total of 577 and 466 proteins were identified in uterine fluid and eggshell matrix, respectively. Of 447 identified proteins in uterine fluid bathing strong eggs, up to 357 (80%) proteins were in common with proteins in uterine fluid bathing weak eggs. Similarly, up to 83% (328/396) of the proteins in shell matrix protein from strong eggshells were in common with the proteins in shell matrix protein from weak eggshells. The large amount of common proteins indicated that the difference in protein abundance should play essential roles in influencing eggshell strength. Ultimately, 15 proteins mainly relating to eggshell matrix specific proteins, calcium binding and transportation, protein folding and sorting, bone development or diseases, and thyroid hormone activity were considered to have closer association with the formation of strong eggshell.
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Normal mucus formation requires cAMP-dependent HCO3- secretion and Ca2+-mediated mucin exocytosis.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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? Evidence from the pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) and recent results in vitro indicate that HCO3- is required for gel-forming mucins to form the mucus that protects epithelial surfaces. Mucus formation and release is a complex process that begins with an initial intracellular phase of synthesis, packaging and apical granule exocytosis that is followed by an extracellular phase of mucin swelling, transport and discharge into a lumen. Exactly where HCO3- becomes crucial in these processes is unknown, but we observed that in the presence of HCO3-, stimulating dissected segments of native mouse intestine with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced goblet cell exocytosis followed by normal mucin discharge in wild-type (WT) intestines. CF intestines that inherently lack cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent HCO3- secretion also demonstrated apparently normal goblet cell exocytosis, but in contrast, this was not followed by similar mucin discharge. Moreover, we found that even in the presence of HCO3-, when WT intestines were stimulated only with a Ca2+-mediated agonist (carbachol), exocytosis was followed by poor discharge as with CF intestines. However, when the Ca2+-mediated agonist was combined with a cAMP-mediated agonist (isoproterenol (isoprenaline) or vasoactive intestinal peptide) in the presence of HCO3- both normal exocytosis and normal discharge was observed. These results indicate that normal mucus formation requires concurrent activation of a Ca2+-mediated exocytosis of mucin granules and an independent cAMP-mediated, CFTR-dependent, HCO3- secretion that appears to mainly enhance the extracellular phases of mucus excretion.
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Polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor ?3 gene and their associations with feed efficiency in chickens.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Growth and feeding traits such as BW, BW gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) are of economic importance in poultry production. In this study, 8 SNP of the transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF-?3) gene, which are located in the proximity of quantitative trait loci affecting BW and FCR, were selected to be genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in 2 yellow meat-type chicken populations with 724 birds in total. Body weights at 49 (BW49) and 70 (BW70) d of age and FI in the interval were recorded, and respective BWG and FCR were calculated for each bird. Two SNP with a very low minor allele frequency (<1%) were discarded from further analysis. The results showed that both rs13586818 and rs14535174 had significant effects (P < 0.05) on BWG and FCR, and that rs14535177 was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BW49, BW70, and FI. Furthermore, birds with the GA genotype of rs13586818 showed strongly higher FCR and lower BWG (P < 0.05) compared with AA individuals. The TT birds had significantly larger BWG (P < 0.05) than GT birds in rs14535174, whereas FCR was the opposite. Individuals with the GC genotype of rs14535177 had significantly higher BW49, BW70, FCR, and FI (P < 0.05) than those with the GG genotype. Additionally, haplotypes based on 3 SNP of rs13586818, rs14535174, and rs14535177 were significantly associated with FCR (P < 0.05). The SNP and analyzed haplotypes identified in this study might be used as potential genetic markers in meat-type chicken breeding.
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Preparation of mesoporous Si-C-O fibers with a narrow mesopore size distribution.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Mesoporous Si-C-O fibers were fabricated by air activation of a kind of carbon-rich SiC-C fibers at 600 degrees C. The SiC-C fibers were prepared from the hybrid precursor of polycarbosilane and pitch through melt-spinning, air curing and pyrolysis in nitrogen. The carbon content of the SiC-C fibers was 54.4 wt%, and decreased to lower than 25 wt% after activation for more than 5 hours. Meanwhile, the surface area increased up to 260 m2/g, with a narrow mesopore size distribution mainly in the range of 2-5 nm. The SiC-phase derived from the polycarbosilane and the C-phase derived from the pitch form a bicontinuous interpenetrating network, which plays an important role for the narrow pore size distribution.
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Effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances of activated sludge from an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The effect of salinity on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of activated sludge was investigated in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The contents of loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) were positively correlated with the salinity. The polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN) contents in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS increased with the increase of salinity. With the increase of salinity from 0.5% to 6%, the PN/PS ratios in LB-EPS and TB-EPS decreased from 4.8 to 0.9 and from 2.9 to 1.4, respectively. The four fluorescence peaks in both LB-EPS and TB-EPS identified by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy are attributed to PN-like substances and humic acid-like substances. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the LB-EPS and TB-EPS appeared to be very similar, but the differences across the spectra were apparent in terms of the relative intensity of some bands with the increase of salinity. The sludge volume index showed a linear correlation with LB-EPS (R(2)=0.9479) and TB-EPS (R(2)=0.9355) at different salinities, respectively.
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