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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Medicinal Chemistry of Fluorinated Cyclic and Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The fluorine atom plays an important role in medicinal chemistry because fluorine substitution has a strong impact on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of bioactive compounds. Such fluorine modifications have also been extensively studied among the pharmaceutically important class of nucleoside phosphonates, nucleotide analogues in which the phosphate group is replaced by the enzymatically and chemically stable phosphonate moiety. The fluorinated nucleoside phosphonates abound with antiviral, antiparasitic, and anticancer properties because they are able to act as inhibitors of important enzymes of nucleoside/nucleotide metabolism. In this paper, we review the biological properties of cyclic and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates modified by the attachment of one or more fluorine atoms to various parts of the molecule, namely to nucleobases, alkylphosphonate groups, cyclic or acyclic linkers, or to prodrug moieties.
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The effect of novel [3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl]purines on the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Protozoan parasites from the Plasmodiidae family are the causative agents of malaria. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase (HG(X)PRT) has been suggested as a target for development of new anti-malarial therapeutics. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are potent and selective inhibitors of plasmodial HG(X)PRTs. A new series of ANPs, based on the chemical structure and inhibitory activity of three ANPs, 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl with either guanine or hypoxanthine as the base (PEEG and PEEHx) and 3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl with guanine as the base (HPMPG), were prepared. These compounds are stereoisomers of 3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl (FPEPs) and 3-fluoro-(2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl (FPMPs) analogues. Both the (R)- and (S)-isomers of these fluorinated derivatives have higher Ki values (by 10- to 1000-fold) for human HGPRT and Plasmodium falciparum HGXPRT than the non-fluorinated ANPs. Possible explanations for these changes in affinity are proposed based on docking studies using the known crystal structures of human HGPRT in complex with PEEG.
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Synthesis of 9-phosphonoalkyl and 9-phosphonoalkoxyalkyl purines: evaluation of their ability to act as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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The purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase [HG(X)PRT], catalyses the synthesis of the purine nucleoside monophosphates, IMP, GMP or XMP essential for DNA/RNA production. In protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, this is the only route available for their synthesis as they lack the de novo pathway which is present in human cells. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), analogs of the purine nucleoside monophosphates, have been found to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) HGXPRT and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) HGPRT with K(i) values as low as 100 nM. They arrest parasitemia in cell based assays with IC(50) values of the order of 1-10 ?M. ANPs with phosphonoalkyl and phosphonoalkoxyalkyl moieties linking the purine base and phosphonate group were designed and synthesised to evaluate the influence of this linker on the potency and/or selectivity of the ANPs for the human and malarial enzymes. This data shows that variability in the linker, as well as the positioning of the oxygen in this linker, influences binding. The human enzyme binds the ANPs with K(i) values of 0.5 ?M when the number of atoms in the linker was 5 or 6 atoms. However, the parasite enzymes have little affinity for such long chains unless oxygen is included in the three-position. In comparison, all three enzymes have little affinity for ANPs where the number of atoms linking the base and the phosphonate group is of the order of 2-3 atoms. The chemical nature of the purine base also effects the K(i) values. This data shows that both the linker and the purine base play an important role in the binding of the ANPs to these three enzymes.
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A novel and efficient one-pot synthesis of symmetrical diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates and evaluation of their biological activities.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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A novel and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, starting from free phosphonic acids or phosphonate diesters is reported. The approach from phosphonate diesters via their bis(trimethylsilyl) esters is highly convenient, eliminates isolation and tedious purification of the phosphonic acids, and affords the corresponding bis-amidates in excellent yields (83-98%) and purity. The methodology has been applied to the synthesis of the potent anticancer agent GS-9219, and symmetrical bis-amidates of other biologically active phosphonic acids. Anti-HIV, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities of the compounds are discussed including the bis-amidate prodrugs 14 and 17 that exhibited anti-HIV activity at submicromolar concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity.
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of N9-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] analogues derived from N6-substituted adenines and 2,6-diaminopurines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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An efficient method for the synthesis of N(9)-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (FPMP) derivatives of purine bases has been developed. Both (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of the N(6)-substituted FPMP derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine were prepared and their anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) activity was evaluated. Whereas none of the 6-substituted FPMPA derivatives showed any antiviral activity, several FPMPDAP derivatives had a moderate antiretroviral activity. Moreover, the data obtained from the study of the substrate activity of the active derivatives towards N(6)-methyl-AMP aminohydrolase support the notion that the studied N(6)-substituted FPMPDAP derivatives act as prodrugs of the antiretroviral FPMPG analogues.
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An enzymatic glycosylation of nucleoside analogues using ?-galactosidase from Escherichia coli.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
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A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of ?-galactosides of nucleosides and acyclic nucleoside analogues has been developed, using ?-galactosidase from Escherichia coli as a catalyst and lactose as a sugar donor. The method is very rapid, feasible and last but not least inexpensive. Its applicability has been proven for a broad variety of possible substrates with respect to its scaling up for preparative use. Five new compounds from a series of nucleoside and acyclic nucleoside analogues have been prepared on a scale of several hundred milligrams, in all cases revealing very good results of the method concerning the reproducibility of the reaction yields and simplicity of the purification process.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.