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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PPAR ligands improve impaired metabolic pathways in fetal hearts of diabetic rats.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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In maternal diabetes, the fetal heart can be structurally and functionally affected. Maternal diets enriched in certain unsaturated fatty acids can activate the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory pathways during development. Our aim was to investigate whether PPAR? expression, lipid metabolism, lipoperoxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production are altered in the fetal hearts of diabetic rats, and to analyze the putative effects of in vivo PPAR activation on these parameters. We found decreased PPAR? expression in the hearts of male but not female fetuses of diabetic rats when compared with controls. Fetal treatments with the PPAR? ligand leukotriene B4 upregulated the expression of PPAR? and target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the fetal hearts. Increased concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids were found in the hearts of fetuses of diabetic rats. Maternal treatments with diets supplemented with 6% olive oil or 6% safflower oil, enriched in unsaturated fatty acids that can activate PPARs, led to few changes in lipid concentrations, but up-regulated PPAR? expression in fetal hearts. NO production, which was increased in the hearts of male and female fetuses in the diabetic group, and lipoperoxidation, which was increased in the hearts of male fetuses in the diabetic group, was reduced by the maternal treatments supplemented with safflower oil. In conclusion, impaired PPAR? expression, altered lipid metabolism, and increased oxidative and nitridergic pathways were evidenced in hearts of fetuses of diabetic rats and were regulated in a gender-dependent manner by treatments enriched with PPAR ligands.
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[Hemorrhagic dengue and vertical transmission to the newborn: a case report and literature review].
Ginecol Obstet Mex
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To describe the case of a patient with term pregnancy and infection with hemorrhagic dengue and vertical transmission to the newborn.
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Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge in malaria-naïve and semi-immune Colombian volunteers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared.
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Skin and soft tissue infection caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans: report of 14 cases.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Background: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans are very infrequent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of this infection. Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of 14 cases of SSTI due to A. xylosoxidans that occurred at the University Hospital of Guadalajara (Spain) from January 2007 to December 2012. Results: The infection was secondary to vascular diseases, trauma, and recent surgery in 12 patients (85.7%). The most frequent clinical presentation was infection of a vascular ulcer (5 cases). The infection was monomicrobial in 7 patients (50%) and 9 cases were community-acquired (64.2%). The clinical outcome of the patients was uniformly good after antibiotic treatment, except in 4 patients who suffered recurrence of the infection. Conclusion: A. xylosoxidans should be considered a potential pathogen in patients with SSTIs, especially in patients with vascular diseases or after surgery or trauma. A history of contact with water should be investigated in all cases. Treatment can be difficult due to the high level of antibiotic resistance. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole may be useful for treatment in outpatients with community-acquired infections.
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Outbreak of multiresistant OXA-24- and OXA-51-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in an internal medicine ward.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Here we describe the clinical, microbiological, epidemiological, and molecular characterization of an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) involving 5 patients admitted to the internal medicine ward of our hospital. Over a 6-week period, 5 MRAB isolates were recovered from 5 patients, including 1 with fatal meningitis, 3 with skin and soft tissue infections, and 1 with respiratory colonization. One sample obtained during environmental monitoring in the ward was A. baumannii-positive. According to the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results, the strains isolated from all patients and the environmental sample belonged to a single clone, identified as ST79 by multilocus sequence typing. The blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-51 carbapenemases were detected in all isolates. Four patients died, but only the death of the meningitis patient was probably related to the A. baumannii infection. The infection source was probably the hands of the healthcare workers because the outbreak strain was isolated from the surface of a serum container. The results of the present study revealed the importance of strict adherence to control measures by all healthcare workers because the consequences of noncompliance can be very serious.
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PPAR activation as a regulator of lipid metabolism, nitric oxide production and lipid peroxidation in the placenta from type 2 diabetic patients.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand activated transcription factors with crucial functions in lipid homeostasis, anti-inflammatory processes and placental development. Maternal diabetes induces a pro-inflammatory environment and alters placental development. We investigated whether PPARs regulate lipid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in placental explants from healthy and type 2 diabetic (DM2) patients. We found decreased PPAR? and PPAR? concentrations, no changes in PPAR? concentrations, and increased lipids, lipoperoxides and NO production in placentas from DM2 patients. PPAR? agonists reduced placental concentrations of triglycerides and both PPAR? and PPAR? agonists reduced concentrations of phospholipids, cholesteryl esters and cholesterol. PPAR? agonists increased lipid concentrations in placentas from DM2 patients and more markedly in placentas from healthy patients. Endogenous ligands for the three PPAR isotypes reduced NO production and lipoperoxidation in placentas from DM2 patients. We conclude that PPARs play a role in placental NO and lipid homeostasis and can regulate NO production, lipid concentrations and lipoperoxidation in placentas from DM2 patients.
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Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicated with peritonitis caused by Lactobacillus plantarum.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Lactobacillus spp. rarely causes human disease. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and vascular disease admitted to our hospital with severe abdominal pain and fever. Signs of peritonitis were found upon examination. The patient underwent surgery, and a diagnosis of perforated cholecystitis with purulent peritonitis was made intra-operatively. A cholecystectomy was performed, and therapy with imipenem was initiated. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from bile and peritoneal fluid cultures 2 days later. The patient recovered well and was discharged on post-operative day 16 after 14 days of treatment with imipenem. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported of acute cholecystitis caused by Lactobacillus spp. This organism should be considered as a cause of biliary infections, especially in patients with underlying diseases. Correct identification is often difficult, but it is very important because these organisms are usually resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics.
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Polymorphisms in metalloproteinase-9 are associated with the risk for asthma in Mexican pediatric patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, which induces airway remodelling of the extracellular matrix over time. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in this process, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP genes may influence their mRNA expression levels or abilities to bind substrates and inhibitors, thereby contributing to asthma predisposition and severity. MMP-9 is highly expressed in airways and many studies support its involvement in asthma pathogenesis; however the contribution of MMP-9 SNPs is controversial. To investigate whether MMP-9 SNPs are associated with childhood-onset asthma in Mexican patients we conducted a case-control study including 403 children with clinical asthma diagnoses and 426 healthy controls from Mexico. The cases and controls were matched by ethnicity and gender. We found that the SNPs rs2274755, rs17577, and rs3918249 were associated with asthma risk. The most significant associations were with rs2274755 (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.31-3.39, P=0.001) and rs17577 (OR=2.07, 95% CI 1.29-3.30, P=0.001); which were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Both SNPs were also associated with atopic asthma (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.44-3 · 96, P=0.0005). The SNP rs3918249 exhibited a female gender-dependent association with asthma (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.43, P=0.007). Our results suggest that MMP-9 polymorphisms could play a role in the susceptibility to childhood-onset asthma.
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NFE2L2 gene variants and susceptibility to childhood-onset asthma.
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Environmental factors causing oxidative stress are known to be associated with asthma morbidity. The antioxidative gene NFE2L2 has been implicated in asthma development in mice models. In humans, the SNPs -617C/A and -653G/A, located at the promoter region of NFE2L2 gene, have been found associated with the susceptibility to develop diverse chronic-degenerative diseases.
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Altered matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in embryos from diabetic rats during early organogenesis.
Reprod. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Maternal diabetes increases the risks for embryo malformations. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are two relevant MMPs for embryo development. Here, we addressed whether changes in these MMPs and in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 are altered in embryos and decidua from type 1 diabetic rats during early organogenesis. Our results demonstrate MMP-2 and MMP-9 overactivities and overexpression, together with increases in lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in embryos and decidua from diabetic animals. There is a concomitant increase in the inhibitory activity of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in embryos and decidua, and an increase in protein expression of embryonic TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. In situ zymography demonstrated MMPs overactivities despite increased TIMPs in embryos and decidua in maternal diabetes during early organogenesis. This study reveals that maternal diabetes leads to profound alterations in MMPs/TIMPs balance during embryo organogenesis, the gestational period during which most malformations are induced.
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Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate.
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Physicochemical, functional and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory properties of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) 7S globulin.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Amaranth 7S globulin is a minor globulin component and its impact on the properties of an amaranth protein ingredient depends on its proportion in the variety of amaranth being considered. Some physicochemical, functional and angiotesin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of amaranth vicilin were studied in this work and compared with the 11S globulin.
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PPAR? agonists regulate lipid metabolism and nitric oxide production and prevent placental overgrowth in term placentas from diabetic rats.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Maternal diabetes impairs fetoplacental metabolism and growth. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor capable of regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. In this study, we analyzed whether placental and fetal PPAR? activation regulates lipid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in term placentas from diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by neonatal streptozotocin administration. On day 21 of pregnancy, placentas from control and diabetic rats were cultured in the presence of PPAR? agonists (clofibrate and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))) for further evaluation of levels, synthesis, and peroxidation of lipids as well as NO production. Besides, on days 19, 20, and 21 of gestation, fetuses were injected with LTB(4), and the placentas were explanted on day 21 of gestation for evaluation of placental weight and concentrations of placental lipids, lipoperoxides, and NO metabolites. We found that placentas from diabetic rats showed reduced PPAR? concentrations. They presented no lipid overaccumulation but reduced lipid synthesis, parameters negatively regulated by PPAR? activators. Lipid peroxidation and NO production, increased in placentas from diabetic rats, were negatively regulated by PPAR? activators. Fetal PPAR? activation in diabetic rats does not change placental lipid concentrations but reduced placental weight and NO production. In conclusion, PPAR? activators regulate lipid metabolism and NO production in term placentas from diabetic rats, an activation that regulates placental growth and can partly be exerted by the developing fetus.
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Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) vicilin subunit structure.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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The 7S-globulin fraction is a minor component of the amaranth storage proteins. The present work provides new information about this protein. The amaranth 7S-globulin or vicilin presented a sedimentation coefficient of 8.6 ± 0.6 S and was composed of main subunits of 66, 52, 38, and 16 kDa. On the basis of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of tryptic fragments, the 52, 38, and 16 kDa subunits presented sequence homology with sesame vicilin, whereas the 66 kDa subunit showed sequence similarity with a putative vicilin. Several characteristics of the 66 kDa subunit were similar to members of the convicilin family. Results support the hypothesis that the 7S-globulin molecules are composed of subunits coming from at least two gene families with primary products of 66 and 52 kDa, respectively. According to the present information, amaranth vicilin may be classified into the vicilin group that includes pea, broad bean, and sesame vicilins, among others.
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Increased nitration and diminished activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in placentas from diabetic rats.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2010
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Nitration-induced protein damage in the placenta leads to impaired blood flow and deficient feto-placental exchange in diabetic pregnancies. This work studied the effect of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite on Cu/Zn SOD activity in rat placentas and evaluated whether Cu/Zn SOD is nitrated in the placenta from diabetic rats at mid-gestation. Protein nitration was evaluated by EIA, Cu/Zn SOD activity by inhibition of the epinephrine auto-oxidation, Cu/Zn SOD expression by western blot and specific nitration by immunoprecipitation. This study found higher levels of protein nitration (p < 0.001), diminished Cu/Zn SOD activity and enhanced protein expression (p < 0.01) in placentas from diabetic rats. Placental Cu/Zn SOD activity was inhibited by peroxynitrite (p < 0.01). Besides, nitration of Cu/Zn SOD was elevated in placentas from diabetic rats (p < 0.01). These results show that rat Cu/Zn SOD can be nitrated, a modification that could lead to the depressed activity of this enzyme found in placentas from diabetic rats.
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Activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR? regulates lipid metabolism in foetal liver from diabetic rats: implications in diabetes-induced foetal overgrowth.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a crucial regulator of liver lipid metabolism. As maternal diabetes impairs foetal lipid metabolism and growth, we aimed to determine whether PPAR? activation regulates lipid metabolism in the foetal liver from diabetic rats as well as foetal weight and foetal liver weight.
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Computational prediction and experimental assessment of secreted/surface proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2010
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The mycobacterial cell envelope has been implicated in the pathogenicity of tuberculosis and therefore has been a prime target for the identification and characterization of surface proteins with potential application in drug and vaccine development. In this study, the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was screened using Machine Learning tools that included feature-based predictors, general localizers and transmembrane topology predictors to identify proteins that are potentially secreted to the surface of M. tuberculosis, or to the extracellular milieu through different secretory pathways. The subcellular localization of a set of 8 hypothetically secreted/surface candidate proteins was experimentally assessed by cellular fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) to determine the reliability of the computational methodology proposed here, using 4 secreted/surface proteins with experimental confirmation as positive controls and 2 cytoplasmic proteins as negative controls. Subcellular fractionation and IEM studies provided evidence that the candidate proteins Rv0403c, Rv3630, Rv1022, Rv0835, Rv0361 and Rv0178 are secreted either to the mycobacterial surface or to the extracellular milieu. Surface localization was also confirmed for the positive controls, whereas negative controls were located on the cytoplasm. Based on statistical learning methods, we obtained computational subcellular localization predictions that were experimentally assessed and allowed us to construct a computational protocol with experimental support that allowed us to identify a new set of secreted/surface proteins as potential vaccine candidates.
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Carbaprostacyclin, a PPARdelta agonist, ameliorates excess lipid accumulation in diabetic rat placentas.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Maternal diabetes impairs placental development and metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors relevant in metabolic homeostasis. We investigated the concentrations of PPARdelta and its endogenous agonist prostacyclin (PGI2), as well as the effects of carbaprostacylin (cPGI(2,) a PPARdelta agonist) on lipid metabolism in placentas from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on day 13.5 of gestation.
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Globulin-p and 11S-globulin from amaranthus Hypochondriacus: are two isoforms of the 11S-globulin.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Amaranth is an ancient crop with a high content of good quality proteins. Globulins are some of the most abundant storage proteins of amaranth grain. They contain two fractions distinguishable according to their different solubility: the salt-soluble 7S and 11S-globulins and the globulin-p soluble in mild-alkaline, low-ionic-strength solutions. As part of the amaranth proteins characterization, in this work we investigated the structural characteristics responsible for the different physicochemical properties of these globulins. We studied certain conformational parameters of the purified aggregates (AMGp) and individual molecules (IMGp) of globulin-p and of the partially purified globulin (ppGb) and compared the AMGp polypeptide sequences with the sequence of the 11S-globulin propolypeptide from Amaranthus (gi|122726601). The results indicated that the AMGp aggregates are responsible for the different solubility of globulin-p. Subtle conformational differences as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and urea sensitivity were found between the molecules studied: The AMGp showed some surface differences from the IMGp and the ppGb; the AMGp also had a lower affinity for the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 1,8-aniline-naphthalene-sulfonate and a higher ionic charge than the ppGb and the IMGp, characteristics that might cause their lower solubility. In addition, we have demonstrated differences between the AMGp polypeptide sequences and that reported for amaranth 11S-globulin. These differences suggest that the globulin-p and 11S-globulin are two 11S-globulin isoforms comprised of polypeptides coming from different legumin-gene subfamilies.
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Synthetic peptides from conserved regions of the Plasmodium falciparum early transcribed membrane and ring exported proteins bind specifically to red blood cell proteins.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2009
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Severe malaria pathology is directly associated with cytoadherence of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) to healthy RBCs and/or endothelial cells occurring during the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum. We synthesized, as 20-mer long peptides, the members of the ring exported (REX) protein family encoded in chromosome 9, as well as the early transcribed membrane proteins (E-TRAMP) 10.2 and 4, to identify specific RBC binding regions in these proteins. Twelve binding peptides were identified (designated as HABPs): three were identified in REX1, two in REX2, one in REX3, two in REX4 and four in E-TRAMP 10.2. The majority of these HABPs was conserved among different P. falciparum strains, according to sequence analysis. No HABPs were found in E-TRAMP 4. Bindings of HABPs were saturable and sensitive to the enzymatic treatment of RBCs and HABPs had different structural features, according to circular dichroism studies. Our results suggest that the REX and E-TRAMP families participate in relevant interactions with RBC membrane proteins, which highlight these proteins as potential targets for the development of fully effective immunoprophylactic methods.
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Atomic fidelity of subunit-based chemically-synthesized antimalarial vaccine components.
Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The tri-dimensional (3D) structure determined by NMR of functionally relevant High Activity Binding Peptides (HABPs) of chemically-synthesized malarial proteins, involved in invasion to target cells, is practically identical, at the atomic level, to their corresponding recombinantly produced proteins, determined by X-ray crystallography. Both recombinant proteins as well as these chemically-synthesized HABPs bind to host-cell receptors through channels or troughs formation, stabilized by hydrogen bonding; most of them are located on distant segments to the highly polymorphic, highly antigenic, strain specific amino acid sequences the parasite uses to evade immune pressure. When these immunologically silent conserved HABPs are specifically modified, they become highly immunogenic and capable of inducing protective immune responses, supporting the specifically modified minimal subunit-based, multiepitopic, chemically-synthesized vaccines concept.
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Structural characteristics of immunogenic liver-stage antigens derived from P. falciparum malarial proteins.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2009
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A fully effective antimalarial vaccine must contain multiple proteins from the different development stages of Plasmodium falciparum parasites involved in host-cell invasion or their biologically active fragments. It must therefore include sporozoite molecules able to induce protective immunity by blocking the parasites access to hepatic cells, and/or proteins involved in the development of this stage, amongst which are included the Liver Stage Antigen-1 (LSA-1) and the Sporozoite and Liver Stage Antigen (SALSA). Our studies have focused on the search for an association between the structure of high activity binding peptides (HABPs), including both conserved native and their modified analogues, and their ability to bind to the MHC Class II HLA-DR molecules during formation of the MHCII-peptide-TCR complex leading to inducing the appropriate immune response. These studies are part of a logical and rational strategy for developing multi-stage, multi-component, minimal subunit-based vaccines, mainly against the P. falciparum malaria.
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Structural modifications of Amaranth proteins during germination.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Amaranth storage proteins begin to be hydrolyzed immediately following the completion of germination. Albumins and globulins (7S globulin, 11S-globulin and globulin-p) were formerly modified, and glutelins, the most aggregated fraction, later. Globulins mobilization starts with the proteolysis of the 7S like-globulin polypeptides and the propolypeptide and acid (A) polypeptides of 11S-globulin and globulin-p. This pattern of 11S-globulin mobilization is accounted by the structural model with propolypeptide and A polypeptides exposed to the outside. Amaranth globulin molecules showed minor changes in their sizes in spite of having some of their polypeptides cleaved. Although globulin-p is more aggregated than 11S-globulin, it showed greater conformational changes. Considering the high susceptibility of the propolypeptide to enzymatic hydrolysis, the higher content of this polypeptide in globulin-p molecules might explain their higher structural changes. According to the results, the order of mobilization of storage proteins depends on the combination of two structural characteristics, the state of aggregation and the presence on the surface of polypeptides susceptible to cleavage.
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a common genetic risk factor for asthma, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus in a Mexican pediatric population.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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There is a great deal of evidence that points to the association of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene as a common genetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases that are caused by inflammatory and/or autoimmune etiologies. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the TNF-alpha promoter region have been associated with disease susceptibility and severity. We investigated whether -308G/A and -238G/A TNF-alpha polymorphisms were associated with asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in a pediatric Mexican population. In a case-control study of 725 patients (asthma: 226, JRA: 171, and SLE: 328) and 400 control subjects, the participants were analyzed using the allelic discrimination technique. The genotype distribution of both TNF-alpha polymorphisms was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each group. However, there were significant differences in the allele frequency of TNF-alpha-308A between the patients and the healthy controls. This allele was detected in 2.9% of the controls, 6.0% of asthmatic and JRA patients (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0086), and 6.7% of SLE patients (p = 0.00049); statistical significance was maintained after ancestry stratification (asthma: p = 0.0143, JRA: p = 0.0083, and SLE: p = 0.0026). Stratification by gender showed that the risk for the -308A allele in asthma and JRA was greater in females (OR = 4.16, p = 0.0008 and OR = 4.4, p = 0.0002, respectively). The TNF-alpha -238A allele showed an association only with JRA in males (OR = 2.89, p = 0.004). These results support the concept that the TNF-alpha gene is a genetic risk factor for asthma, SLE, and JRA in the pediatric Mexican population.
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[Pathogenesis, trigger and risk factors in asthma].
Rev Alerg Mex
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Trigger and risk factors in asthma are multiple, the most relevant at the time are: genetic, infectious (viral, bacterial, fungi and parasites), environmental (allergens, smoking, irritants, pollutants of cars, industries, work environment, etc.) and obesity. Asthma severity meets influenced by the age, sex, pregnancy, immunological system immaturity and the atopic march. The pathogeny of the inflammatory allergic process more than an imbalance Th1/Th2, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE, today includes the important participation of other elements such as: Th17 or IL-17, IL-23, IL-25, IL-27, Tregs, TLRs, NODs, MAs, DCs, bronchial epithelial cells, chemokines, neurokinins, ICAM-1, NO (iNO). Besides other elements that influence the inflammatory response amplification and the remodeling of the airway epithelium.
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Increased nitric oxide production and gender-dependent changes in PPAR? expression and signaling in the fetal lung from diabetic rats.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
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The fetal lung is affected by maternal diabetes. Nuclear receptor PPAR? regulates nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in different tissues. We aimed to determine whether fetal lung PPAR? expression is altered by maternal diabetes, and if there are gender-dependent changes in PPAR? regulation of NO production in the fetal lung. Fetal lungs from control and diabetic rats were explanted on day 21 of gestation and evaluated for PPAR? expression and NO production. Fetuses were injected with the PPAR? ligand LTB(4) on days 19, 20 and 21, and the fetal lung explanted on day 21 to evaluate PPAR? and the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). Besides, pregnant rats were fed with olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets, enriched in PPAR ligands, for evaluation of fetal lung NO production and PPAR? expression. We found reduced PPAR? concentrations only in the lung from male fetuses from the diabetic group when compared to controls, although maternal diabetes led to NO overproduction in both male and female fetal lungs. Fetal activation of PPAR? led to changes in lung PPAR? expression only in female fetuses, although this treatment increased iNOS expression in both male and female fetuses in the diabetic group. Diets supplemented with olive oil and not with safflower oil led to a reduction in NO production in male and female fetal lungs. In conclusion, there are gender-dependent changes in PPAR? expression and signaling in the fetal lung from diabetic rats, although PPAR? activation prevents maternal diabetes-induced lung NO overproduction in both male and female fetuses.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.