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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
NK Cells with KIR2DS2 Immunogenotype Have a Functional Activation Advantage To Efficiently Kill Glioblastoma and Prolong Animal Survival.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Glioblastomas (GBMs) are lethal brain cancers that are resistant to current therapies. We investigated the cytotoxicity of human allogeneic NK cells against patient-derived GBM in vitro and in vivo, as well as mechanisms mediating their efficacy. We demonstrate that KIR2DS2 immunogenotype NK cells were more potent killers, notwithstanding the absence of inhibitory killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)-HLA ligand mismatch. FACS-sorted and enriched KIR2DS2(+) NK cell subpopulations retained significantly high levels of CD69 and CD16 when in contact with GBM cells at a 1:1 ratio and highly expressed CD107a and secreted more soluble CD137 and granzyme A. In contrast, KIR2DS2(-) immunogenotype donor NK cells were less cytotoxic against GBM and K562, and, similar to FACS-sorted or gated KIR2DS2(-) NK cells, significantly diminished CD16, CD107a, granzyme A, and CD69 when in contact with GBM cells. Furthermore, NK cell-mediated GBM killing in vitro depended upon the expression of ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D and was partially abrogated by Ab blockade. Treatment of GBM xenografts in NOD/SCID mice with NK cells from a KIR2DS2(+) donor lacking inhibitory KIR-HLA ligand mismatch significantly prolonged the median survival to 163 d compared with vehicle controls (log-rank test, p = 0.0001), in contrast to 117.5 d (log-rank test, p = 0.0005) for NK cells with several inhibitory KIR-HLA ligand mismatches but lacking KIR2DS2 genotype. Significantly more CD56(+)CD16(+) NK cells from a KIR2DS2(+) donor survived in nontumor-bearing brains 3 wk after infusion compared with KIR2DS2(-) NK cells, independent of their proliferative capacity. In conclusion, KIR2DS2 identifies potent alloreactive NK cells against GBM that are mediated by commensurate, but dominant, activating signals.
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STAT3 as a possible therapeutic target in human malignancies: lessons from acute myeloid leukemia.
Expert Rev Hematol
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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STAT3 is important for transcriptional regulation in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). STAT3 has thousands of potential DNA binding sites but usually shows cell type specific binding preferences to a limited number of these. Furthermore, AML is a very heterogeneous disease, and studies of the prognostic impact of STAT3 in human AML have also given conflicting results. A more detailed characterization of STAT3 functions and the expression of various isoforms in human AML will therefore be required before it is possible to design clinical studies of STAT3 inhibitors in this disease, and it will be especially important to investigate whether the functions of STAT3 differ between patients. Several other malignancies also show extensive biological heterogeneity, and the present discussion and the suggested scientific approaches may thus be relevant for other cancer patients.
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Identification of a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia characterized by long-term in vitro proliferation and altered cell cycle regulation of the leukemic cells.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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The malignant cell population of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) includes a small population of stem/progenitor cells with long-term in vitro proliferation. We wanted to compare long-term AML cell proliferation for unselected patients, investigate the influence of endothelial cells on AML cell proliferation and identify biological characteristics associated with clonogenic capacity.
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Therapeutic Targeting the Cell Division Cycle 25 (CDC25) Phosphatases in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia - The Possibility to Target Several Kinases through Inhibition of the Various CDC25 Isoforms.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) phosphatases include CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C. These three molecules are important regulators of several steps in the cell cycle, including the activation of various cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDC25s seem to have a role in the development of several human malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML); and CDC25 inhibition is therefore considered as a possible anticancer strategy. Firstly, upregulation of CDC25A can enhance cell proliferation and the expression seems to be controlled through PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling, a pathway possibly mediating chemoresistance in human AML. Loss of CDC25A is also important for the cell cycle arrest caused by differentiation induction of malignant hematopoietic cells. Secondly, high CDC25B expression is associated with resistance against the antiproliferative effect of PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors in primary human AML cells, and inhibition of this isoform seems to reduce AML cell line proliferation through effects on NF?B and p300. Finally, CDC25C seems important for the phenotype of AML cells at least for a subset of patients. Many of the identified CDC25 inhibitors show cross-reactivity among the three CDC25 isoforms. Thus, by using such cross-reactive inhibitors it may become possible to inhibit several molecular events in the regulation of cell cycle progression and even cytoplasmic signaling, including activation of several CDKs, through the use of a single drug. Such combined strategies will probably be an advantage in human cancer treatment.
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Performance of super-SILAC based quantitative proteomics for comparison of different acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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As a direct consequence of the high diversity of the aggressive blood cancer acute myeloid leukemia (AML), proteomic samples from patients are strongly heterogeneous, rendering their accurate relative quantification challenging. In the present study, we investigated the benefits of using a super-SILAC mix of AML derived cell lines as internal standard (IS) for quantitative shotgun studies. The Molm-13, NB4, MV4-11, THP-1, and OCI-AML3 cell lines were selected for their complementarity with regard to clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular risk factors used for prognostication of AML patients. The resulting IS presents a high coverage of the AML proteome compared to single cell lines allied with high technical reproducibility, thus enabling its use for AML patient comparison. This was confirmed by comparing the protein regulation between the five cell lines and by applying the IS to patient material; hence, we were able to reproduce specific functional regulations known to be related to disease progression and molecular genetic abnormalities. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000441.
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Preconditioning serum levels of endothelial cell-derived molecules and the risk of posttransplant complications in patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
J Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These cells express several molecules that can be detected as biologically active soluble forms; serum levels of these molecules may thereby reflect the functional status of endothelial cells. Furthermore, acute GVHD is an inflammatory reaction and endothelial cells function as local regulators of inflammation. We therefore investigated whether differences in preconditioning/pretransplant serum levels of endothelium-expressed molecules (i.e., endocan, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin) were associated with a risk of posttransplant GVHD. Our study should be regarded as a population-based study of consecutive and thereby unselected patients (n = 56). Analysis of this pretreatment endothelium biomarker profile by unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a subset of patients with increased early nonrelapse mortality. Furthermore, low endocan levels were significantly associated with acute GVHD in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, whereas high VCAM-1 levels were associated with acute GVHD in the skin only. Our study suggests that the preconditioning/pretransplant status of endothelial cells (possibly through altered trafficking of immunocompetent cells) is important for the risk and the organ involvement of later acute GVHD.
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SIRT1 activation by a c-MYC oncogenic network promotes the maintenance and drug resistance of human FLT3-ITD acute Myeloid Leukemia stem cells.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The FLT3-ITD mutation is frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis. In such patients, FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are only partially effective and do not eliminate the leukemia stem cells (LSCs) that are assumed to be the source of treatment failure. Here, we show that the NAD-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase is selectively overexpressed in primary human FLT3-ITD AML LSCs. This SIRT1 overexpression is related to enhanced expression of the USP22 deubiquitinase induced by c-MYC, leading to reduced SIRT1 ubiquitination and enhanced stability. Inhibition of SIRT1 expression or activity reduced the growth of FLT3-ITD AML LSCs and significantly enhanced TKI-mediated killing of the cells. Therefore, these results identify a c-MYC-related network that enhances SIRT1 protein expression in human FLT3-ITD AML LSCs and contributes to their maintenance. Inhibition of this oncogenic network could be an attractive approach for targeting FLT3-ITD AML LSCs to improve treatment outcomes.
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Molecular mechanisms of nutlin-3 involve acetylation of p53, histones and heat shock proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The small-molecule MDM2 antagonist nutlin-3 has proved to be an effective p53 activating therapeutic compound in several preclinical cancer models, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We and others have previously reported a vigorous acetylation of the p53 protein by nutlin-treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the functional role of this p53 acetylation in nutlin-sensitivity, and further to explore if nutlin-induced protein acetylation in general could indicate novel targets for the enhancement of nutlin-based therapy.
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In Vitro Characterization of Valproic Acid, ATRA, and Cytarabine Used for Disease-Stabilization in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Antiproliferative Effects of Drugs on Endothelial and Osteoblastic Cells and Altered Release of Angioregulatory Mediators by Endothelial Cell
Leuk Res Treatment
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The combined use of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), the retinoic acid receptor- ? agonist all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase- ? inhibitor cytarabine (Ara-C) is now considered for disease-stabilizing treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemogenesis and leukemia cell chemoresistance seem to be supported by neighbouring stromal cells in the bone marrow, and we have therefore investigated the effects of these drugs on primary human endothelial cells and the osteoblastic Cal72 cell line. The results show that VPA and Ara-C have antiproliferative effects, and the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect of Ara-C was seen at low concentrations corresponding to serum levels found during low-dose in vivo treatment. Furthermore, in functional assays of endothelial migration and tube formation VPA elicited an antiangiogenic effect, whereas ATRA elicited a proangiogenic effect. Finally, VPA and ATRA altered the endothelial cell release of angiogenic mediators; ATRA increased levels of CXCL8, PDGF-AA, and VEGF-D, while VPA decreased VEGF-D and PDGF-AA/BB levels and both drugs reduced MMP-2 levels. Several of these mediators can enhance AML cell proliferation and/or are involved in AML-induced bone marrow angiogenesis, and direct pharmacological effects on stromal cells may thus indirectly contribute to the overall antileukemic activity of this triple drug combination.
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Systemic levels of the endothelium-derived soluble adhesion molecules endocan and E-selectin in patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The initial evaluation of patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis includes the use of biomarkers reflecting activation of the coagulation system. However, the thromboembolic process and neighboring inflammatory responses also affect endothelial cells, and endothelial cell markers may therefore be altered by the disease. In the present population-based single-center study, we investigated the plasma levels of the endothelium-specific biomarkers soluble E-selectin and endocan in a consecutive and unselected group of 120 patients admitted to hospital for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Blood samples were collected when patients arrived at the hospital. DVT patients showed evidence for an acute phase reaction with increased serum C-reactive protein levels, but this was similar to many other patients admitted with suspected but not verified thrombosis. Plasma endocan and E-selectin levels did not differ between patients with thrombosis, healthy controls and the patients without verified thrombosis (i.e. patients with other causes of their symptoms, including various inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions). However, the combined use of endothelial biomarkers, C-reactive protein and D-dimer could be used to identify patient subsets with different frequencies of venous thrombosis. Thus, analysis of plasma biomarker profiles including endothelial cell markers may be helpful in the initial evaluation of patients with deep vein thrombosis.
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The role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during Giardia - host cell interactions in vitro.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under non-homeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during intestinal protozoan infections.
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Expression patterns of chemokine receptors on circulating T cells from myelodysplastic syndrome patients.
Oncoimmunology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Chemokines and their receptors are involved in the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. Recently, chemokine expression signatures have been reported to convey a prognostic value in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. In the present study, we investigated the chemokine receptor repertoire on fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes from 31 (22 low-risk and 9 high-risk) patients affected by MDS. Chemokine receptor expression was studied in defined T-cell subsets using eight-color flow cytometry. MDS patients exhibited quantitative differences in peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations. In addition, T cells obtained from MDS patients expressed a chemokine receptor pattern suggesting a dominance of mature and activated T cells. This is illustrated by increased levels of CCR3, CCR5, CX3CR1 and/or by a decreased abundance of CCR7 in defined T-cell subsets. The T-cell subset distribution appears to differ between the peripheral blood and the bone marrow of MDS patients, suggesting a preferential recruitment of specific T-cell subsets to the latter compartment. Alteration in chemokine receptor expression can develop over time even in patients that are considered clinically stable. Elevated expression levels of CXCR4 by CD8(+) cells were associated with prolonged patient survival and reduced numbers of bone marrow blasts. We conclude that immunological abnormalities in MDS also involve chemokine receptors on different subsets of T cells, and that these changes may have a prognostic value.
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The combination of valproic acid, all-trans retinoic acid and low-dose cytarabine as disease-stabilizing treatment in acute myeloid leukemia.
Clin Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A large proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are not fit for intensive and potentially curative therapy due to advanced age or comorbidity. Previous studies have demonstrated that a subset of these patients can benefit from disease-stabilizing therapy based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and valproic acid. Even though complete hematological remission is only achieved for exceptional patients, a relatively large subset of patients respond to this treatment with stabilization of normal peripheral blood cell counts.
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Histone deacetylase inhibition in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: the effects of valproic acid on leukemic cells, and the clinical and experimental evidence for combining valproic acid with other antileukemic agents.
Clin Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Several new therapeutic strategies are now considered for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, including modulation of protein lysine acetylation through inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). These enzymes alter the acetylation of several proteins, including histones and transcription factors, as well as several other proteins directly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Valproic acid (VPA) is a HDAC inhibitor that has been investigated in several clinical AML studies, usually in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for treatment of patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, for example older patients, and many of these patients have relapsed or primary resistant leukemia. The toxicity of VPA in these patients is low and complete hematological remission lasting for several months has been reported for a few patients (<5% of included patients), but increased peripheral blood platelet counts are seen for 30 to 40% of patients and may last for up to 1 to 2 years. We review the biological effects of VPA on human AML cells, the results from clinical studies of VPA in the treatment of AML and the evidence for combining VPA with new targeted therapy. However, it should be emphasized that VPA has not been investigated in randomized clinical studies. Despite this lack of randomized studies, we conclude that disease-stabilizing treatment including VPA should be considered especially in unfit patients, because the possibility of improving normal blood values has been documented in several studies and the risk of clinically relevant toxicity is minimal.
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The possible diagnostic and prognostic use of systemic chemokine profiles in clinical medicine—the experience in acute myeloid leukemia from disease development and diagnosis via conventional chemotherapy to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Toxins (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Chemokines are important regulators of many different biological processes, including (i) inflammation with activation and local recruitment of immunocompetent cells; (ii) angiogenesis as a part of inflammation or carcinogenesis; and (iii) as a bridge between the coagulation system and inflammation/immune activation. The systemic levels of various chemokines may therefore reflect local disease processes, and such variations may thereby be used in the routine clinical handling of patients. The experience from patients with myeloproliferative diseases, and especially patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggests that systemic plasma/serum cytokine profiles can be useful, both as a diagnostic tool and for prognostication of patients. However, cytokines/chemokines are released by a wide range of cells and are involved in a wide range of biological processes; the altered levels may therefore mainly reflect the strength and nature of the biological processes, and the optimal clinical use of chemokine/cytokine analyses may therefore require combination with organ-specific biomarkers. Chemokine levels are also altered by clinical procedures, therapeutic interventions and the general status of the patients. A careful standardization of sample collection is therefore important, and the interpretation of the observations will require that the overall clinical context is considered. Despite these limitations, we conclude that analysis of systemic chemokine/cytokine profiles can reflect important clinical characteristics and, therefore, is an important scientific tool that can be used as a part of future clinical studies to identify clinically relevant biomarkers.
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Expression profile of heat shock proteins in acute myeloid leukaemia patients reveals a distinct signature strongly associated with FLT3 mutation status--consequences and potentials for pharmacological intervention.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that assist proteins in their folding to native structures. HSPs are regarded as possible therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We used bioinformatical approaches to characterize the HSP profile in AML cells from 75 consecutive patients, in addition to the effect of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG. Patients harbouring a FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) were extensively overrepresented in the cluster with high HSP levels, indicating a strong dependence of HSPs in stabilizing FLT3-ITD encoded oncoproteins. FLT3 ligation further increased the levels of HSP90 and its co-chaperone HSP70. HSP90 inhibition had a stronger pro-apoptotic effect for AML cells with FLT3-ITD than for cells with wild-type FLT3, whereas the anti-proliferative effect of HSP90 inhibition was similar for the two patient subsets. HSP90 inhibition altered the constitutive cytokine release profile in an anti-angiogenic direction independent of FLT3 mutational status: (i) pro-angiogenic CXCL8, MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed a stronger decrease than anti-angiogenic CXCL9-11, (ii) the Tie-2 agonist Ang-1 showed a stronger decrease than the potentially antagonistic Ang-2, and (iii) VEGF and HGF levels were decreased. Finally, HSP90 inhibition counteracted the leukaemia-stimulating effect of endothelial cells. Our studies demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition mediates anti-leukaemic effects through both direct and indirect activity.
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Human cellular immune response against Giardia lamblia 5 years after acute giardiasis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested the development of acquired immunity in individuals previously infected with Giardia lamblia. However, there are no data on the long-term cellular immunity and genotype cross-reactivity. An outbreak of assemblage B giardiasis in a nonendemic area made it possible to evaluate the long-term cellular mediated immunity and its specificity toward the 2 Giardia assemblages known to infect humans.
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The chemokine system in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: a possible therapeutic target?
Expert Rev Hematol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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Further improvements in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation will probably depend on a better balance between immunosuppression to control graft-versus-host disease and immunological reconstitution sufficient to ensure engraftment, reduction of infection-related mortality and maintenance of post-transplant antileukemic immune reactivity. The chemokine network is an important part of the immune system, and, in addition, CXCL12/CXCR4 seem to be essential for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced stem-cell mobilization. Partial ex vivo graft T-cell depletion based on the expression of specific chemokine receptors involved in T-cell recruitment to graft-versus-host disease target organs may also become a future therapeutic strategy; an alternative approach could be pharmacological inhibition (single-receptor inhibitors or dual-receptor inhibitors) in vivo of specific chemokine receptors involved in this T-cell recruitment. Future clinical studies should therefore be based on a better characterization of various immunocompetent cells, including their chemokine receptor profile, both in the allografts and during post-transplant reconstitution.
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Effects of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis on systemic cytokine levels in patients with multiple myeloma.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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BACKGROUND AIMS. Pro-angiogenic cytokines can affect myeloma cell proliferation directly and indirectly through stimulation of cancer-associated angiogenesis. METHODS. We investigated how peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection affected plasma angioregulatory cytokine levels in 15 consecutive myeloma patients. RESULTS. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly increased prior to apheresis in patients compared with donors, and a further increase was detected immediately after PBSC apheresis. HGF levels decreased within 24 h, but were still higher than the levels in healthy donors, whose HGF levels were not altered by platelet apheresis. Pre-apheresis levels of other angioregulatory cytokines, angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also increased in patients, whereas angiopoietin-1, angiogenin and basic fibroblast growth factor levels did not differ from healthy controls. PBSC harvesting decreased angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels, increased the microvascular endothelial cell marker endocan levels but did not affect the other mediators. CONCLUSIONS. Our results show that PBSC apheresis alters systemic angioregulatory profiles in myeloma patients. This cytokine modulation is not a general characteristic of all apheresis procedures and was not seen in healthy platelet donors.
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Future perspectives: should Th17 cells be considered as a possible therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation?
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Th17 cells seem to promote proinflammatory effects, and their development seems to depend on intracellular signaling initiated by IL1?, supported by IL6 and IL23 and mediated by STAT3 and RORC2. Even though primary human AML cells may affect Th17 development through their constitutive cytokine release, the levels of circulating Th17 cells in older patients with untreated AML do not differ from healthy controls and show only minor variations during and following conventional intensive chemotherapy. IL17-A is the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, but in vitro studies have failed to demonstrate a direct antileukemic effect of IL17 on primary human AML cells for most patient samples. However, several observations suggest that Th17 cells mediate antileukemic effects through other mechanisms and are important in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Firstly, genetic variants in IL23/Th17 pathway have a prognostic impact with regard to both development of GVHD and posttransplant infections. Secondly, circulating IL17-secreting cells are detected during early posttransplant pancytopenia, and their ability to release IL17 is associated with later GVHD. Thirdly, a high number of Th17 cells in allogeneic stem cell grafts are associated with later acute GVHD, levels of circulating Th17 cells are increased at the onset of acute GVHD, and these levels normalize during treatment. In the present article, we review previous studies of Th17 cells in AML and in the development of GVHD, possible therapeutic strategies and available therapeutic tools for targeting of Th17 cells.
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Current practice and future directions for optimization of platelet transfusions in patients with severe therapy-induced cytopenia.
Blood Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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Platelet transfusions are mainly used for patients with thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow failure, especially cancer patients developing severe chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (e.g. patients with acute leukemia or other hematologic malignancies). A prophylactic transfusion strategy is now generally accepted in developed countries. Some clinical data, however, support the use of a therapeutic transfusion strategy at least for certain subsets of these patients. Several methodological approaches can then be used to evaluate the outcome of platelet transfusions, including peripheral blood platelet increments and bleeding assessments. Several factors will influence the efficiency of platelet transfusions; fever and ongoing hemorrhage are among the most important patient-dependent factors, but the number and quality of the transfused platelets are also important. The quality of transfused platelets can be evaluated by analyzing platelet activation, metabolism or senescence/apoptosis. Only evaluation of metabolism is included in international guidelines, but high-throughput methods for evaluation of activation and senescence/apoptosis are available and should be incorporated into routine clinical practice if future studies demonstrate that they reflect clinically relevant platelet characteristics. Finally, platelet transfusions have additional biological effects that may cause immunomodulation or altered angioregulation; at present it is not known whether these effects will influence the long-time prognosis of cancer patients. Thus, several questions with regard to the optimal use of platelet transfusions in cancer patients still need to be answered.
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Immunogenic apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML): primary human AML cells expose calreticulin and release heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP90 during apoptosis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Several previous studies have demonstrated that both conventional cytotoxic drugs as well as targeted therapeutics can induce apoptosis in primary human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells. However, the apoptotic phenotype of dying AML cells has been less extensively characterized. Even though specific antileukemic immune reactivity is important in AML, especially for allotransplanted patients, it has not been investigated whether dying primary human AML cells show phenotypic characteristics consistent with immunogenic apoptosis [calreticulin exposure, heat shock protein (HSP) release]. We therefore investigated whether in vitro cultured primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells show calreticulin exposure and HSP70/HSP90 release during spontaneous (stress-induced) apoptosis when cultured in medium alone and when cultured in the presence of antileukemic drugs. Both surface exposure of calreticulin and release of HSP70 and HSP90 was detected but showed a wide variation between patients. This variation was also maintained when the AML cells were cultured in the presence of cytotoxic drugs (cytarabine, daunorubicin, mitomycin), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and valproic acid. Finally, AML cells collected during in vivo ATRA therapy showed increased calreticulin exposure during spontaneous in vitro apoptosis, suggesting that in vivo pharmacotherapy can modulate the apoptotic phenotype. To conclude, apoptotic AML cells can show phenotypic characteristics consistent with immunogenic apoptosis, but there is a wide variation between patients and the level of calreticulin exposure/HSP release seems to depend on individual patient characteristics rather than the apoptosis-inducing agent.
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Hypoxia increases HIF-1? expression and constitutive cytokine release by primary human acute myeloid leukaemia cells.
Eur. Cytokine Netw.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Low oxygen tension is able to modulate the expression of several genes involved in physiological and pathological processes. A major regulator of gene expression is the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which also regulates angiogenesis-related genes, including the protein expression of angioregulatory cytokines. Angiogenesis has been shown to play a role in haematological disorders, and low oxygen tension might thereby influence leukaemogenesis and chemosensitivity in human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
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Future perspectives: therapeutic targeting of notch signalling may become a strategy in patients receiving stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Bone Marrow Res
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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The human Notch system consists of 5 ligands and 4 membrane receptors with promiscuous ligand binding, and Notch-initiated signalling interacts with a wide range of other intracellular pathways. The receptor signalling seems important for regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis, development of the cellular immune system, and regulation of immune responses. Several Notch-targeting agents are now being developed, including natural receptor ligands, agonistic and antagonistic antibodies, and inhibitors of intracellular Notch-initiated signalling. Some of these agents are in clinical trials, and several therapeutic strategies seem possible in stem cell recipients: (i) agonists may be used for stem cell expansion and possibly to enhance posttransplant lymphoid reconstitution; (ii) receptor-specific agonists or antagonists can be used for immunomodulation; (iii) Notch targeting may have direct anticancer effects. Although the effects of therapeutic targeting are difficult to predict due to promiscuous ligand binding, targeting of this system may represent an opportunity to achieve combined effects with earlier posttransplant reconstitution, immunomodulation, or direct anticancer effects.
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Clinical proteomics of myeloid leukemia.
Genome Med
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Myeloid leukemias are a heterogeneous group of diseases originating from bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells. Patients with myeloid leukemias can achieve long-term survival through targeted therapy, cure after intensive chemotherapy or short-term survival because of highly chemoresistant disease. Therefore, despite the development of advanced molecular diagnostics, there is an unmet need for efficient therapy that reflects the advanced diagnostics. Although the molecular design of therapeutic agents is aimed at interacting with specific proteins identified through molecular diagnostics, the majority of therapeutic agents act on multiple protein targets. Ongoing studies on the leukemic cell proteome will probably identify a large number of new biomarkers, and the prediction of response to therapy through these markers is an interesting avenue for future personalized medicine. Mass spectrometric protein detection is a fundamental technique in clinical proteomics, and selected tools are presented, including stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), as well as single cell determination. We suggest that protein analysis will play not only a supplementary, but also a prominent role in future molecular diagnostics, and we outline how accurate knowledge of the molecular therapeutic targets can be used to monitor therapy response.
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Kinetics of ERK1/2 activation determine sensitivity of acute myeloid leukaemia cells to the induction of apoptosis by the novel small molecule ingenol 3-angelate (PEP005).
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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The novel small molecule ingenol 3-angelate (PEP005) has been shown previously to induce apoptosis in leukaemic cell lines and primary AML cells, an effect that requires the expression of protein kinase C-delta (PKCdelta). Here we have investigated signalling events downstream of PKCdelta that determine sensitivity of AML cells to PEP005. We show that activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase occurred in both sensitive and resistant cells and that induction of apoptosis required sustained signalling through the ERK1/2 pathway. Inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling using the MEK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited PEP005-induced apoptosis and activation of ERK1/2 was shown to occur downstream of PKC activation. The data show that PEP005-induced apoptosis is both PKC and ERK1/2 dependent and indicate that chronic activation of ERK1/2 in leukaemic cells delivers a pro-apoptotic rather than a proliferative or survival signal.
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Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling: A Contributor in Leukemogenesis and a Target for Pharmacological Intervention in Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.
Crit Rev Oncog
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2009
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy with only 40 - 50% long-term survival even for younger patients who can receive the most aggressive therapy. For elderly patients who only receive palliative treatment, the median survival is only 2-3 months. Inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor family is one of the therapeutic strategies that are considered in AML. NF-kappaB is an important regulator of several biological processes that are involved in leukemogenesis, including proliferation differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Constitutive NF-kappaB activation has been detected in AML cells and NF-kappaB inhibition is therefore a possible therapeutic strategy in AML. Multiple pharmacological agents have shown inhibitory effects against NF-kappaB signaling pathways, including proteasome inhibitors as well as the more-specifc agents that are directed against various steps of this signaling pathway. Recent studies strongly suggest that primary human AML cells (including AML stem cells) are susceptible to NF-kappaB inhibition, but this therapeutic approach should possibly be combined with other therapeutic agents to achieve a combined effect both on NF-kappaB transcriptional activity, tumor suppressor-induced signaling, and stress-induced pathways. The clinical documentation with regard to the effciency and safety of NF-kappaB inhibition is still limited, but experimental evidence strongly suggests that NF-kappaB inhibition should be further investigated in human AML.
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Therapeutic efficacy of platelet transfusion in patients with acute leukemia: an evaluation of methods.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2009
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Clinical effect of platelet (PLT) transfusion is monitored by measures of PLT viability (PLT recovery and survival) and functionality. In this study we evaluate and compare transfusion effect measures in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia due to treatment of acute leukemia.
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Primary human acute myelogenous leukemia cells release matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors: release profile and pharmacological modulation.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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Angiogenesis seems important for both leukemogenesis and chemosensitivity in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Angiogenesis is regulated by the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic cytokines, which also indicates an important role of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their natural inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). We investigated the constitutive release of MMPs and TIMPs for a large group of consecutive AML patients.
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Hematopoietic engraftment of dimethyl sulfoxide-depleted autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Autologous stem cell transplantation with cryopreserved autografts is a prerequisite for high-dose chemotherapy in treatment of several malignancies. Adverse effects due to the cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vary from mild to severe. DMSO-associated adverse effects can be reduced by DMSO depletion before autograft infusion. The aim was to investigate whether DMSO depletion by manual single wash reduced frequency of adverse effects or had detrimental effects on the engraftment potential of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) autografts.
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A subset of patients with high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia shows improved peripheral blood cell counts when treated with the combination of valproic acid, theophylline and all-trans retinoic acid.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients (24 consecutive patients, median age 71 years, 17 high-risk disease) were treated with all-trans retinoic acid, theophylline and valproic acid. Among 22 evaluable patients 9 responded with increased normal peripheral blood cell counts. The responses could be classified as hematological improvement according to response criteria for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) for four patients only. The nine patients with increased normal cell counts had a median survival from start of therapy of 147 days compared with 48 days for the other patients. Four patients fulfilling the MDS criteria had a survival ranging from 112 to 644 days. The treatment was associated with decreased in vitro cytokine-dependent AML cell proliferation and increased blood levels of Endocan and angiopoietin-2 both for responders and non-responders. We conclude that the therapy causes disease stabilization for a subset of AML patients.
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Connexins are active participants of hematopoietic stem cell regulation.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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Intercellular communication participates in the regulation of normal hematopoiesis and possibly in neoplastic transformations in the hematopoietic niches. The role of gap junctions (GJs) and their connexins (Cxs) on hematopoietic tissues have been studied since the 1970s. Clearly, GJs are involved in different functional characteristics and connexin expression seems to be thoroughly regulated in hematopoietic tissues, suggesting that these molecules participate in the physiology of hematopoiesis. However, the exact mechanisms of GJs and Cxs are not characterized in detail. In this review we present the major findings of GJs and Cxs in normal hematopoietic tissues, and briefly discuss possible pathways of action and the potential of these molecules in hematopoietic reconstitution after cancer chemotherapy.
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[Granulocyte transfusion].
Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Granulocyte transfusion is used in the treatment of severe, sustained or complicated infection and neutropenia. In recent years, the methods efficacy has improved and its availability increased. After the introduction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) there has been a growing interest for granulocyte transfusion, and effective methods for collection and transfusion of granulocytes are now in clinical use. This paper presents clinical, immunological and ethical challenges, our own experience with granulocyte harvesting and documentation of efficacy.
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Inhibition of Mammalian target of rapamycin in human acute myeloid leukemia cells has diverse effects that depend on the environmental in vitro stress.
Bone Marrow Res
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Effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin were characterized on in vitro cultured primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and five AML cell lines. Constitutive mTOR activation seemed to be a general characteristic of primary AML cells. Increased cellular stress induced by serum deprivation increased both mTOR signaling, lysosomal acidity, and in vitro apoptosis, where lysosomal acidity/apoptosis were independent of increased mTOR signaling. Rapamycin had antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects only for a subset of patients. Proapoptotic effect was detected for AML cell lines only in the presence of serum. Combination of rapamycin with valproic acid, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and NF-?B inhibitors showed no interference with constitutive mTOR activation and mTOR inhibitory effect of rapamycin and no additional proapoptotic effect compared to rapamycin alone. In contrast, dual inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway by rapamycin plus a PI3K inhibitor induced new functional effects that did not simply reflect a summary of single drug effects. To conclude, (i) pharmacological characterization of PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors requires carefully standardized experimental models, (ii) rapamycin effects differ between patients, and (iii) combined targeting of different steps in this pathway should be further investigated whereas combination of rapamycin with valproic acid, ATRA, or NF-?B inhibitors seems less promising.
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High-dose etoposide in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
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The anti-leukemic effect of etoposide is well documented. High-dose etoposide 60 mg/kg in combination with fractionated total body irradiation (TBI), usually single fractions of 1.2 Gy up to a total of 13.2 Gy, is used as conditioning therapy for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Most studies of this conditioning regimen have included patients with acute leukemia receiving bone marrow or mobilized stem cell grafts derived from family or matched unrelated donors, and the treatment is then effective even in patients with high-risk disease. The most common adverse effects are fever with hypotension and rash, nausea and vomiting, sialoadenitis, neuropathy and metabolic acidosis. A small minority of patients develop severe allergic reactions. Etoposide has also been tested in a wide range of combination regimens, but for many of these combinations, relatively few patients are included, and some combinations have only been tested in patients who have undergone autologous transplants. However, the general conclusion is that many of these combinations are effective in patients with high-risk malignancies and the toxicity often seems acceptable. Thus, etoposide-based conditioning therapy should be further evaluated in patients having allogeneic transplants, but randomized trials are needed and the design of future trials should be based on the well-characterized TBI + high-dose etoposide regimen.
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The arsenic-based cure of acute promyelocytic leukemia promotes cytoplasmic sequestration of PML and PML/RARA through inhibition of PML body recycling.
Blood
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Arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is used as a therapeutic drug for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The mechanism by which this agent cures this disease was previously shown to involve direct interactions between ATO and the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), as well as accelerated degradation of the APL-associated fusion oncoprotein PML/retinoic acid receptor ? (RARA). Here we investigated the fate of PML-generated nuclear structures called PML bodies in ATO-treated cells. We found that ATO inhibits formation of progeny PML bodies while it stabilizes cytoplasmic precursor compartments, referred to as cytoplasmic assemblies of PML and nucleoporins (CyPNs), after cell division. This block in PML body recycling is readily detected at pharmacologic relevant ATO concentrations (0.02-0.5?M) that do not cause detectable cell-cycle defects, and it does not require modification of PML by SUMOylation. In addition, PML and PML/RARA carrying mutations previously identified in ATO-resistant APL patients are impeded in their ability to become sequestered within CyPNs. Thus, ATO may inhibit nuclear activities of PML and PML/RARA in postmitotic cells through CyPN-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration.
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Disease-stabilizing treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and valproic acid in acute myeloid leukemia: serum hsp70 and hsp90 levels and serum cytokine profiles are determined by the disease, patient age, and anti-leukemic treatment.
Am. J. Hematol.
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Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP90 are released by primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells during stress-induced spontaneous in vitro apoptosis. The AML cells also show constitutive release of several cytokines and the systemic serum levels of several soluble mediators are altered in patients with untreated AML. In the present study, we have investigated serum levels of HSP70/HSP90 and the serum cytokine profiles of patients with untreated AML and patients receiving AML-stabilizing palliative treatment based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus valproic acid. Patients with untreated AML showed increased HSP90 levels and a distinct serum cytokine profile when compared with healthy controls, and low pre-therapy HSP90 levels were associated with a prolonged survival during treatment with ATRA + valproic acid + theophyllin. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed a close association between HSP70, HSP90, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels. Furthermore, disease-stabilizing therapy altered the serum-cytokine profile, but the correlations between HSP70/HSP90/IL-1ra/HGF were maintained only when ATRA + valproic acid were combined with theophyllin but not when combined with cytarabine. We conclude that both HSP levels and serum cytokine profiles are altered and may represent possible therapeutic targets or prognostic markers in human AML.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.