Infection with the gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the most prevalent chronic bacterial infection, affecting ?50% of the world's population, and is the main risk factor of gastric cancer. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? plays a crucial role in the development of gastric tumors and polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster leading to increased IL-1? production have been associated with increased risk for gastric cancer. To be active, pro-IL-1? must be cleaved by the inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex implicated in physiological and pathological inflammation. Recently, H. pylori was postulated to activate the inflammasome in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells; however, the molecular mechanisms as well as the bacterial virulence factor acting as signal 2 activating the inflammasome remain elusive. In this study, we analyzed the inflammasome complex regulating IL-1? upon H. pylori infection as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. Our results indicate that H. pylori-induced IL-1? secretion is mediated by activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome. We also show that reactive oxygen species, potassium efflux, and lysosomal destabilization are the main cellular mechanisms responsible of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome activation upon H. pylori infection, and identify vacuolating cytotoxin A and cag pathogenicity island as the bacterial virulence determinants involved. Moreover, in vivo experiments indicate an important role for the inflammasome in the onset and establishment of H. pylori infection and in the subsequent inflammatory response of the host.
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) has been identified as a potent regulator of innate immune responses, and loss-of-function mutations in XIAP cause the development of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP-2) in humans. Using gene-targeted mice, we show that loss of XIAP or deletion of its RING domain lead to excessive cell death and IL-1? secretion from dendritic cells triggered by diverse Toll-like receptor stimuli. Aberrant IL-1? secretion is TNF dependent and requires RIP3 but is independent of cIAP1/cIAP2. The observed cell death also requires TNF and RIP3 but proceeds independently of caspase-1/caspase-11 or caspase-8 function. Loss of XIAP results in aberrantly elevated ubiquitylation of RIP1 outside of TNFR complex I. Virally infected Xiap(-/-) mice present with symptoms reminiscent of XLP-2. Our data show that XIAP controls RIP3-dependent cell death and IL-1? secretion in response to TNF, which might contribute to hyperinflammation in patients with XLP-2.
Diabetic nephropathy is a growing health concern with characteristic sterile inflammation. As the underlying mechanisms of this inflammation remain poorly defined, specific therapies targeting sterile inflammation in diabetic nephropathy are lacking. Intriguingly, an association of diabetic nephropathy with inflammasome activation has recently been shown, but the pathophysiological relevance of this finding remains unknown. Within glomeruli, inflammasome activation was detected in endothelial cells and podocytes in diabetic humans and mice and in glucose-stressed glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes in vitro. Abolishing Nlrp3 or caspase-1 expression in bone marrow-derived cells fails to protect mice against diabetic nephropathy. Conversely, Nlrp3-deficient mice are protected against diabetic nephropathy despite transplantation of wild-type bone marrow. Pharmacological IL-1R antagonism prevented or even reversed diabetic nephropathy in mice. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate the Nlrp3 inflammasome in glucose or advanced glycation end product stressed podocytes. Inhibition of mitochondrial ROS prevents glomerular inflammasome activation and nephropathy in diabetic mice. Thus, mitochondrial ROS and Nlrp3-inflammasome activation in non-myeloid-derived cells aggravate diabetic nephropathy. Targeting the inflammasome may be a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic nephropathy.Kidney International advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.271.
Recognition of cell death by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses. However, how these reactions are regulated is not well understood. Here, we identify the inhibitory C-type lectin receptor Clec12a as a specific receptor for dead cells. Both human and mouse Clec12a could physically sense uric acid crystals (monosodium urate, MSU), which are key danger signals for cell-death-induced immunity. Clec12a inhibited inflammatory responses to MSU in vitro, and Clec12a-deficient mice exhibited hyperinflammatory responses after being challenged with MSU or necrotic cells and after radiation-induced thymocyte killing in vivo. Thus, we identified a negative regulatory MSU receptor that controls noninfectious inflammation in response to cell death that has implications for autoimmunity and inflammatory disease.
Through its ability to control the proteolytic maturation and secretion of interleukin-1 family cytokines, the inflammasome occupies a central role in the activation of inflammation and also influences the shaping of adaptive immunity. Since it affects a multitude of different immune responses from autoinflammatory diseases to host defense, vaccine efficacy, and even cancer, it has become of interest to many researchers. Here, we describe a straightforward method for inflammasome assays in primary murine bone marrow--derived myeloid cells. The protocol encompasses cell handling, inflammasome activation and inhibition, as well as the detection of IL-1?, caspase-1, and IL-1? by ELISA and Western blot.
Members of the PRDM protein family have been shown to play important roles during embryonic development. Previous in vitro and in situ analyses indicated a function of Prdm6 in cells of the vascular system. To reveal physiological functions of Prdm6, we generated conditional Prdm6-deficient mice. Complete deletion of Prdm6 results in embryonic lethality due to cardiovascular defects associated with aberrations in vascular patterning. However, smooth muscle cells could be regularly differentiated from Prdm6-deficient embryonic stem cells and vascular smooth muscle cells were present and proliferated normally in Prdm6-deficient embryos. Conditional deletion of Prdm6 in the smooth muscle cell lineage using a SM22-Cre driver line resulted in perinatal lethality due to hemorrhage in the lungs. We thus identified Prdm6 as a factor that is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular development.
The outcome of infection depends on multiple layers of immune regulation, with innate immunity playing a decisive role in shaping protection or pathogenic sequelae of acquired immunity. The contribution of pattern recognition receptors and adaptor molecules in immunity to malaria remains poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the role of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) signaling pathway in the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) using the murine Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection model. CARD9 expression was upregulated in the brains of infected wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting a potential role for this pathway in ECM pathogenesis. However, P. berghei ANKA-infected Card9(-/-) mice succumbed to neurological signs and presented with disrupted blood-brain barriers similar to WT mice. Furthermore, consistent with the immunological features associated with ECM in WT mice, Card9(-/-) mice revealed (i) elevated levels of proinflammatory responses, (ii) high frequencies of activated T cells, and (iii) CD8(+) T cell arrest in the cerebral microvasculature. We conclude that ECM develops independently of the CARD9 signaling pathway.
An inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that serves as a platform for caspase-1 activation and caspase-1-dependent proteolytic maturation and secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Though a number of inflammasomes have been described, the NLRP3 inflammasome is the most extensively studied but also the most elusive. It is unique in that it responds to numerous physically and chemically diverse stimuli. The potent proinflammatory and pyrogenic activities of IL-1? necessitate that inflammasome activity is tightly controlled. To this end, a priming step is first required to induce the expression of both NLRP3 and proIL-1?. This event renders the cell competent for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1? secretion, and it is highly regulated by negative feedback loops. Despite the wide array of NLRP3 activators, the actual triggering of NLRP3 is controlled by integration a comparatively small number of signals that are common to nearly all activators. Minimally, these include potassium efflux, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and, for certain activators, lysosomal destabilization. Further investigation of how these and potentially other as yet uncharacterized signals are integrated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and the relevance of these biochemical events in vivo should provide new insight into the mechanisms of host defense and autoinflammatory conditions.
As a hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active disease. Molecular regulation of inflammation is associated with inflammasome assembly. We determined the extent to which MTB triggers inflammasome activation and how this impacts on the severity of TB in a mouse model. MTB stimulated release of mature IL-1? in macrophages while attenuated M. bovis BCG failed to do so. Tubercle bacilli specifically activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and this propensity was strictly controlled by the virulence-associated RD1 locus of MTB. However, Nlrp3-deficient mice controlled pulmonary TB, a feature correlated with NLRP3-independent production of IL-1? in infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that MTB activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages in an ESX-1-dependent manner. However, during TB, MTB promotes NLRP3- and caspase-1-independent IL-1? release in myeloid cells recruited to lung parenchyma and thus overcomes NLRP3 deficiency in vivo in experimental models.
The propensity of helminths, such as schistosomes, to immunomodulate the hosts immune system is an essential aspect of their survival. Previous research has demonstrated how soluble schistosomal egg antigens (SEA) dampen TLR-signaling during innate immune responses. We show here that the suppressive effect by SEA on TLR signaling is simultaneously coupled to the activation of the Nlrp3 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome and thus IL-1? production. Therefore, the responsible protein component of SEA contains the second signal that is required to trigger proteolytic pro-IL-1? processing. Moreover, the SEA component binds to the Dectin-2/FcR? (Fc receptor ? chain) complex and activates the Syk kinase signaling pathway to induce reactive oxygen species and potassium efflux. As IL-1? has been shown to be an essential orchestrator against several pathogens we studied the in vivo consequences of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice deficient in the central inflammasome adapter ASC and Nlrp3 molecule. These mice failed to induce local IL-1? levels in the liver and showed decreased immunopathology. Interestingly, antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses were down-regulated. Overall, these data imply that component(s) within SEA induce IL-1? production and unravel a crucial role of Nlrp3 during S. mansoni infection.
The cross talk between host and pathogen starts with recognition of bacterial signatures through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which mobilize downstream signaling cascades. We investigated the role of the cytosolic adaptor caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) in tuberculosis. This adaptor was critical for full activation of innate immunity by converging signals downstream of multiple PRRs. Card9(-/-) mice succumbed early after aerosol infection, with higher mycobacterial burden, pyogranulomatous pneumonia, accelerated granulocyte recruitment, and higher abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in serum and lung. Neutralization of G-CSF and neutrophil depletion significantly prolonged survival, indicating that an exacerbated systemic inflammatory disease triggered lethality of Card9(-/-) mice. CARD9 deficiency had no apparent effect on T cell responses, but a marked impact on the hematopoietic compartment. Card9(-/-) granulocytes failed to produce IL-10 after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, suggesting that an absent antiinflammatory feedback loop accounted for granulocyte-dominated pathology, uncontrolled bacterial replication, and, ultimately, death of infected Card9(-/-) mice. Our data provide evidence that deregulated innate responses trigger excessive lung inflammation and demonstrate a pivotal role of CARD9 signaling in autonomous innate host defense against tuberculosis.
Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. C difficile toxins TcdA and TcdB breach the intestinal barrier and trigger mucosal inflammation and intestinal damage. The inflammasome is an intracellular danger sensor of the innate immune system. In the present study, we hypothesize that TcdA and TcdB trigger inflammasome-dependent interleukin (IL)-1beta production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of CDAD.
Many Gram-negative bacteria possess a type III secretion system (TTSS( paragraph sign)) that can activate the NLRC4 inflammasome, process caspase-1 and lead to secretion of mature IL-1beta. This is dependent on the presence of intracellular flagellin. Previous reports have suggested that this activation is independent of extracellular K(+) and not accompanied by leakage of K(+) from the cell, in contrast to activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. However, non-flagellated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are able to activate NLRC4, suggesting that formation of a pore in the cell membrane by the TTSS apparatus may be sufficient for inflammasome activation. Thus, we set out to determine if extracellular K(+) influenced P. aeruginosa inflammasome activation. We found that raising extracellular K(+) prevented TTSS NLRC4 activation by the non-flagellated P. aeruginosa strain PA103DeltaUDeltaT at concentrations above 90 mm, higher than those reported to inhibit NLRP3 activation. Infection was accompanied by efflux of K(+) from a minority of cells as determined using the K(+)-sensitive fluorophore PBFI, but no formation of a leaky pore. We obtained exactly the same results following infection with Salmonella typhimurium, previously described as independent of extracellular K(+). The inhibitory effect of raised extracellular K(+) on NLRC4 activation thus reflects a requirement for a decrease in intracellular K(+) for this inflammasome component as well as that described for NLRP3.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis may be manifested as a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the mucosa or the skin with candida species. Most cases are sporadic, but both autosomal dominant inheritance and autosomal recessive inheritance have been described.
Innate immune cells detect pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which signal for initiation of immune responses to infection. Studies with Dectin-1, a PRR for fungi, have defined a novel innate signaling pathway involving Syk kinase and the adaptor CARD9, which is critical for inducing Th17 responses to fungal infection. We show that another C-type lectin, Dectin-2, also signals via Syk and CARD9, and contributes to dendritic cell (DC) activation by fungal particles. Unlike Dectin-1, Dectin-2 couples to Syk indirectly, through association with the FcRgamma chain. In a model of Candida albicans infection, blockade of Dectin-2 did not affect innate immune resistance but abrogated Candida-specific T cell production of IL-17 and, in combination with the absence of Dectin-1, decreased Th1 responses to the organism. Thus, Dectin-2 constitutes a major fungal PRR that can couple to the Syk-CARD9 innate signaling pathway to activate DCs and regulate adaptive immune responses to fungal infection.
Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent proinflammatory factor during viral infection. Its production is tightly controlled by transcription of Il1b dependent on the transcription factor NF-kappaB and subsequent processing of pro-IL-1 beta by an inflammasome. However, the sensors and mechanisms that facilitate RNA virus-induced production of IL-1 beta are not well defined. Here we report a dual role for the RNA helicase RIG-I in RNA virus-induced proinflammatory responses. Whereas RIG-I-mediated activation of NF-kappaB required the signaling adaptor MAVS and a complex of the adaptors CARD9 and Bcl-10, RIG-I also bound to the adaptor ASC to trigger caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation by a mechanism independent of MAVS, CARD9 and the Nod-like receptor protein NLRP3. Our results identify the CARD9-Bcl-10 module as an essential component of the RIG-I-dependent proinflammatory response and establish RIG-I as a sensor able to activate the inflammasome in response to certain RNA viruses.
Characteristic symptoms of malaria include recurrent fever attacks and neurodegeneration, signs that are also found in patients with a hyperactive Nalp3 inflammasome. Plasmodium species produce a crystal called hemozoin that is generated by detoxification of heme after hemoglobin degradation in infected red blood cells. Thus, we hypothesized that hemozoin could activate the Nalp3 inflammasome, due to its particulate nature reminiscent of other inflammasome-activating agents.
IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) has been described as the master regulator of type I IFN responses and has been shown to be critical for innate antiviral immunity in vivo. In addition to type I IFN, NK cell responses are involved in the control of viral replication during acute viral infection. To investigate the role of IRF7 in the context of a viral infection that induces a strong NK cell response, the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection model was used. WT, IRF7-deficient and IRF3/IRF7-double deficient mice were infected with MCMV. The systemic IFN-alpha response to MCMV was entirely dependent on IRF7, but independent of IRF3. However, peak IFN-beta production during MCMV infection was not affected by the lack of IRF7 or both IRF7 and IRF3. Despite the complete lack of IFN-alpha production IRF7- and IRF3/IRF7-deficient mice were surprisingly efficient in controlling MCMV replication and were only modestly more susceptible to MCMV infection than WT mice. NK cell cytotoxicity was unimpaired and NK cell IFN-gamma production was enhanced in IRF7-deficient mice correlating with increased levels of bioactive IL-12. Owing to these compensatory mechanisms IRF7-dependent antiviral immune responses were not essential for resistance against acute MCMV infection in vivo.
Fungal infections represent a serious threat, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a key pro-inflammatory factor in innate antifungal immunity. The mechanism by which the mammalian immune system regulates IL-1beta production after fungal recognition is unclear. Two signals are generally required for IL-1beta production: an NF-kappaB-dependent signal that induces the synthesis of pro-IL-1beta (p35), and a second signal that triggers proteolytic pro-IL-1beta processing to produce bioactive IL-1beta (p17) via Caspase-1-containing multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes. Here we demonstrate that the tyrosine kinase Syk, operating downstream of several immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled fungal pattern recognition receptors, controls both pro-IL-1beta synthesis and inflammasome activation after cell stimulation with Candida albicans. Whereas Syk signalling for pro-IL-1beta synthesis selectively uses the Card9 pathway, inflammasome activation by the fungus involves reactive oxygen species production and potassium efflux. Genetic deletion or pharmalogical inhibition of Syk selectively abrogated inflammasome activation by C. albicans but not by inflammasome activators such as Salmonella typhimurium or the bacterial toxin nigericin. Nlrp3 (also known as NALP3) was identified as the critical NOD-like receptor family member that transduces the fungal recognition signal to the inflammasome adaptor Asc (Pycard) for Caspase-1 (Casp1) activation and pro-IL-1beta processing. Consistent with an essential role for Nlrp3 inflammasomes in antifungal immunity, we show that Nlrp3-deficient mice are hypersusceptible to Candida albicans infection. Thus, our results demonstrate the molecular basis for IL-1beta production after fungal infection and identify a crucial function for the Nlrp3 inflammasome in mammalian host defence in vivo.
Novel vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are urgently needed. The use of recombinant MTB antigens as subunit vaccines is a promising approach, but requires adjuvants that activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for elicitation of protective immunity. The mycobacterial cord factor Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analogue Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are effective adjuvants in combination with MTB subunit vaccine candidates in mice. However, it is unknown which signaling pathways they engage in APCs and how these pathways are coupled to the adaptive immune response. Here, we demonstrate that these glycolipids activate macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) via Syk-Card9-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling to induce a specific innate activation program distinct from the response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. APC activation by TDB and TDM was independent of the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1, but required the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing adaptor protein Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRgamma). In vivo, TDB and TDM adjuvant activity induced robust combined T helper (Th)-1 and Th-17 T cell responses to a MTB subunit vaccine and partial protection against MTB challenge in a Card9-dependent manner. These data provide a molecular basis for the immunostimulatory activity of TDB and TDM and identify the Syk-Card9 pathway as a rational target for vaccine development against tuberculosis.
A chronic inflammatory microenvironment favors tumor progression through molecular mechanisms that are still incompletely defined. In inflammation-induced skin cancers, IL-1 receptor- or caspase-1-deficient mice, or mice specifically deficient for the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) in myeloid cells, had reduced tumor incidence, pointing to a role for IL-1 signaling and inflammasome activation in tumor development. However, mice fully deficient for ASC were not protected, and mice specifically deficient for ASC in keratinocytes developed more tumors than controls, suggesting that, in contrast to its proinflammatory role in myeloid cells, ASC acts as a tumor-suppressor in keratinocytes. Accordingly, ASC protein expression was lost in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, but not in psoriatic skin lesions. Stimulation of primary mouse keratinocytes or the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT with UVB induced an ASC-dependent phosphorylation of p53 and expression of p53 target genes. In HaCaT cells, ASC interacted with p53 at the endogenous level upon UVB irradiation. Thus, ASC in different tissues may influence tumor growth in opposite directions: it has a proinflammatory role in infiltrating cells that favors tumor development, but it also limits keratinocyte proliferation in response to noxious stimuli, possibly through p53 activation, which helps suppressing tumors.
The success of a vaccine consists in the induction of an innate immune response and subsequent activation of the adaptive immune system. Because antigens are usually not immunogenic, the addition of adjuvants that activate innate immunity is required. The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic adjuvant analogue trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) rely on the C-type lectin Mincle and the signaling molecules Syk and Card9 to trigger innate immunity. In this study, we show that stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with TDB induces Nlrp3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1? secretion. While Card9 is required for NF-?B activation by TDB, it is dispensable for TDB-induced activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Additionally, efflux of intracellular potassium, lysosomal rupture, and oxygen radical (ROS) production are crucial for caspase-1 processing and IL-1? secretion by TDB. In an in vivo inflammation model, we demonstrate that the recruitment of neutrophils by TDB is significantly reduced in the Nlrp3-deficient mice compared to the wild-type mice, while the production of chemokines in vitro is not influenced by the absence of Nlrp3. These results identify the Nlrp3 inflammasome as an essential mediator for the induction of an innate immune response triggered by TDB.
The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (Tsc22d3-2) is a widely expressed dexamethasone-induced transcript that has been proposed to be important in immunity, adipogenesis, and renal sodium handling based on in vitro studies. To address its function in vivo, we have used Cre/loxP technology to generate mice deficient for Tsc22d3-2. Male knockout mice were viable but surprisingly did not show any major deficiencies in immunological processes or inflammatory responses. Tsc22d3-2 knockout mice adapted to a sodium-deprived diet and to water deprivation conditions but developed a subtle deficiency in renal sodium and water handling. Moreover, the affected animals developed a mild metabolic phenotype evident by a reduction in weight from 6 months of age, mild hyperinsulinemia, and resistance to a high-fat diet. Tsc22d3-2-deficient males were infertile and exhibited severe testis dysplasia from postnatal d 10 onward with increases in apoptotic cells within seminiferous tubules, an increased number of Leydig cells, and significantly elevated FSH and testosterone levels. Thus, our analysis of the Tsc22d3-2-deficient mice demonstrated a previously uncharacterized function of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein in testis development.
Through their capacity to sense danger signals and to generate active interleukin-1? (IL-1?), inflammasomes occupy a central role in the inflammatory response. In contrast to IL-1?, little is known about how IL-1? is regulated. We found that all inflammasome activators also induced the secretion of IL-1?, leading to the cosecretion of both IL-1 cytokines. Depending on the type of inflammasome activator, release of IL-1? was inflammasome dependent or independent. Calcium influx induced by the opening of cation channels was sufficient for the inflammasome-independent IL-1? secretion. In both cases, IL-1? was released primarily in a processed form, resulting from intracellular cleavage by calpain-like proteases. Inflammasome-caspase-1-dependent release of IL-1? and IL-1? was independent of caspase-1 catalytic activity, defining a mode of action for caspase-1. Because inflammasomes contribute to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory diseases such as gout and diabetes, IL-1? antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of these disorders.
Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a potent inflammatory cytokine that is usually cleaved and activated by inflammasome-associated caspase-1. To determine whether IL-1? activation is regulated by inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, we treated macrophages with an IAP-antagonist "Smac mimetic" compound or genetically deleted the genes that encode the three IAP family members cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP. After Toll-like receptor priming, IAP inhibition triggered cleavage of IL-1? that was mediated not only by the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, but also by caspase-8 in a caspase-1-independent manner. In the absence of IAPs, rapid and full generation of active IL-1? by the NLRP3-caspase-1 inflammasome, or by caspase-8, required the kinase RIP3 and reactive oxygen species production. These results demonstrate that activation of the cell death-inducing ripoptosome platform and RIP3 can generate bioactive IL-1? and implicate them as additional targets for the treatment of pathological IL-1-driven inflammatory responses.
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes whose activity has been implicated in physiological and pathological inflammation. The hallmarks of inflammasome activation are the secretion of the mature forms of Caspase-1 and IL-1? from cells of the innate immune system. This protocol covers the methods required to study inflammasome activation using mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) as a model system. The protocol includes the generation and handling of BMDCs, the stimulation of BMDCs with established Nlrp3 inflammasome activators, and the measurement of activation by both ELISA and western blot. These methods can be useful for the study of potential inflammasome activators, and of the signaling pathways involved in inflammasome activation. General considerations are provided that may help in the design and optimization of modified methods for the study of other types of inflammasomes and in other cell types.
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