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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intracranial injectable tumor model: technical advancements.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Background and Objectives?Few simulation models are available that provide neurosurgical trainees with the challenge of distorted skull base anatomy despite increasing importance in the acquisition of safe microsurgical and endoscopic techniques. We have previously reported a unique training model for skull base neurosurgery where a polymer is injected into a cadaveric head where it solidifies to mimic a skull base tumor for resection. This model, however, required injection of the polymer under direct surgical vision via a complicated alternative approach to that being studied, prohibiting its uptake in many neurosurgical laboratories. Conclusion?We report our updated skull base tumor model that is contrast-enhanced and may be easily and reliably injected under fluoroscopic guidance. We have identified a map of burr holes and injection corridors available to place tumor at various intracranial sites. Additionally, the updated tumor model allows for the creation of mass effect, and we detail the variation of polymer preparation to mimic different tumor properties. These advancements will increase the practicality of the tumor model and ideally influence neurosurgical standards of training.
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Adjuvant radiation therapy, local recurrence, and the need for salvage therapy in atypical meningioma.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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The impact of adjuvant radiation in patients with atypical meningioma remains poorly defined. We sought to determine the impact of adjuvant radiation therapy in this population.
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Medial acoustic neuromas: clinical and surgical implications.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Medial acoustic neuroma is a rare entity that confers a distinct clinical syndrome. It is scarcely discussed in the literature and is associated with adverse features. This study evaluates the clinical and imaging features, pertinent surgical challenges, and treatment outcome in a large series of this variant. The authors postulate that the particular pathological anatomy with its arachnoidal rearrangement has a profound implication on the surgical technique and outcome.
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Transmastoid retrosigmoid approach to the cerebellopontine angle: surgical technique.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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The traditional suboccipital craniotomy in the retrosigmoid approach gives limited exposure to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) structures and necessitates cerebellar retraction, whereas the addition of drilling of the mastoid process with reflection of venous sinuses offers wider exposure of the CPA and avoids cerebellar retraction. We describe the details of the surgical technique and provide radiological measurements substantiating the advantages of this approach.
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True petroclival meningiomas: results of surgical management.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Object The relentless natural progression of petroclival meningiomas mandates their treatment. The management of these tumors, however, is challenging. Among the issues debated are goals of treatment, outcomes, and quality of life, appropriate extent of surgical removal, the role of skull base approaches, and the efficacy of combined decompressive surgery and radiosurgery. The authors report on the outcome in a series of patients treated with the goal of total removal. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 64 cases of petroclival meningiomas operated on by the senior author (O.A.) from 1988 to 2012, strictly defined as those originating medial to the fifth cranial nerve on the upper two-thirds of the clivus. The patients average age was 49 years; the average tumor size (maximum diameter) was 35.48 ± 10.09 mm (with 59 tumors > 20 mm), and cavernous sinus extension was present in 39 patients. The mean duration of follow-up was 71.57 months (range 4-276 months). Results In 42 patients, the operative reports allowed the grading of resection. Grade I resection (tumor, dura, and bone) was achieved in 17 patients (40.4%); there was no recurrence in this group (p = 0.0045). Grade II (tumor, dura) was achieved in 15 patients (36%). There was a statistically significant difference in the rate of recurrence with respect to resection grade (Grades I and II vs other grades, p = 0.0052). In all patients, tumor removal was classified based on postoperative contrast-enhanced MRI, and gross-total resection (GTR) was considered to be achieved if there was no enhancement present; on this basis, GTR was achieved in 41 (64%) of 64 patients, with a significantly lower recurrence rate in these patients than in the group with residual enhancement (p = 0.00348). One patient died from pulmonary embolism after discharge. The mean Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score was 85.31 preoperatively (median 90) and improved on follow-up to 88, with 30 patients (47%) having an improved KPS score on follow-up. Three patients suffered a permanent deficit that significantly affected their KPS. Cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred in 8 patients (12.5%), with 2 of them requiring exploration. Eighty-nine percent of the patients had cranial nerve deficits on presentation; of the 54 patients with more than 2 months of follow-up, 21 (32.8%) had persisting cranial nerve deficits. The overall odds of permanent cranial nerve deficit of treated petroclival meningioma was 6.2%. There was no difference with respect to immediate postoperative cranial nerve deficit in patients who had GTR compared with those who had subtotal resection. Conclusions Total removal (Grade I or II resection) of petroclival meningiomas is achievable in 76.4% of cases and is facilitated by the use of skull base approaches, with good outcome and functional status. In cases in which circumstances prevent total removal, residual tumors can be followed until progression is evident, at which point further intervention can be planned.
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Transjugular retrograde cannulation of the portal vein via patent ductus venosus: alternative access for endovascular hepatic interventions.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The use of the patent ductus venosus via a transjugular approach to access the portal system for endovascular treatment of hepatic vascular anomalies in three infants is reported. Two patients had an arterioportal fistula, and one had a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma. All patients underwent arteriography followed by embolization of the vascular anomalies without complications. This alternative route is technically simpler and likely safer than transarterial and transhepatic approaches.
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Meningiomas involving the optic canal: pattern of involvement and implications for surgical technique.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Juxtasellar meningiomas frequently extend into the optic canal. Removing these meningiomas from the optic canal is crucial for favorable visual outcome.
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Sequelae of autologous fat graft used for reconstruction in skull base surgery.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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The use of an autologous free fat graft is a widely applied technique to obliterate dead space and reinforce dural closure during skull base reconstructions. The associated complications and outcomes of this practice have not been studied. Dissemination of fat in the subarachnoid space resulting in lipoid meningitis has been reported after translabyrinthine approaches, and leakage of liquefied fat is seldom reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the morbidity associated with the usage of autologous fat graft in reconstruction of skull base defects based on an extensive experience.
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Meckels cave.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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To review the microsurgical anatomy of Meckels cave, a detailed knowledge of which is a prerequisite to devising an appropriate surgical strategy and performing successful surgery.
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Optic canal involvement in tuberculum sellae meningiomas: influence on approach, recurrence, and visual recovery.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Tuberculum sellae meningiomas frequently extend into the optic canals.
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Preservation of the superior petrosal sinus during the petrosal approach.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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The petrosal approach is based on sectioning the superior petrosal sinus (SPS) and the tentorium. However, the venous anatomy in certain situations forbids this maneuver. The authors have derived a technique that enables the SPS to be spared during the performance of the petrosal approach. They describe the anatomical basis of this technique and report on 2 cases in which the technique was applied.
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Skull base tumor model.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. The development of educational models for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull base, in a cadaveric model, for use in neurosurgical training.
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A technical note on endonasal combined microscopic endoscopic with free head navigation technique of removal of pituitary adenomas.
Neurosurg Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2010
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Pituitary surgery exemplifies the continuous refinement of surgical techniques. The transsphenoidal approach is the approach of choice to treat most pituitary adenomas. We report here, as a technical note, an operative nuance that represents an encompassment of various technical steps that we utilize in our current surgery, including the corroboration of navigation system on a free head with combined use of endoscope and microscope techniques.
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The posterior petrosal approach: technique and applications in pediatric neurosurgery.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2009
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Various lesions occur in deep locations or at the skull base in pediatric patients and require skull base approaches for resection. Skull base surgery confers the advantages of improved line of sight, a wider operative corridor, and reduced brain retraction. The posterior petrosal approach provides simultaneous access to lesions in the posterior middle fossa and posterior fossa from the top of the clivus to the level of the jugular foramen. It allows visualization of the ventrolateral brainstem and may be combined with various other supra- and infratentorial approaches, thus giving the surgeon a wide array of access routes to the lesion.
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Postoperative nonconvulsive encephalopathic status: identification of a syndrome responsible for delayed progressive deterioration of neurological status after skull base surgery. Clinical article.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Over a 10-year period, the authors have observed a rare but recurring syndrome manifested by a delayed, postoperative, progressive decline in the level of consciousness to deep coma that is time-limited to several days with abrupt awakening. Extensive evaluation and workup demonstrated an abnormality on continuous electroencephalographic monitoring that implied nonconvulsive status epilepticus after the exclusion of structural, perfusion, infectious, or metabolic causes. This state has been very refractory to treatment with antiepileptic medication. In this article, the authors raise the awareness of this syndrome and its diagnosis, management, and outcome.
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The microsurgical anatomy of the hypoglossal canal.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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The hypoglossal canal (HC) is a region of the skull base whose involvement in many pathological entities is often ignored. Adequate knowledge of the anatomy of the HC and its related bony, neural, and vascular structures is essential for surgery of lesions involving this area.
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Impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on the management of skull base chordomas.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Cytogenetic studies of chordomas are scarce and show multiple changes involving different chromosomes. These abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of chordoma, but the clinical significance of these changes is yet to be determined. In this study, the authors discuss the cytogenetic changes in a large series of skull base chordomas with long-term follow-up and focus on the impact of these changes on the prognosis, progression, and management of the disease.
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Petrosal approaches to posterior circulation aneurysms.
Neurosurg Focus
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Complex posterior circulation aneurysms are formidable lesions with an abysmal natural history. Their management continues to present a challenge to both endovascular and open microsurgical approaches. Affording an expansive, combined supra- and infratentorial exposure, the petrosal approaches are well suited for these challenging lesions when located along the basilar trunk or at a low-lying basilar apex. This report evaluates the evolution and application of petrosal approaches to these lesions. Excluding transsigmoid, infratentorial, or labyrinth-sacrificing approaches, the authors found 23 reports with 61 posterior circulation aneurysms treated via a petrosal approach. Although early morbidity was not negligible, rates of aneurysm occlusion (95% overall) and long-term outcome were quite laudable in light of the challenge posed by these lesions. Moreover, with accumulating experience with petrosal approaches, rates of complications are likely to wane, as neurosurgeons capitalize on the expansive exposure afforded by these indispensable approaches.
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Evolution of the posterior petrosal approach.
Neurosurg Focus
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In this article, the authors review the history of the posterior petrosal approach. The early foundation of the retrolabyrinthine lateral petrosectomy has its roots in the otolaryngology literature. These early approaches were limited in exposure by the tentorium superiorly and the sigmoid sinus posteriorly. Although the concept of a transtentorial approach was originally combined with a complete labyrinthectomy, Hakuba and colleagues described the expansive exposure afforded by sectioning the tentorium and superior petrosal sinus and mobilizing a skeletonized sigmoid sinus. This maneuver serves as the key step in allowing for the full, combined supra- and infratentorial exposure that the posterior petrosal approach provides. In contrast to Hakuba et al.s approach, which used a partial labyrinthectomy, modern approaches often preserve the entire labyrinth (retrolabyrinthine approach). For added exposure, the latter can be combined with the anterior petrosal approach, allowing for the preservation of hearing and an enhanced view of the surgical target. The authors review the evolution of the petrosal approach and highlight its applicability.
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Petrosal approaches to brainstem cavernous malformations.
Neurosurg Focus
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Although they provide excellent ventral and lateral exposure of the brainstem, petrosal approaches to brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are infrequently reported.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.