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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Novel pathogenic COL11A1/COL11A2 variants in Stickler syndrome detected by targeted NGS and exome sequencing.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Stickler syndrome is caused by mutations in genes encoding type II and type XI collagens. About 85% of the pathogenic variants is found in COL2A1 (Stickler type 1), whereas a minority of mutations has been reported in COL11A1 (Stickler type 2) and COL11A2 (Stickler type 3). Beside the typical skeletal and orofacial manifestations, ocular anomalies are predominantly present in type 1 and type 2, while hearing loss is more pronounced in type 2 and type 3.
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Perturbation of specific pro-mineralizing signalling pathways in human and murine pseudoxanthoma elasticum.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is characterized by skin (papular lesions), ocular (subretinal neovascularisation) and cardiovascular manifestations (peripheral artery disease), due to mineralization and fragmentation of elastic fibres in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, the mechanisms underlying this disease remain unknown. The knowledge on the molecular background of soft tissue mineralization largely comes from insights in vascular calcification, with involvement of the osteoinductive Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF?) family (TGF?1-3 and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins [BMP]), together with ectonucleotides (ENPP1), Wnt signalling and a variety of local and systemic calcification inhibitors. In this study, we have investigated the relevance of the signalling pathways described in vascular soft tissue mineralization in the PXE knock-out mouse model and in PXE patients.
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Efficiency of Exome Sequencing for the Molecular Diagnosis of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The molecular etiology of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder, has become increasingly complex as not only mutations in ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6) but also ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) can cause resembling phenotypes. Identification of modifier genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, has further contributed to the molecular heterogeneity of PXE. In such heterogeneous diseases, next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows to perform mutation screening of several genes in a single reaction. We explored whole-exome sequencing (WES) as an efficient diagnostic tool to identify the causal mutations in ABCC6, GGCX, ENPP1, and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 (VKORC1) in 16 PXE patients. WES identified a causal ABCC6 mutation in 30 out of 32 alleles and one GGCX mutation, whereas no causal mutations in ENPP1 or VKORC1 were detected. Exomes with insufficient reads (?20 depth) for the four genes and patients with single mutations were further evaluated by Sanger sequencing (SS), but no additional mutations were found. The potential of WES compared with targeted NGS is the ease to examine target genes and the opportunity to search for novel genes when targeted analysis is negative. Together with low cost, rapid and less laborious workflow, we conclude that WES complemented with SS can provide a tiered approach to molecular diagnostics of PXE.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 30 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.421.
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Retinitis pigmentosa, cutis laxa, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin manifestations associated with GGCX mutations.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) mutations have been reported in patients with a pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-like phenotype, loose redundant skin, and multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiencies. We report on the clinical findings and molecular results in 13 affected members of two families who had a uniform phenotype consisting of (PXE)-like skin manifestations in the neck and trunk, loose sagging skin of the trunk and upper limbs, and retinitis pigmentosa confirmed by electroretinographies in 10 affected individuals. There were no coagulation abnormalities. Molecular investigations of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6 did not yield causative mutations. All 13 affected family members were found to be homozygous for the splice-site mutation c.373+3G>T in the GGCX gene. All tested parents were heterozygous for the mutation, and healthy siblings were either heterozygous or had the wild type. We suggest that the present patients represent a hitherto unreported phenotype associated with GGCX mutations. Digenic inheritance has been suggested to explain the variability in phenotype in GGCX mutation carriers. Consequently, the present phenotype may not be explained only by the GGCX mutations only but may be influenced by variants in other genes or epigenetic and environmental factors.
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Implementation of genomic arrays in prenatal diagnosis: the Belgian approach to meet the challenges.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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After their successful introduction in postnatal testing, genome-wide arrays are now rapidly replacing conventional karyotyping in prenatal diagnostics. While previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of this method, we are confronted with difficulties regarding the technology and the ethical dilemmas inherent to genomic arrays. These include indication for testing, array design, interpretation of variants and how to deal with variants of unknown significance and incidental findings. The experiences with these issues reported in the literature are most often from single centres. Here, we report on a national consensus approach how microarray is implemented in all genetic centres in Belgium. These recommendations are subjected to constant re-evaluation based on our growing experience and can serve as a useful tool for those involved in prenatal diagnosis.
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Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome in a 13-year-old girl with Xp11.22-p11.23 duplication.
Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease of the presynaptic neuromuscular junction, typically occurring in adults as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Only rare cases have been reported in childhood. In most childhood cases, malignancies have not been detected but a propensity to autoimmune disease was noticed. Nevertheless, little is known about genetic factors that may contribute to the susceptibility of an individual to develop LEMS. We report on a 13-year-old girl, known with the Xp11.22-p11.23 duplication syndrome, who presented with severe non-paraneoplastic LEMS. The potential role of this microduplication syndrome in the development of LEMS is explored. Previous literature review of twelve Xp11.2 duplication syndrome patients showed that three of them suffered from various autoimmune diseases. The common duplicated region in those three patients and the presented case comprises 12 disease-associated genes including the FOXP3 (Forkhead Box P3) and WAS (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome) gene, both implicated in immune function. However, it is unclear whether increased gene dosage of one or both of these genes can cause susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In conclusion, the presented case emphasizes that autoimmune disease is a recurrent feature of the Xp11.2 duplication syndrome, which should be considered in the follow-up of these patients. The exact mechanism underlying this autoimmune propensity remains to be elucidated.
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Molecular docking simulations provide insights in the substrate binding sites and possible substrates of the ABCC6 transporter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The human ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6) gene encodes an ABC transporter protein (ABCC6), primarily expressed in liver and kidney. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an autosomal recessive connective tissue disease characterized by ectopic mineralization of the elastic fibers. The pathophysiology underlying PXE is incompletely understood, which can at least partly be explained by the undetermined nature of the ABCC6 substrates as well as the unknown substrate recognition and binding sites. Several compounds, including anionic glutathione conjugates (N-ethylmaleimide; NEM-GS) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) were shown to be modestly transported in vitro; conversely, vitamin K3 (VK3) was demonstrated not to be transported by ABCC6. To predict the possible substrate binding pockets of the ABCC6 transporter, we generated a 3D homology model of ABCC6 in both open and closed conformation, qualified for molecular docking and virtual screening approaches. By docking 10 reported in vitro substrates in our ABCC6 3D homology models, we were able to predict the substrate binding residues of ABCC6. Further, virtual screening of 4651 metabolites from the Human Serum Metabolome Database against our open conformation model disclosed possible substrates for ABCC6, which are mostly lipid and biliary secretion compounds, some of which are found to be involved in mineralization. Docking of these possible substrates in the closed conformation model also showed high affinity. Virtual screening expands this possibility to explore more compounds that can interact with ABCC6, and may aid in understanding the mechanisms leading to PXE.
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Characterization of cardiovascular involvement in pseudoxanthoma elasticum families.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder with involvement of the skin, the retina, and the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular involvement is mainly characterized by mineralization and fragmentation of elastic fibers of blood vessels and premature atherosclerosis. We conducted an ultrasound study to investigate the cardiovascular phenotype and to propose recommendations for the management of patients with PXE and heterozygous ABCC6 mutation carriers.
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Deletions in 14q24.1q24.3 are associated with congenital heart defects, brachydactyly, and mild intellectual disability.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 14q24.1q24.3 are apparently very rare. We report on three unrelated patients with overlapping de novo deletions of sizes 5.4, 2.8, and 2.3?Mb in this region. While some clinical problems such as intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, and ectopic kidney were only observed in single patients, all three patients had mild intellectual disability, congenital heart defects (truncus arteriosus, pulmonary atresia, atrial septal defect, and/or ventricular septal defect), brachydactyly, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, and thin upper lips. Likely haploinsufficiency of one or several of the 19 genes in the common deleted interval (ACTN1, DCAF5, EXD2, GALNTL1, ERH, SLC39A9, PLEKHD1, CCDC177, KIAA0247, LOC100289511, SRSF5, SLC10A1, SMOC1, SLC8A3, ADAM21P1, COX16, SYNJ2BP, SYNJ2BP-COX16, ADAM21) was responsible for these manifestations, but apart from SMOC1, mutations in which cause autosomal recessive Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome, and ACTN1, mutations in which are associated with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, no disease associations have so far been reported for the other genes. Functional studies and a systematic search for mutations or chromosome aberrations in this region will elucidate the role of individual genes in the clinical manifestations and will provide insight into the underlying biological mechanisms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Mate pair sequencing for the detection of chromosomal aberrations in patients with intellectual disability and congenital malformations.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Recently, microarrays have replaced karyotyping as a first tier test in patients with idiopathic intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (ID/MCA) in many laboratories. Although in about 14-18% of such patients, DNA copy-number variants (CNVs) with clinical significance can be detected, microarrays have the disadvantage of missing balanced rearrangements, as well as providing no information about the genomic architecture of structural variants (SVs) like duplications and complex rearrangements. Such information could possibly lead to a better interpretation of the clinical significance of the SV. In this study, the clinical use of mate pair next-generation sequencing was evaluated for the detection and further characterization of structural variants within the genomes of 50 ID/MCA patients. Thirty of these patients carried a chromosomal aberration that was previously detected by array CGH or karyotyping and suspected to be pathogenic. In the remaining 20 patients no causal SVs were found and only benign aberrations were detected by conventional techniques. Combined cluster and coverage analysis of the mate pair data allowed precise breakpoint detection and further refinement of previously identified balanced and (complex) unbalanced aberrations, pinpointing the causal gene for some patients. We conclude that mate pair sequencing is a powerful technology that can provide rapid and unequivocal characterization of unbalanced and balanced SVs in patient genomes and can be essential for the clinical interpretation of some SVs.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 9 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.220.
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Twenty patients including 7 probands with autosomal dominant cutis laxa confirm clinical and molecular homogeneity.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Elastin gene mutations have been associated with a variety of phenotypes. Autosomal dominant cutis laxa (ADCL) is a rare disorder that presents with lax skin, typical facial characteristics, inguinal hernias, aortic root dilatation and pulmonary emphysema. In most patients, frameshift mutations are found in the 3 region of the elastin gene (exons 30-34) which result in a C-terminally extended protein, though exceptions have been reported.
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Exonic deletions in AUTS2 cause a syndromic form of intellectual disability and suggest a critical role for the C terminus.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Genomic rearrangements involving AUTS2 (7q11.22) are associated with autism and intellectual disability (ID), although evidence for causality is limited. By combining the results of diagnostic testing of 49,684 individuals, we identified 24 microdeletions that affect at least one exon of AUTS2, as well as one translocation and one inversion each with a breakpoint within the AUTS2 locus. Comparison of 17 well-characterized individuals enabled identification of a variable syndromic phenotype including ID, autism, short stature, microcephaly, cerebral palsy, and facial dysmorphisms. The dysmorphic features were more pronounced in persons with 3AUTS2 deletions. This part of the gene is shown to encode a C-terminal isoform (with an alternative transcription start site) expressed in the human brain. Consistent with our genetic data, suppression of auts2 in zebrafish embryos caused microcephaly that could be rescued by either the full-length or the C-terminal isoform of AUTS2. Our observations demonstrate a causal role of AUTS2 in neurocognitive disorders, establish a hitherto unappreciated syndromic phenotype at this locus, and show how transcriptional complexity can underpin human pathology. The zebrafish model provides a valuable tool for investigating the etiology of AUTS2 syndrome and facilitating gene-function analysis in the future.
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Second family with the Boston-type craniosynostosis syndrome: novel mutation and expansion of the clinical spectrum.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Craniosynostosis, caused by early fusion of one or more cranial sutures, can affect the coronal or lambdoid sutures, or include premature fusion of the sagittal (scaphocephaly) or metopic suture (trigonocephaly). Often occurring as isolated finding, their co-existence in a craniosynostosis syndrome is infrequent. We describe a four-generation family with variable expression of a craniosynostosis phenotype with scaphocephaly and a particularly severe trigonocephaly. Molecular analysis revealed a missense mutation in the MSX2-associated with the Boston-type craniosynostosis syndrome-affecting the same amino-acid residue as in the original Boston family. Besides unique features such as the cranial sutures involved, minor limb abnormalities and incomplete penetrance, our patients share with the original family autosomal dominant inheritance and the presence of multiple endocranial erosions on CT imaging. Though these findings appear to be important diagnostic clues for MSX2-related craniosynostosis, it is noteworthy that the first affected generation in this family presented merely with isolated sagittal or unicoronal craniosynostosis and cutaneous syndactyly. Molecular analysis of MSX2 should therefore be considered in patients with isolated scaphocephaly/unicoronal synostosis, especially in the presence of a family history for craniosynostosis or syndactyly.
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SNX10 mutations define a subgroup of human autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with variable clinical severity.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Human Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts. In 2000, we found that mutations in the TCIRG1 gene encoding for a subunit of the proton pump (V-ATPase) are responsible for more than one-half of ARO cases. Since then, five additional genes have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, leaving approximately 25% of cases that could not be associated with a genotype. Very recently, a mutation in the sorting nexin 10 (SNX10) gene, whose product is suggested to interact with the proton pump, has been found in 3 consanguineous families of Palestinian origin, thus adding a new candidate gene in patients not previously classified. Here we report the identification of 9 novel mutations in this gene in 14 ARO patients from 12 unrelated families of different geographic origin. Interestingly, we define the molecular defect in three cases of "Västerbottenian osteopetrosis," named for the Swedish Province where a higher incidence of the disease has been reported. In our cohort of more than 310 patients from all over the world, SNX10-dependent ARO constitutes 4% of the cases, with a frequency comparable to the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) and osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1 (OSTM1)-dependent subsets. Although the clinical presentation is relatively variable in severity, bone seems to be the only affected tissue and the defect can be almost completely rescued by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). These results confirm the involvement of the SNX10 gene in human ARO and identify a new subset with a relatively favorable prognosis as compared to TCIRG1-dependent cases. Further analyses will help to better understand the role of SNX10 in osteoclast physiology and verify whether this protein might be considered a new target for selective antiresorptive therapies.
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The ABCC6 transporter: what lessons can be learnt from other ATP-binding cassette transporters?
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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ABC transporters represent a large family of ATP-driven transmembrane transporters involved in uni- or bidirectional transfer of a large variety of substrates. Divided in seven families, they represent 48 transporter proteins, several of which have been associated with human disease. Among the latter is ABCC6, a unidirectional exporter protein primarily expressed in liver and kidney. ABCC6 deficiency has been shown to cause the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers, resulting in oculocutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms. Unique in the group of connective tissue disorders, the pathophysiological relation between the ABCC6 transporter and ectopic mineralization in PXE remains enigmatic, not in the least because of lack of knowledge on the substrate(s) of ABCC6 and its unusual expression pattern. Because many features, including structure and transport mechanism, are shared by many ABC transporters, it is worthwhile to evaluate if and to what extent the knowledge on the physiology and pathophysiology of these other transporters may provide useful clues toward understanding the (patho)physiological role of ABCC6 and how its deficiency may be dealt with.
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Zebrafish models for ectopic mineralization disorders: practical issues from morpholino design to post-injection observations.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Zebrafish (ZF, Danio rerio) has emerged as an important and popular model species to study different human diseases. Key regulators of skeletal development and calcium metabolism are highly conserved between mammals and ZF. The corresponding orthologs share significant sequence similarities and an overlap in expression patterns when compared to mammals, making ZF a potential model for the study of mineralization-related disorders and soft tissue mineralization. To characterize the function of early mineralization-related genes in ZF, these genes can be knocked down by injecting morpholinos into early stage embryos. Validation of the morpholino needs to be performed and the concern of aspecific effects can be addressed by applying one or more independent techniques to knock down the gene of interest. Post-injection assessment of early mineralization defects can be done using general light microscopy, calcein staining, Alizarin red staining, Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining, and by the use of transgenic lines. Examination of general molecular defects can be done by performing protein and gene expression analysis, and more specific processes can be explored by investigating ectopic mineralization-related mechanisms such as apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this paper, we will discuss all details about the aforementioned techniques; shared knowledge will be very useful for the future investigation of ZF models for ectopic mineralization disorders and to understand the underlying pathways involved in soft tissue calcification.
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Vitamin K does not prevent soft tissue mineralization in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disease characterized by calcified elastic fibers in cutaneous, ocular, and vascular tissues. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6, which encodes a protein of the ATP-driven organic anion transporter family. The inability of this transporter to secrete its substrate into the circulation is the likely cause of PXE. Vitamin K plays a role in the regulation of mineralization processes as a co-factor in the carboxylation of calcification inhibitors such as Matrix Gla Protein (MGP). Vitamin K precursor or a conjugated form has been proposed as potential substrate(s) for ABCC6. We investigated whether an enriched diet of vitamin K1 or vitamin K2 (MK4) could stop or slow the disease progression in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Abcc6 (-/-) mice were placed on a diet of either vitamin K1 or MK4 at 5 or 100 mg/kg at prenatal, 3 weeks or 3 months of age. Disease progression was quantified by measuring the calcium content of one side of the mouse muzzle skin and histological staining for calcium of the opposing side. Raising the vitamin K1 or MK4 content of the diet increased the concentration of circulating MK4 in the serum. However, this increase did not significantly affect the MGP carboxylation status or reduce its abnormal abundance, the total calcium content or the pathologic calcification in the whiskers of the 3 treatment groups compared to controls. Our findings showed that raising the dietary intake of vitamin K1 or MK4 was not beneficial in the treatment of PXE and suggested that the availability of vitamin K may not be a limiting factor in this pathology.
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Acquired pseudoxanthoma elasticum presenting after liver transplantation.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is thought to be a metabolic disorder resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the cellular transporter, ABCC6, which is primarily expressed in liver and kidney. We encountered 3 patients who developed clinical and histopathological evidence of PXE after liver transplantation, suggesting that PXE could have been acquired from the transplanted organ.
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Atypical presentation of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with abdominal cutis laxa: evidence for a spectrum of ectopic calcification disorders?
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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A patient is presented with severe cutis laxa of the abdomen. Molecular investigations, including sequencing of the fibulin-5 and elastin gene, failed to endorse the diagnosis of inherited cutis laxa. Ultrasonographical discovery of renal calcifications during his general work-up suggested a possible diagnosis of pseudo-xanthoma elasticum (PXE). A discrete yellowish reticular pattern in the anterior neck region was detected upon careful clinical examination. Clinically, the patient presented characteristics of both classic PXE (retinopathy, renal calcifications) and the PXE-like syndrome (cutis laxa beyond the flexural areas). Skin biopsy and ophthalmological examination confirmed the diagnosis of PXE. In addition, ultrastructural evaluation revealed calcium deposits in the periphery of elastic fibers, a typical observation in the PXE-like syndrome. Immunohistochemical experiments and ELISA tests for various inhibitors of calcification displayed results which were partly reminiscent of both PXE and the PXE-like syndrome. Molecular analysis revealed not only two ABCC6 mutations (related to PXE), but also a gain of function SNP in the GGCX gene, in which loss-of-function mutations cause the PXE-like syndrome. We conclude that the patients phenotype and--to a further extent--the PXE-like syndrome, are part of a spectrum of ectopic calcification disorders which are clinically and/or pathogenetically related to PXE. The molecular findings in this patient are however insufficient to explain the entire phenotype and suggest a role for multiple genetic factors in soft tissue mineralization.
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Hereditary connective tissue diseases in young adult stroke: a comprehensive synthesis.
Stroke Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Though the genetic background of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke is often polygenetic or multifactorial, it can in some cases result from a monogenic disease, particularly in young adults. Besides arteriopathies and metabolic disorders, several connective tissue diseases can present with stroke. While some of these diseases have been recognized for decades as causes of stroke, such as the vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, others only recently came to attention as being involved in stroke pathogenesis, such as those related to Type IV collagen. This paper discusses each of these connective tissue disorders and their relation with stroke briefly, emphasizing the main clinical features which can lead to their diagnosis.
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Functional polymorphism in gamma-glutamylcarboxylase is a risk factor for severe neonatal hemorrhage.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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A neonate who received vitamin K (VK) supplementation then developed severe late-onset bleeding with abnormal prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastine time. The bleeding was corrected after intravenous VK. Molecular analysis of the gamma-glutamylcarboxylase gene revealed a heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphism, which decreases carboxylase activity and induces VK-dependent coagulation deficiency.
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Low serum vitamin K in PXE results in defective carboxylation of mineralization inhibitors similar to the GGCX mutations in the PXE-like syndrome.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Soft-tissue mineralization is a tightly regulated process relying on the activity of systemic and tissue-specific inhibitors and promoters of calcium precipitation. Many of these, such as matrix gla protein (MGP) and osteocalcin (OC), need to undergo carboxylation to become active. This post-translational modification is catalyzed by the gammaglutamyl carboxylase GGCX and requires vitamin K (VK) as an essential co-factor. Recently, we described a novel phenotype characterized by aberrant mineralization of the elastic fibers resulting from mutations in GGCX. Because of the resemblance with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a prototype disorder of elastic fiber mineralization, it was coined the PXE-like syndrome. As mutations in GGCX negatively affect protein carboxylation, it is likely that inactive inhibitors of calcification contribute to ectopic mineralization in PXE-like syndrome. Because of the remarkable similarities with PXE, we performed a comparative study of various forms of VK-dependent proteins in serum, plasma (using ELISA), and dermal tissues (using immunohistochemistry) of PXE-like and PXE patients using innovative, conformation-specific antibodies. Furthermore, we measured VK serum concentrations (using HPLC) in PXE-like and PXE samples to evaluate the VK status. In PXE-like patients, we noted an accumulation of uncarboxylated Gla proteins, MGP, and OC in plasma, serum, and in the dermis. Serum levels of VK were normal in these patients. In PXE patients, we found similar, although not identical results for the Gla proteins in the circulation and dermal tissue. However, the VK serum concentration in PXE patients was significantly decreased compared with controls. Our findings allow us to conclude that ectopic mineralization in the PXE-like syndrome and in PXE results from a deficient protein carboxylation of VK-dependent inhibitors of calcification. Although in PXE-like patients this is due to mutations in the GGCX gene, a deficiency of the carboxylation co-factor VK is at the basis of the decreased activity of calcification inhibitors in PXE.
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Novel deletions causing pseudoxanthoma elasticum underscore the genomic instability of the ABCC6 region.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Mutations in ABCC6 cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a heritable disease that affects elastic fibers. Thus far, >200 mutations have been characterized by various PCR-based techniques (primarily direct sequencing), identifying up to 90% of PXE-causing alleles. This study wanted to assess the importance of deletions and insertions in the ABCC6 genomic region, which is known to have a high recombinational potential. To detect ABCC6 deletions/insertions, which can be missed by direct sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was applied in PXE patients with an incomplete genotype. MLPA was performed in 35 PXE patients with at least one unidentified mutant allele after exonic sequencing and exclusion of the recurrent exon 23-29 deletion. Six multi-exon deletions and four single-exon deletions were detected. Using MLPA in addition to sequencing, we expanded the ABCC6 mutation spectrum with 9 novel deletions and characterized 25% of unidentified disease alleles. Our results further illustrate the instability of the ABCC6 genomic region and stress the importance of screening for deletions in the molecular diagnosis of PXE.
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Added value of infrared, red-free and autofluorescence fundus imaging in pseudoxanthoma elasticum.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2009
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene and primarily affects the oculocutaneous and cardiovascular systems. However, the phenotype, including the ophthalmological manifestations, varies in severity. The present study aims to evaluate the added value of novel funduscopic imaging techniques, such as near-infrared reflectance, red-free and autofluorescence imaging in PXE.
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Comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of 12 families with type 1 recessive cutis laxa.
Hum. Mutat.
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Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5. Recently, LTBP4 mutations have been implicated in a similar phenotype. Studying FBLN4, FBLN5, and LTBP4 in 12 families with ARCL type I, we found bi-allelic FBLN5 mutations in two probands, whereas nine probands harbored biallelic mutations in LTBP4. FBLN5 and LTBP4 mutations cause a very similar phenotype associated with severe pulmonary emphysema, in the absence of vascular tortuosity or aneurysms. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract involvement seems to be more severe in patients with LTBP4 mutations. Functional studies showed that most premature termination mutations in LTBP4 result in severely reduced mRNA and protein levels. This correlated with increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. However, one mutation, c.4127dupC, escaped nonsense-mediated decay. The corresponding mutant protein (p.Arg1377Alafs(*) 27) showed reduced colocalization with fibronectin, leading to an abnormal morphology of microfibrils in fibroblast cultures, while retaining normal TGF? activity. We conclude that LTBP4 mutations cause disease through both loss of function and gain of function mechanisms.
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Comprehensive molecular analysis demonstrates type V collagen mutations in over 90% of patients with classic EDS and allows to refine diagnostic criteria.
Hum. Mutat.
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Type V collagen mutations are associated with classic Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), but it is unknown for which proportion they account and to what extent other genes are involved. We analyzed COL5A1 and COL5A2 in 126 patients with a diagnosis or suspicion of classic EDS. In 93 patients, a type V collagen defect was found, of which 73 were COL5A1 mutations, 13 were COL5A2 mutations and seven were COL5A1 null-alleles with mutation unknown. The majority of the 73 COL5A1 mutations generated a COL5A1 null-allele, whereas one-third were structural mutations, scattered throughout COL5A1. All COL5A2 mutations were structural mutations. Reduced availability of type V collagen appeared to be the major disease-causing mechanism, besides other intra- and extracellular contributing factors. All type V collagen defects were identified within a group of 102 patients fulfilling all major clinical Villefranche criteria, that is, skin hyperextensibility, dystrophic scarring and joint hypermobility. No COL5A1/COL5A2 mutation was detected in 24 patients who displayed skin and joint hyperextensibility but lacked dystrophic scarring. Overall, over 90% of patients fulfilling all major Villefranche criteria for classic EDS were shown to harbor a type V collagen defect, which indicates that this is the major--if not only--cause of classic EDS.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.