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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[In Process Citation].
Ther Umsch
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Sleep problems are among the most frequent behavioural issues during childhood. This article highlights some of the most important aspects of children's sleep physiology and presents a clinical approach for the management of behavioural sleep disorders in children. Our concept is based on developmental aspects of sleep physiology and also uses behavioural strategies for the parents and their child to handle maladaptive sleep behaviour.
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Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability.
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Sleep slow-wave activity reveals developmental changes in experience-dependent plasticity.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Experience-dependent plasticity, the ability of the brain to constantly adapt to an ever-changing environment, has been suggested to be highest during childhood and to decline thereafter. However, empirical evidence for this is rather scarce. Slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG activity of 1-4.5 Hz) during deep sleep can be used as a marker of experience-dependent plasticity. For example, performing a visuomotor adaptation task in adults increased SWA during subsequent sleep over a locally restricted region of the right parietal cortex, which is known to be involved in visuomotor adaptation. Here, we investigated whether local experience-dependent changes in SWA vary as a function of brain maturation. Three age groups (children, adolescents, and adults) participated in a high-density EEG study with two conditions (baseline and adaptation) of a visuomotor learning task. Compared with the baseline condition, sleep SWA was increased after visuomotor adaptation in a cluster of eight electrodes over the right parietal cortex. The local boost in SWA was highest in children. Baseline SWA in the parietal cluster and right parietal gray matter volume, which both indicate region-specific maturation, were significantly correlated with the local increase in SWA. Our findings indicate that processes of brain maturation favor experience-dependent plasticity and determine how sensitive a specific brain region is for learning experiences. Moreover, our data confirm that SWA is a highly sensitive tool to map maturational differences in experience-dependent plasticity.
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Similarities and dissimilarities between the Movement ABC-2 and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment in children with suspected developmental coordination disorder.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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An established tool for the assessment of motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is the Movement-ABC-2 (M-ABC-2). The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) is also widely used for the evaluation of children's motor performance, but has not been compared with the M-ABC-2. Fifty-one children (39 males) between 5 and 7 years of age with suspected DCD were assessed using the M-ABC-2 and the ZNA. Rank correlations between scores of different test components were calculated. The structure of the tests was explored using canonical-correlation analysis. The correlation between total scores of the two motor tests was reasonable (0.66; p<0.001). However, ZNA scores were generally lower than those of M-ABC-2, due to poor performance in the fine motor adaptive component and increased contralateral associated movements (CAM). The canonical-correlation analysis revealed that ZNA measures components like pure motor skills and CAM that are not represented in the M-ABC-2. Furthermore, there was also no equivalent for the aiming and catching items of the M-ABC-2 in ZNA. The two tests measure different motor characteristics in children with suspected DCD and, thus, can be used complementary for the diagnosis of the disorder.
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The clinical significance of small copy number variants in neurodevelopmental disorders.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Despite abundant evidence for pathogenicity of large copy number variants (CNVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), the individual significance of genome-wide rare CNVs <500?kb has not been well elucidated in a clinical context.
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Blue Blocker Glasses as a Countermeasure for Alerting Effects of Evening Light-Emitting Diode Screen Exposure in Male Teenagers.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Adolescents prefer sleep and wake times that are considerably delayed compared with younger children or adults. Concomitantly, multimedia use in the evening is prevalent among teenagers and involves light exposure, particularly in the blue-wavelength range to which the biological clock and its associated arousal promotion system is the most sensitive. We investigated whether the use of blue light-blocking glasses (BB) during the evening, while sitting in front of a light-emitting diode (LED) computer screen, favors sleep initiating mechanisms at the subjective, cognitive, and physiological level.
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Overnight changes in the slope of sleep slow waves during infancy.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) is a well-established marker for sleep pressure in adults. Recent studies have shown that increasing sleep pressure is reflected by an increased synchronized firing pattern of cortical neurons, which can be measured by the slope of sleep slow waves. Thus we aimed at investigating whether the slope of sleep slow waves might provide an alternative marker to study the homeostatic regulation of sleep during early human development.
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Chronotype is associated with the timing of the circadian clock and sleep in toddlers.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Chronotype is a construct reflecting individual differences in diurnal preference. Although chronotype has been studied extensively in school-age children, adolescents and adults, data on young children are scarce. This study describes chronotype and its relationship to the timing of the circadian clock and sleep in 48 healthy children aged 30-36 months (33.4 ± 2.1 months; 24 males). Parents completed the Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ) ~2 weeks before the start of the study. The CCTQ provides three measures of chronotype: midsleep time on free days, a multi-item morningness/eveningness score and a single item chronotype score. After 5 days of sleeping on their habitual schedule (assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries), children participated in an in-home salivary dim light melatonin onset assessment. Average midsleep time on free days was 1:47 ± 0:35, and the average morningness/eveningness score was 26.8 ± 4.3. Most toddlers (58.4%) were rated as 'definitely a morning type' or 'rather morning than evening type', while none (0%) were rated as 'definitely evening type'. More morning types (midsleep time on free days and morningness/eveningness score, respectively) had earlier melatonin onset times (r = 0.45, r = 0.26), earlier habitual bedtimes (r = 0.78, r = 0.54), sleep onset times (r = 0.80, r = 0.52), sleep midpoint times (r = 0.90, r = 0.53) and wake times (r = 0.74, r = 0.34). Parent ratings using the single-item chronotype score were associated with melatonin onset (r = 0.32) and habitual bedtimes (r = 0.27), sleep onset times (r = 0.33) and sleep midpoint times (r = 0.27). Morningness may best characterize circadian preference in early childhood. Associations between chronotype and circadian physiology and sleep timing suggest adequate validity for the CCTQ in this age group. These findings have important implications for understanding the marked variability in sleep timing during the early years of life.
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[Developmental disorders in preschool children: an interdisciplinary approach].
Ther Umsch
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Many children show developmental abnormalities in the first years of life. Thus, the primary care physician should know the procedures of developmental surveillance and screening and be informed about the further steps in the evaluation of children with developmental disorders. This article presents current developmental screening methods in primary care, defines the terminology of developmental disorders in young children, demonstrates the essential diagnostic procedures in developmentally impaired children and describes the interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians, psychologists, therapists and special needs educators.
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Circadian phase and its relationship to nighttime sleep in toddlers.
J. Biol. Rhythms
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Circadian phase and its relation to sleep are increasingly recognized as fundamental factors influencing human physiology and behavior. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is a reliable marker of the timing of the circadian clock, which has been used in experimental, clinical, and descriptive studies in the past few decades. Although DLMO and its relationship to sleep have been well documented in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults, very little is known about these processes in early childhood. The purpose of this study was 1) to describe circadian phase and phase angles of entrainment in toddlers and 2) to examine associations between DLMO and actigraphic measures of childrens nighttime sleep. Participants were 45 healthy toddlers aged 30 to 36 months (33.5 ± 2.2 months; 21 females). After sleeping on a parent-selected schedule for 5 days (assessed with actigraphy and diaries), children participated in an in-home DLMO assessment involving the collection of saliva samples every 30 minutes for 6 hours. Average bedtime was 2015 ± 0036 h, average sleep onset time was 2043 ± 0043 h, average midsleep time was 0143 ± 0038 h, and average wake time was 0644 ± 0042 h. Average DLMO was 1929 ± 0051 h, with a 3.5-hour range. DLMO was normally distributed; however, the distribution of the bedtime, sleep onset time, and midsleep phase angles of entrainment were skewed. On average, DLMO occurred 47.8 ± 47.6 minutes (median = 39.4 minutes) before bedtime, 74.6 ± 48.0 minutes (median = 65.4 minutes) before sleep onset time, 6.2 ± 0.7 hours (median = 6.1 hours) before midsleep time, and 11.3 ± 0.7 hours before wake time. Toddlers with later DLMOs had later bedtimes (r = 0.46), sleep onset times (r = 0.51), midsleep times (r = 0.66), and wake times (r = 0.65) (all p < 0.001). Interindividual differences in toddlers circadian phase are large and associated with their sleep timing. The early DLMOs of toddlers indicate a maturational delay in the circadian timing system between early childhood and adolescence. These findings are a first step in describing the fundamental properties of the circadian system in toddlers and have important implications for understanding the emergence of sleep problems and the consequences of circadian misalignment in early childhood.
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Development of neuromotor functions in very low birth weight children from six to 10 years of age: patterns of change.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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To assess patterns of change for different neuromotor functions in very low birth weight (VLBW) children during school age and to identify factors associated with improvement.
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The sleep EEG topography in children and adolescents shows sex differences in language areas.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The topographic distribution of slow wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 0.75 and 4.5 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was proposed to mirror cortical maturation with a typical age-related pattern. Here, we examined whether sex differences occur in SWA topography of children and adolescents (22 age-matched subjects, 11 boys, mean age 13.4 years, range: 8.7-19.4, and 11 girls, mean age 13.4 years, range: 9.1-19.0 years). In females, SWA during the first 60 min of NREM sleep was higher over bilateral cortical areas that are related to language functions, while in males SWA was increased over the right prefrontal cortex, a region also involved in spatial abilities. We conclude that cortical areas governing functions in which one sex outperforms the other exhibit increased sleep SWA and, thus, may indicate maturation of sex-specific brain function and higher cortical plasticity during development.
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Correlations between motor and intellectual functions in normally developing children between 7 and 18 years.
Dev Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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The relationship between motor and intellectual functions was examined in 252 healthy children from 7 to 18 years using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment and standardized intelligence tests. The magnitude of Spearman correlations between neuromotor and intellectual scores was generally weak (r = 0.15-0.37). The strongest correlations were found between performance in the pegboard task and visuomotor intelligence (r = 0.35) and between contralateral associated movements and intelligence in boys (r = 0.37). We conclude that specific connections between motor and intellectual functions may exist. However, because the magnitude of correlations is generally weak, we suggest that motor and intellectual domains in healthy children are largely independent.
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Risk factors for mercury exposure of children in a rural mining town in northern chile.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Traditional gold mining is associated with mercury exposure. Especially vulnerable to its neurotoxic effects is the developing nervous system of a child. We aimed to investigate risk factors of mercury exposure among children in a rural mining town in Chile.
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Standardization of the Tanner-Whitehouse bone age method in the context of automated image analysis.
Ann. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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The Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) method for bone age determination has been the basis for many population studies and it is used in many clinics. However, TW bone age raters can differ systematically from each other. The aim of the study was to present a new standard version of TW bone age rating implemented by the automated BoneXpert method and calibrated on the manual TW stage ratings of the First Zurich Longitudinal Study.
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Impaired neuromotor outcome in school-age children with congenital hypothyroidism receiving early high-dose substitution treatment.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can lead to intellectual deficits despite early high-dose treatment. Our study aimed to determine whether motor impairments can occur despite early high-dose treatment. Sixty-three children with CH and early (median age of onset of treatment 9 d), high-dose treatment (median starting dose of levothyroxine 14.7 ?g/kg/d) were tested with the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) at a median age of 13.8 y (range 7.0-14.2 y). Median z-scores in the children with CH were -0.95 in the pure and -0.56 in the adaptive fine motor component, significantly lower than in the ZNA test norms (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The 26 children with athyreosis were more affected than the 33 children with dysgenesis, particularly in the pure motor (-1.55 versus -0.76, p = 0.03), adaptive fine motor (-1.31 versus 0.13, p < 0.01), and static balance task (-0.47 versus 0.67, p = 0.01). Boys performed worse than girls. Older age at onset of treatment was related to poorer adaptive fine motor performance. Movement quality (assessed by associated movements) was not affected. We conclude that severe CH can cause neuromotor deficits persisting into adolescence. These deficits cannot completely be reversed by postnatal treatment, but earlier age at treatment may reduce the degree of impairment.
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Intra-individual stability of neuromotor tasks from 6 to 18 years: a longitudinal study.
Hum Mov Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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This study investigates the intra-individual stability of the speed of several motor tasks and the intensity of associated movements in 256 children (131 girls, 125 boys) from the Zurich generational study using the Zurich neuromotor assessment battery (ZNA) over a 12-year period from the age of 6 to 18 years. The stability was assessed by correlograms of standard deviation scores calculated from age- and gender-adjusted normative values and compared with standing height and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). While motor tasks of hand, finger and foot (HFT) and contralateral associated movements (CAM) exhibited a moderate stability (summary measure as correlation coefficients between two measurements made 4 years apart: .61 and .60), other tasks (dynamic balance, static balance and pegboard) were only weakly stable (.46, .47 and .49). IQ and height were more stable than neuromotor components (.72 and .86). We conclude that the moderately stable HFT and CAM may reflect "motor traits", while the stability of the pegboard and balance tasks is weaker because these skills are more experience related and state-dependent.
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Do Parental Expectations Play a Role in Childrens Sleep and Mothers Distress? An Exploration of the Goodness of Fit Concept in 54 Mother-Child Dyads.
Sleep Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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This study describes parental expectations for sleep-wake patterns in healthy kindergarten children and explores their relation to childrens sleep quality and parental distress. Data analysis of 54 mother-child dyads (age range of the children: 4-7 years) indicated that parental expectations for childrens sleep-wake patterns differ between scheduled and free days and depend on childrens chronotype. Mothers of children with late chronotype showed less adequate expectations for childrens sleep onset time than mothers of children with early chronotype (e.g., morning types). Furthermore, children of mothers with less adequate expectations for childrens sleep onset time on scheduled days had longer settling periods during which sleep rituals may take place (r = 0.31, P ? 0.05), spent more time in bed than they actually sleep (r = 0.35, P ? 0.01), and had more frequently difficulties falling asleep (r = 0.33, P ? 0.01). However, less adequate expectations for childrens sleep onset time were not associated with parental distress (P > 0.05). We conclude that parental expectations about their childrens sleep play a key role in understanding normal and abnormal sleep during childhood.
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The role of birthweight discordance in the intellectual and motor outcome for triplets at early school age.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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We assessed motor and intellectual outcome in triplets at school age and investigated the predictive value of perinatal and demographic factors.
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Cultural issues in childrens sleep: a model for clinical practice.
Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2011
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Sleep is a human behavior that is driven by biological mechanisms, but also shaped and interpreted by cultural values and beliefs. The large diversity among societies and cultures may indicate that one "optimal cultural standard" for childrens sleep behavior does not exist. In pediatric care, the interplay between childrens biological as well as socioemotional needs and the cultural norms should be carefully considered and evaluated in the context of sleep complaints and behavioral functioning. Recognizing the culture in which children and their families live may eventually lead to better compliance and higher success rates of treatment interventions.
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Anatomical markers of sleep slow wave activity derived from structural magnetic resonance images.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Sleep studies often observe differences in slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement sleep between subjects. This study investigates to what extent these absolute differences in SWA can be explained with differences in grey matter volume, white matter volume or the thickness of skull and outer liquor rooms. To do this, we selected the 10-min interval showing maximal SWA of 20 young adult subjects and correlated these values lobe-wise with grey matter, skull and liquor thickness and globally with white matter as well as segments of the corpus callosum. Whereas grey matter, skull thickness and liquor did not correlate significantly with maximal slow wave activity, there were significant correlations with the anterior parts of the corpus callosum and with one other white matter region. In contrast, electroencephalogram power of higher frequencies correlates positively with grey matter volumes and cortical surface area. We discuss the possible role of white matter tracts on the synchronization of slow waves across the cortex.
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The sleep EEG as a marker of intellectual ability in school age children.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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To investigate the within-subject stability in the sleep EEG and the association between the sleep EEG and intellectual abilities in 9- to 12-year-old children.
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Impaired slow wave sleep downscaling in encephalopathy with status epilepticus during sleep (ESES).
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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"Encephalopathy related to electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep" (ESES) is characterised by the electroencephalographic pattern of continuous spike waves during slow wave sleep (CSWS) and variable neuropsychological impairments. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis predicts that the strength of synapses is decreased during sleep. The slope of slow waves during NREM sleep best reflects this "downscaling".
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Sleep, intelligence and cognition in a developmental context: differentiation between traits and state-dependent aspects.
Prog. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
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This article addresses associations between sleep, cognition and intelligence in a developmental context and clarifies the terminology. Research must differentiate between aspects related to general underlying traits and those aspects that are characterized by state-dependent fluctuations.
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Mapping of cortical activity in the first two decades of life: a high-density sleep electroencephalogram study.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Evidence that electroencephalography (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA) (EEG spectral power in the 1-4.5 Hz band) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) reflects plastic changes is increasing (Tononi and Cirelli, 2006). Regional assessment of gray matter development from neuroimaging studies reveals a posteroanterior trajectory of cortical maturation in the first three decades of life (Shaw et al., 2008). Our aim was to test whether this regional cortical maturation is reflected in regional changes of sleep SWA. We evaluated all-night high-density EEG (128 channels) in 55 healthy human subjects (2.4-19.4 years) and assessed age-related changes in NREM sleep topography. As in adults, we observed frequency-specific topographical distributions of sleep EEG power in all subjects. However, from early childhood to late adolescence, the location on the scalp showing maximal SWA underwent a shift from posterior to anterior regions. This shift along the posteroanterior axis was only present in the SWA frequency range and remained stable across the night. Changes in the topography of SWA during sleep parallel neuroimaging study findings indicating cortical maturation starts early in posterior areas and spreads rostrally over the frontal cortex. Thus, SWA might reflect the underlying processes of cortical maturation. In the future, sleep SWA assessments may be used as a clinical tool to detect aberrations in cortical maturation.
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EEG sleep slow-wave activity as a mirror of cortical maturation.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Deep (slow wave) sleep shows extensive maturational changes from childhood through adolescence, which is reflected in a decrease of sleep depth measured as the activity of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow waves. This decrease in sleep depth is paralleled by massive synaptic remodeling during adolescence as observed in anatomical studies, which supports the notion that adolescence represents a sensitive period for cortical maturation. To assess the relationship between slow-wave activity (SWA) and cortical maturation, we acquired sleep EEG and magnetic resonance imaging data in children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years. We observed a tight relationship between sleep SWA and a variety of indexes of cortical maturation derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specifically, gray matter volumes in regions correlating positively with the activity of slow waves largely overlapped with brain areas exhibiting an age-dependent decrease in gray matter. The positive relationship between SWA and cortical gray matter was present also for power in other frequency ranges (theta, alpha, sigma, and beta) and other vigilance states (theta during rapid eye movement sleep). Our findings indicate a strong relationship between sleep EEG activity and cortical maturation. We propose that in particular, sleep SWA represents a good marker for structural changes in neuronal networks reflecting cortical maturation during adolescence.
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Association between sleep duration and intelligence scores in healthy children.
Dev Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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We examined the association between sleep behavior and cognitive functioning in 60 healthy children between 7 and 11 years of age under nonexperimental conditions. Intellectual abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and sleep variables by questionnaires, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Correlation analysis revealed a negative association between sleep duration on weekends and measures of intelligence (full-scale IQ, r = -.29; fluid IQ, r = -.36). The regression coefficient for sleep duration on weekends was -6.11 (SE = 2.09), indicating an increase of 6.11 points on fluid IQ scores for each hour of shorter sleep duration. Attention measures did not correlate with cognitive or sleep variables. Daytime sleepiness as a potential moderator of the relationship between sleep duration and cognitive performance was not related to cognitive or sleep variables. We conclude that children with higher daytime cognitive efficiency (reflected by higher intelligence scores) show increased nighttime efficiency (reflected by shorter sleep duration). In the light of the neural efficiency hypothesis, the current results argue for an extension of the original theory-referring not only to daytime but also to nighttime behavior.
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Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children.
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Validation of bone age methods by their ability to predict adult height.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Several bone age (BA) methods are in use today. The aim of this study was to introduce a framework for assessing the validity of a BA method by its ability to predict adult height (H) and to apply it to manual ratings based on Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW) and to the fully automated BoneXpert method.
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Characteristics of sleep slow waves in children and adolescents.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Slow waves, a major electrophysiological characteristic of non-rapid eye movement sleep, undergo prominent changes across puberty. This study provides a detailed description of sleep slow waves of prepubertal children and mature adolescents to better understand the mechanisms underlying the decrease of activity in the slow-wave frequency range across puberty.
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Automatic determination of left- and right-hand bone age in the First Zurich Longitudinal Study.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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A more advanced bone age (BA) has been reported for the left hand relative to the right hand, while another study has found no such effect. The aim was to study the average difference of automated BoneXpert BA determination (left- vs. right-hand) for normal children, examine the precision of automatic BA and provide a BA reference for normal Caucasian children.
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Prediction of adult height based on automated determination of bone age.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Adult height prediction is a common procedure in pediatric endocrinology, but it is associated with a considerable variability and bias from the bone age rating.
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Assessment of chronotype in four- to eleven-year-old children: reliability and validity of the Childrens Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ).
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Individual differences in circadian phase preference ("chronotype") are linked to sleep schedule variability, psychosocial functioning, and specific properties of the circadian clock. While much is known about the development, distribution, and variability of chronotype in adolescents and adults, assessment in prepubertal children has been hindered by a lack of appropriate, reliable, and valid measures. This study presents a detailed description of the assessment of childrens chronotype by the Childrens ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ). The CCTQ is a parent-report, 27-item mixed-format questionnaire resulting in multiple measures of chronotype in 4- to 11-yr-old children: the midsleep point on free days (MSF), a morningness/eveningness scale (M/E) score, and a five-point chronotype (CT) score. The study provides validity data using actigraphy as well as test-retest reliability data for all three chronotype measures and sleep/wake parameters. Overall, the findings indicate moderate to strong agreement between the three measures, adequate associations between chronotype measures and sleep/wake parameters assessed by actigraphy, and excellent temporal stability (reliability).
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Development of motor speed and associated movements from 5 to 18 years.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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To study the development of motor speed and associated movements in participants aged 5 to 18 years for age, sex, and laterality.
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Effects of valproic acid on sleep in children with epilepsy.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Parents frequently report increased sleep duration in their children during treatment with valproic acid (VPA). We assessed sleep duration and sleep behavior before and after tapering VPA in children treated for more than 6 months.
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Children with congenital hypothyroidism: long-term intellectual outcome after early high-dose treatment.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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We aim to determine long-term intellectual outcome of adolescents with early high-dose treated congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Sixty-three prospectively followed children with CH were assessed at age of 14 y with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and compared with 175 healthy controls. Median age at onset of treatment was 9 d (range 5-18 d) and median starting dose of levothyroxine (L-T4) was 14.7 microg/kg/d (range 9.9-23.6 microg/kg/d). Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was significantly lower than in controls after adjustment for socioeconomic status (SES) and gender (101.7 versus 111.4; p < 0.0001). Children with athyreosis had a lower performance IQ than those with dysgenesis (adjusted difference 7.6 IQ scores, p < 0.05). Lower initial thyroxine (T4) levels correlated with poorer IQ (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Lower SES was associated with poorer IQ, in particular in children with CH (interaction, p = 0.03). Treatment during childhood was not related to IQ at age 14 y. Adolescents with CH manifest IQ deficits when compared with their peers despite early high-dose treatment and optimal substitution therapy throughout childhood. Those adolescents with athyreosis and lower SES are at particular risk for adverse outcome. Therefore, early detection of intellectual deficits is mandatory in children with CH.
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Neuromotor performance of normally developing left-handed children and adolescents.
Hum Mov Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Neuromotor functioning - i.e., timed performance and quality of movements - was examined in 66 left-handed children and adolescents between 5 and 18.5 years by means of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment. Quality of movements was assessed by the degree and the frequency of associated movements. Results were compared to normative data from 593 right-handers. The overall scores for timed motor performance were similar for left-handers and right-handers, while left-handers had more associated movements than right-handers with both sides. In agreement with previous studies in adults, we found that left-handed children were less lateralized than right-handers. They performed faster with their non-dominant side and slower with their dominant side. This finding was roughly independent of age, which may indicate that handedness does not reflect long-term effects of previous motor experience, but may be primarily attributed to genetic factors.
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Neuromotor development in children. Part 3: motor performance in 3- to 5-year-olds.
Dev Med Child Neurol
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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide normative data (ordinal scores and timed performances) for gross and fine motor tasks in typically developing children between 3 and 5 years of age using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA).
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Topography of sleep slow wave activity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Cortex
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Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 1 and 4.5 Hz) is a major characteristic of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which seems to be critically involved in cortical plasticity. Studies using high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) showed that the topographical distribution of SWA mirrors cortical maturation, expressing a local maximum that is characteristic for a certain age range. We compared the sleep EEG of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with healthy controls to explore differences in sleep SWA.
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Predictors of childrens sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
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Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained.
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Screening in child health: studies of the efficacy and relevance of preventive care practices.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
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Pediatric screening enables the prevention or early detection of diseases and developmental disturbances in infancy and childhood. Screening is a standard component of pediatric practice in many countries, but its scientific basis is not well known.
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Cycled light exposure reduces fussing and crying in very preterm infants.
Pediatrics
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To examine whether cycled lighting (CL) conditions during neonatal care in very preterm infants (<32 weeks gestational age [GA]) decrease crying and fussing behavior, improve the consolidation of sleep, and influence activity behavior at 5 and 11 weeks postterm corrected age (CA) compared with preterm infants cared for in dim lighting (DL) conditions.
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Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study.
Pediatr Radiol
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A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children.
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Mapping the electrophysiological marker of sleep depth reveals skill maturation in children and adolescents.
Neuroimage
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Electroencephalographically (EEG) recorded slow wave activity (SWA, 1-4.5Hz), reflecting the depth of sleep, is suggested to play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity. Mapping of SWA by means of high-density EEG reveals that cortical regions showing signs of maturational changes (structural and behavioral) during childhood and adolescence exhibit more SWA. Moreover, the maturation of specific skills is predicted by the topographical distribution of SWA. Thus, SWA topography may serve as a promising neuroimaging tool with prognostic potential. Finally, our data suggest that deep sleep SWA in humans is involved in cortical development that optimizes performance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.