Vascular integrity and the maintenance of blood vessel continuity are fundamental features of the circulatory system maintained through endothelial cell-cell junctions. Defects in the endothelial barrier become an initiating factor in several pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion, tumor angiogenesis, pulmonary edema, sepsis, and acute lung injury. Better understanding of mechanisms stimulating endothelial barrier enhancement may provide novel therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that oxidized phospholipids (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [OxPAPC]) promote endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement both in vitro and in vivo. This study examines the initiating mechanistic events triggered by OxPAPC to increase vascular integrity. Our data demonstrate that OxPAPC directly binds the cell membrane-localized chaperone protein, GRP78, associated with its cofactor, HTJ-1. OxPAPC binding to plasma membrane-localized GRP78 leads to GRP78 trafficking to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs) on the cell surface and consequent activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1, Src and Fyn tyrosine kinases, and Rac1 GTPase, processes essential for cytoskeletal reorganization and EC barrier enhancement. Using animal models of acute lung injury with vascular hyperpermeability, we observed that HTJ-1 knockdown blocked OxPAPC protection from interleukin-6 and ventilator-induced lung injury. Our data indicate for the first time an essential role of GRP78 and HTJ-1 in OxPAPC-mediated CEM dynamics and enhancement of vascular integrity.
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), which are highly abundant in atherosclerotic lesions, are known to induce electrophilic stress response (ESR). ESR induces cytoprotective genes via the NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) transcription factor. In order to get further insight into the mechanisms of ESR, we studied the role of microRNA (miR)-320a in induction of NRF2-dependent genes by OxPLs.
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are pleiotropic lipid mediators known to induce proangiogenic and proinflammatory cellular effects that are increasingly recognized to be involved in a number of physiologic and pathologic processes in the retina. Immunohistochemical studies have detected OxPLs in retinal structures, such as retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or photoreceptor cells. This study analyzed whether OxPLs could play a role in upregulation of VEGF, which is a cause of pathological neovascularization characteristic of eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. We confirmed accumulation of OxPLs in the eye using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Multiple species of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OxPCs) were detected in human vitreous, including biologically active fragmented species POVPC, PGPC, PONPC and PAzPC. In in vitro experiments human fetal RPE and primary RPE cells were stimulated with OxPLs. Primary RPE cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs targeting ATF4. mRNA levels of VEGF in fetal and primary RPE cells were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. VEGF protein concentrations were measured in culture medium by ELISA. We found that OxPCs and other classes of OxPLs upregulated the expression of VEGF in fetal and primary RPE cells, which critically depended on ATF4. In addition, upregulation of VEGF in primary RPE cells was blocked by a chemical inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 known to suppress induction of ATF4 and VEGF by OxPLs. Our data show that different species of OxPLs, which are present in the human eye are capable of stimulating expression of VEGF in fetal and primary RPE cells via ATF4-dependent mechanisms.
Clearance of invading pathogens is essential to preventing overwhelming inflammation and sepsis that are symptomatic of bacterial peritonitis. Macrophages participate in this innate immune response by engulfing and digesting pathogens, a process called phagocytosis. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated in response to infection that can prevent the phagocytic clearance of bacteria. We investigated the mechanism underlying OxPL action in macrophages. Exposure to OxPL induced alterations in actin polymerization, resulting in spreading of peritoneal macrophages and diminished uptake of E. coli. Pharmacological and cell-based studies showed that an anchored pool of PKA mediates the effects of OxPL. Gene silencing approaches identified the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) WAVE1 as an effector of OxPL action in vitro. Chimeric Wave1(-/-) mice survived significantly longer after infection with E. coli and OxPL treatment in vivo. Moreover, we found that endogenously generated OxPL in human peritoneal dialysis fluid from end-stage renal failure patients inhibited phagocytosis via WAVE1. Collectively, these data uncover an unanticipated role for WAVE1 as a critical modulator of the innate immune response to severe bacterial infections.
The generation of phospholipid oxidation products in atherosclerosis, sepsis, and lung pathologies affects endothelial barrier function, which exerts significant consequences on disease outcomes in general. Our group previously showed that oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) at low concentrations increases endothelial cell (EC) barrier function, but decreases it at higher concentrations. In this study, we determined the mechanisms responsible for the pulmonary endothelial cell barrier dysfunction induced by high OxPAPC concentrations. OxPAPC at a range of 5-20 ?g/ml enhanced EC barriers, as indicated by increased transendothelial electrical resistance. In contrast, higher OxPAPC concentrations (50-100 ?g/ml) rapidly increased EC permeability, which was accompanied by increased total cell protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation, phosphorylation at Tyr-418, the activation of Src kinase, and the phosphorylation of adherens junction (AJ) protein vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at Tyr-731 and Tyr-658, which was not observed in ECs stimulated with low OxPAPC doses. The early tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin was linked to the dissociation of VE-cadherin-p120-catenin/?-catenin complexes and VE-cadherin internalization, whereas low OxPAPC doses promoted the formation of VE-cadherin-p120-catenin/?-catenin complexes. High but not low doses of OxPAPC increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein oxidation. The inhibition of Src by PP2 and ROS production by N-acetyl cysteine inhibited the disassembly of VE-cadherin-p120-catenin complexes, and attenuated high OxPAPC-induced EC barrier disruption. These results show the differential effects of OxPAPC doses on VE-cadherin-p120-catenin complex assembly and EC barrier function. These data suggest that the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and other potential targets mediated by Src and ROS-dependent mechanisms plays a key role in the dissociation of AJ complexes and EC barrier dysfunction induced by high OxPAPC doses.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are precursors of multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules generated by enzymatic stereospecific and positionally specific insertion of oxygen, which is a prerequisite for recognition of these mediators by cellular receptors. However, nonenzymatically oxidized free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids also demonstrate activities relevant to inflammation. In particular, phospholipids containing oxidized fatty acid residues (oxidized phospholipids; OxPLs) were shown to induce proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells but paradoxically also to inhibit inflammation induced via TLR4. In this study, we show that half-maximal inhibition of LPS-induced elevation of E-selectin mRNA in endothelial cells developed at concentrations of oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) 10-fold lower than those required to induce proinflammatory response. Similar concentration difference was observed for other classes and molecular species of OxPLs. Upon injection into mice, OxPAPC did not elevate plasma levels of IL-6 and keratinocyte chemoattractant but strongly inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of these inflammatory cytokines. Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, anti-LPS effects of OxPLs are observed at lower concentrations than those required for their proinflammatory action. Quantification of the most abundant oxidized phosphatidylcholines by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry showed that circulating concentrations of total oxidized phosphatidylcholine species are close to the range where they demonstrate anti-LPS activity but significantly lower than that required for induction of inflammation. We hypothesize that low levels of OxPLs in circulation serve mostly anti-LPS function and protect from excessive systemic response to TLR4 ligands, whereas proinflammatory effects of OxPLs are more likely to develop locally at sites of tissue deposition of OxPLs (e.g., in atherosclerotic vessels).
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are increasingly recognized as pleiotropic lipid mediators demonstrating a variety of biological activities. In particular, OxPLs induce electrophilic stress response and stimulate expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-dependent genes. The mechanisms of NRF2 upregulation in response to OxPLs, however, are incompletely understood. Here we show that upregulation of NRF2 by OxPLs depends on the activity of the CK2 protein kinase. Inactivation of CK2 by chemical inhibitors or gene silencing resulted in diminished accumulation of NRF2 and its target genes, GCLM, HMOX1, and NQO1, downstream in response to OxPLs. Furthermore, inhibition of CK2 suppressed NRF2-dependent induction of ATF4 and its downstream gene VEGF. Thus, inactivation of CK2 in OxPL-treated endothelial cells results in inhibition of the NRF2-ATF4-VEGF axis and is likely to produce antiangiogenic effects. This work characterizes novel cross-talk between CK2 and cellular stress pathways, which may provide additional insights into the mechanisms of beneficial action and side-effects of CK2 inhibitors.
The ATF4 arm of the unfolded protein response is increasingly recognized for its relevance to pathology, and in particular to angiogenic reactions. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), known to accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels, were shown to upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induce angiogenesis via an ATF4-dependent mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of ATF4 upregulation by OxPLs and more specifically the involvement of NRF2, the major transcriptional mediator of electrophilic stress response.
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) that are abundant in atherosclerotic lesions are increasingly recognized as context-dependent lipid mediators demonstrating both pro- and antiinflammatory activities. Molecular mechanisms of their effects are largely unknown. Here we present novel information on the mechanisms whereby OxPLs modulate activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Atherosclerotic lesions contain high concentrations of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) known to induce VEGF via the ATF4 arm of unfolded protein response (UPR), and to promote angiogenic reactions thus potentially contributing to the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. In order to get further insights into the mechanisms of cellular stress-induced angiogenesis we studied the role of a specific microRNA (miR-663) in the mechanisms of VEGF induction by OxPLs and inducers of UPR.
Noninflammatory clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) is crucial to maintain self-tolerance. Here, we have reported a role for the enzyme 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) as a central factor governing the sorting of ACs into differentially activated monocyte subpopulations. During inflammation, uptake of ACs was confined to a population of 12/15-LO-expressing, alternatively activated resident macrophages (resM?), which blocked uptake of ACs into freshly recruited inflammatory Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a 12/15-LO-dependent manner. ResM? exposed 12/15-LO-derived oxidation products of phosphatidylethanolamine (oxPE) on their plasma membranes and thereby generated a sink for distinct soluble receptors for ACs such as milk fat globule-EGF factor 8, which were essential for the uptake of ACs into inflammatory monocytes. Loss of 12/15-LO activity, in turn, resulted in an aberrant phagocytosis of ACs by inflammatory monocytes, subsequent antigen presentation of AC-derived antigens, and a lupus-like autoimmune disease. Our data reveal an unexpected key role for enzymatic lipid oxidation during the maintenance of self-tolerance.
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are increasingly recognized as signaling mediators that are not only markers of oxidative stress but are also "makers" of pathology relevant to disease pathogenesis. Understanding the biological role of individual molecular species of OxPLs requires the knowledge of their concentration kinetics in cells and tissues. In this work, we describe a straightforward "fingerprinting" procedure for analysis of a broad spectrum of molecular species generated by oxidation of the four most abundant species of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (OxPCs). The approach is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization MS/MS. More than 500 peaks corresponding in retention properties to polar and oxidized PCs were detected within 8 min at 99 m/z precursor values using a single diagnostic product ion in extracts from human dermal fibroblasts. Two hundred seventeen of these peaks were fluence-dependently and statistically significantly increased upon exposure of cells to UVA irradiation, suggesting that these are genuine oxidized or oxidatively fragmented species. This method of semitargeted lipidomic analysis may serve as a simple first step for characterization of specific "signatures" of OxPCs produced by different types of oxidative stress in order to select the most informative peaks for identification of their molecular structure and biological role.
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