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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CRISPR-Cas9 Knockin Mice for Genome Editing and Cancer Modeling.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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CRISPR-Cas9 is a versatile genome editing technology for studying the functions of genetic elements. To broadly enable the application of Cas9 in vivo, we established a Cre-dependent Cas9 knockin mouse. We demonstrated in vivo as well as ex vivo genome editing using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-, lentivirus-, or particle-mediated delivery of guide RNA in neurons, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Using these mice, we simultaneously modeled the dynamics of KRAS, p53, and LKB1, the top three significantly mutated genes in lung adenocarcinoma. Delivery of a single AAV vector in the lung generated loss-of-function mutations in p53 and Lkb1, as well as homology-directed repair-mediated Kras(G12D) mutations, leading to macroscopic tumors of adenocarcinoma pathology. Together, these results suggest that Cas9 mice empower a wide range of biological and disease modeling applications.
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Analysis of the mRNA targetome of microRNAs expressed by Marek's disease virus.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Marek's disease virus 1 (MDV-1), an oncogenic ?-herpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphomas in chickens, serves as model system to study transformation by lymphotropic herpesviruses. Like the oncogenic human ?-herpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), MDV-1 encodes several viral microRNAs (miRNAs). One MDV-1 miRNA, miR-M4, shares the same "seed" targeting sequence with both a KSHV miRNA, miR-K11, and cellular miR-155. Importantly, miR-M4 plays a critical role in T-cell transformation by MDV-1, while miR-K11 and cellular miR-155 are thought to play key roles in B-cell transformation by KSHV and EBV, respectively. Here, we present an analysis of the mRNAs targeted by viral miRNAs expressed in the chicken T-cell line MSB1, which is naturally coinfected with MDV-1 and the related nonpathogenic virus MDV-2. Our analysis identified >1,000 endogenous mRNAs targeted by miRNAs encoded by each virus, many of which are targeted by both MDV-1 and MDV-2 miRNAs. We present a functional analysis of an MDV-1 gene, RLORF8, targeted by four MDV-1 miRNAs and a cellular gene, encoding interleukin-18 (IL-18) and targeted by both MDV-1 and MDV-2 miRNAs, and show that ectopic expression of either protein in a form resistant to miRNA inhibition results in inhibition of cell proliferation. Finally, we present a restricted list of 9 genes targeted by not only MDV-1 miR-M4 but also KSHV miR-K11 and human miR-155. Given the critical role played by miR-155 seed family members in lymphomagenesis in humans and chickens, these mRNA targets may contain genes whose inhibition plays a conserved role in herpesvirus transformation.
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A genetic screen for high copy number suppressors of the synthetic lethality between elg1? and srs2? in yeast.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Elg1 and Srs2 are two proteins involved in maintaining genome stability in yeast. After DNA damage, the homotrimeric clamp PCNA, which provides stability and processivity to DNA polymerases and serves as a docking platform for DNA repair enzymes, undergoes modification by the ubiquitin-like molecule SUMO. PCNA SUMOylation helps recruit Srs2 and Elg1 to the replication fork. In the absence of Elg1, both SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 accumulate at the chromatin fraction, indicating that Elg1 is required for removing SUMOylated PCNA and Srs2 from DNA. Despite this interaction, which suggests that the two proteins work together, double mutants elg1? srs2? have severely impaired growth as haploids and exhibit synergistic sensitivity to DNA damage and a synergistic increase in gene conversion. In addition, diploid elg1? srs2? double mutants are dead, which implies that an essential function in the cell requires at least one of the two gene products for survival. To gain information about this essential function, we have carried out a high copy number suppressor screen to search for genes that, when overexpressed, suppress the synthetic lethality between elg1? and srs2?. We report the identification of 36 such genes, which are enriched for functions related to DNA- and chromatin-binding, chromatin packaging and modification, and mRNA export from the nucleus.
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Elg1, the major subunit of an alternative RFC complex, interacts with SUMO-processing proteins.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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PCNA is a homotrimeric ring with important roles in DNA replication and repair. PCNA is loaded and unloaded by the RFC complex, which is composed of five subunits (Rfc1-5). Three additional complexes that share with RFC the small subunits (Rfc2-5) and contain alternative large subunits were found in yeast and other eukaryotes. We have recently reported that one of these, the Elg1-RFC complex, interacts with SUMOylated PCNA and may play a role in its unloading during DNA repair. Here we report that a yeast-two-hybrid screen with the N terminus of Elg1(which interacts with SUMOylated PCNA) uncovered interactions with proteins that belong to the SUMO pathway, including Slx5 and Slx8, which form an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates SUMOylated proteins. Mutations in SLX5 result in a genomic instability phenotype similar to that of elg1 mutants. The physical interaction between the N terminus of Elg1 and Slx5 is mediated by poly-SUMO chains but not by PCNA modifications, and requires Siz2, but not Siz1, activity. Thus our results highlight the many important roles played by Elg1, some of which are PCNA-dependent and some PCNA-independent.
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Elg1, an alternative subunit of the RFC clamp loader, preferentially interacts with SUMOylated PCNA.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Replication-factor C (RFC) is a protein complex that loads the processivity clamp PCNA onto DNA. Elg1 is a conserved protein with homology to the largest subunit of RFC, but its function remained enigmatic. Here, we show that yeast Elg1 interacts physically and genetically with PCNA, in a manner that depends on PCNA modification, and exhibits preferential affinity for SUMOylated PCNA. This interaction is mediated by three small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motifs and a PCNA-interacting protein box close to the N-terminus of Elg1. These motifs are important for the ability of Elg1 to maintain genomic stability. SUMOylated PCNA is known to recruit the helicase Srs2, and in the absence of Elg1, Srs2 and SUMOylated PCNA accumulate on chromatin. Strains carrying mutations in both ELG1 and SRS2 exhibit a synthetic fitness defect that depends on PCNA modification. Our results underscore the importance of Elg1, Srs2 and SUMOylated PCNA in the maintenance of genomic stability.
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The ELG1 clamp loader plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Mutations in the ELG1 gene of yeast lead to genomic instability, manifested in high levels of genetic recombination, chromosome loss, and gross chromosomal rearrangements. Elg1 shows similarity to the large subunit of the Replication Factor C clamp loader, and forms a RFC-like (RLC) complex in conjunction with the 4 small RFC subunits. Two additional RLCs exist in yeast: in one of them the large subunit is Ctf18, and in the other, Rad24. Ctf18 has been characterized as the RLC that functions in sister chromatid cohesion. Here we present evidence that the Elg1 RLC (but not Rad24) also plays an important role in this process. A genetic screen identified the cohesin subunit Mcd1/Scc1 and its loader Scc2 as suppressors of the synthetic lethality between elg1 and ctf4. We describe genetic interactions between ELG1 and genes encoding cohesin subunits and their accessory proteins. We also show that defects in Elg1 lead to higher precocious sister chromatid separation, and that Ctf18 and Elg1 affect cohesion via a joint pathway. Finally, we localize both Ctf18 and Elg1 to chromatin and show that Elg1 plays a role in the recruitment of Ctf18. Our results suggest that Elg1, Ctf4, and Ctf18 may coordinate the relative movement of the replication fork with respect to the cohesin ring.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.