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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Red emitting, cucurbituril-capped, pH-responsive conjugated oligomer-based nanoparticles for drug delivery and cellular imaging.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Here we report the synthesis of nanoparticles based on a conjugated oligomer which is synthesized through Heck-coupling of divinylfluorene and dibromobenzothiodiazole monomers. These water dispersible nanoparticles emit in the region of red tailing to the near-infrared region of the spectrum with high fluorescent quantum yield and brightness. The nanoparticles were found to be stable in water for a prolonged time without forming any aggregates and could carry camptothecin, an anticancer drug with high loading efficiency. MTT cell viability studies performed with breast cancer cell lines showed that half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of nanoparticles for MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 were 44.7 ?M and 24.8 ?M, respectively. In order to further decrease the cytotoxicity and increase the stability of nanoparticles, amine groups were disguised by capping with cucurbit[7]uril (CB7). Drug release studies showed that drugs were released at low pH (at 5.0) faster than physiological pH (7.4) confirming the pH-responsive nature of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, CB7-capped drug-loaded nanoparticles regulated the release rate by providing slower release at pH 7.4 than the nanoparticles in the absence of CB7s. IC50 values for camptothecin in the presence of nanoparticles with or without CB7 were significantly reduced in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.
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Identification of novel reference genes based on MeSH categories.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transcriptome experiments are performed to assess protein abundance through mRNA expression analysis. Expression levels of genes vary depending on the experimental conditions and the cell response. Transcriptome data must be diverse and yet comparable in reference to stably expressed genes, even if they are generated from different experiments on the same biological context from various laboratories. In this study, expression patterns of 9090 microarray samples grouped into 381 NCBI-GEO datasets were investigated to identify novel candidate reference genes using randomizations and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The analysis demonstrated that cell type specific reference gene sets display less variability than a united set for all tissues. Therefore, constitutively and stably expressed, origin specific novel reference gene sets were identified based on their coefficient of variation and percentage of occurrence in all GEO datasets, which were classified using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). A large number of MeSH grouped reference gene lists are presented as novel tissue specific reference gene lists. The most commonly observed 17 genes in these sets were compared for their expression in 8 hepatocellular, 5 breast and 3 colon carcinoma cells by RT-qPCR to verify tissue specificity. Indeed, commonly used housekeeping genes GAPDH, Actin and EEF2 had tissue specific variations, whereas several ribosomal genes were among the most stably expressed genes in vitro. Our results confirm that two or more reference genes should be used in combination for differential expression analysis of large-scale data obtained from microarray or next generation sequencing studies. Therefore context dependent reference gene sets, as presented in this study, are required for normalization of expression data from diverse technological backgrounds.
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Cancer-testis gene expression is associated with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C>T polymorphism in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Tumor-specific, coordinate expression of cancer-testis (CT) genes, mapping to the X chromosome, is observed in more than 60% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although CT gene expression has been unequivocally related to DNA demethylation of promoter regions, the underlying mechanism leading to loss of promoter methylation remains elusive. Polymorphisms of enzymes within the 1-carbon pathway have been shown to affect S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) production, which is the sole methyl donor in the cell. Allelic variants of several enzymes within this pathway have been associated with altered SAM levels either directly, or indirectly as reflected by altered levels of SAH and Homocysteine levels, and altered levels of DNA methylation. We, therefore, asked whether the five most commonly occurring polymorphisms in four of the enzymes in the 1-carbon pathway associated with CT gene expression status in patients with NSCLC.
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Genome-wide transcriptional reorganization associated with senescence-to-immortality switch during human hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Senescence is a permanent proliferation arrest in response to cell stress such as DNA damage. It contributes strongly to tissue aging and serves as a major barrier against tumor development. Most tumor cells are believed to bypass the senescence barrier (become "immortal") by inactivating growth control genes such as TP53 and CDKN2A. They also reactivate telomerase reverse transcriptase. Senescence-to-immortality transition is accompanied by major phenotypic and biochemical changes mediated by genome-wide transcriptional modifications. This appears to happen during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with liver cirrhosis, however, the accompanying transcriptional changes are virtually unknown. We investigated genome-wide transcriptional changes related to the senescence-to-immortality switch during hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Initially, we performed transcriptome analysis of senescent and immortal clones of Huh7 HCC cell line, and identified genes with significant differential expression to establish a senescence-related gene list. Through the analysis of senescence-related gene expression in different liver tissues we showed that cirrhosis and HCC display expression patterns compatible with senescent and immortal phenotypes, respectively; dysplasia being a transitional state. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that cirrhosis/senescence-associated genes were preferentially expressed in non-tumor tissues, less malignant tumors, and differentiated or senescent cells. In contrast, HCC/immortality genes were up-regulated in tumor tissues, or more malignant tumors and progenitor cells. In HCC tumors and immortal cells genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, telomere extension and branched chain amino acid metabolism were up-regulated, whereas genes involved in cell signaling, as well as in drug, lipid, retinoid and glycolytic metabolism were down-regulated. Based on these distinctive gene expression features we developed a 15-gene hepatocellular immortality signature test that discriminated HCC from cirrhosis with high accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that senescence bypass plays a central role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis engendering systematic changes in the transcription of genes regulating DNA repair, proliferation, differentiation and metabolism.
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mESAdb: microRNA expression and sequence analysis database.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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microRNA expression and sequence analysis database (http://konulab.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/mirna/) (mESAdb) is a regularly updated database for the multivariate analysis of sequences and expression of microRNAs from multiple taxa. mESAdb is modular and has a user interface implemented in PHP and JavaScript and coupled with statistical analysis and visualization packages written for the R language. The database primarily comprises mature microRNA sequences and their target data, along with selected human, mouse and zebrafish expression data sets. mESAdb analysis modules allow (i) mining of microRNA expression data sets for subsets of microRNAs selected manually or by motif; (ii) pair-wise multivariate analysis of expression data sets within and between taxa; and (iii) association of microRNA subsets with annotation databases, HUGE Navigator, KEGG and GO. The use of existing and customized R packages facilitates future addition of data sets and analysis tools. Furthermore, the ability to upload and analyze user-specified data sets makes mESAdb an interactive and expandable analysis tool for microRNA sequence and expression data.
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Dose- and time-dependent expression patterns of zebrafish orthologs of selected E2F target genes in response to serum starvation/replenishment.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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Targets of E2F transcription factors effectively regulate the cell cycle from worms to humans. Furthermore, the dysregulation of E2F transcription modules plays a highly conserved role in cancers of human and zebrafish. Studying E2F target expression under a given cellular state, such as quiescence, might lead to a better understanding of the conserved patterns of expression in different taxa. In the present study, we used literature searches and phylogeny to identify several targets of E2F transcription factors that are known to be serum-responsive; namely, PCNA, MYBL2, MCM7, TYMS, and CTGF. The transcriptional serum response of zebrafish orthologs of these genes were quantified under different doses (i.e., 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 10% FBS) and time points (i.e., 6, 24 and 48 hours, h) using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in the zebrafish fibroblast cells (ZF4). Our results indicated that mRNA expression of zebrafish pcna, mybl2, mcm7 and tyms drastically decreased while that of ctgf increased with decreasing serum levels as observed in mammals. These genes responded to serum starvation at 24 and 48 h and to the mitogenic stimuli as early as 6 h except for ctgf whose expression was significantly altered at 24 h. The zebrafish Mcm7 protein levels also were modulated by serum starvation/replenishment. The present study provides a foundation for the comparative analysis of quantitative expression patterns for genes involved in regulation of cell cycle using a zebrafish serum response model.
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Mdm2 Snp309 G allele displays high frequency and inverse correlation with somatic P53 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Loss of function of the p53 protein, which may occur through a range of molecular events, is critical in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) evolution. MDM2, an oncogene, acts as a major regulator of the p53 protein. A polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter, SNP309 (T/G), has been shown to alter protein expression and may thus play a role in carcinogenesis. MDM2 SNP309 is also associated with HCC. However, the role of SNP309 in hepatocarcinogenesis with respect to TP53 mutations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype and somatic TP53 (the p53 tumor suppressor gene) mutations in 99 human HCC samples from Africa, Europe, China and Japan. Samples exhibited striking geographical differences in their distribution of SNP309 genotypes. The frequency and spectrum of p53 mutations also varied geographically; TP53 mutations were frequent in Africa, where the SNP309 T/T genotype predominated but were rare in Europe and Japan, where the SNP309 G allele was present more frequently. TP53 mutations were detected in 18% (4/22) of SNP309 T/G and G/G and 82% (18/22) of SNP309 T/T genotype holders; this difference was statistically highly significant (P-value=0.0006). Our results indicated that the presence of the SNP309 G allele is inversely associated with the presence of somatic TP53 mutations because they only coincided in 4% of HCC cases. This finding suggests that the SNP309 G allele may functionally replace p53 mutations, and in addition to known etiological factors, may be partly responsible for differential HCC prevalence.
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Identification of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in normal matched breast tumor tissues.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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Quantitative gene expression measurements from tumor tissue are frequently compared with matched normal and/or adjacent tumor tissue expression for diagnostic marker gene selection as well as assessment of the degree of transcriptional deregulation in cancer. Selection of an appropriate reference gene (RG) or an RG panel, which varies depending on cancer type, molecular subtypes, and the normal tissues used for interindividual calibration, is crucial for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Several RG panels have been suggested in breast cancer for making comparisons among tumor subtypes, cell lines, and benign/malignant tumors. In this study, expression patterns of 15 widely used endogenous RGs (ACTB, TBP, GAPDH, SDHA, HPRT, HMBS, B2M, PPIA, GUSB, YWHAZ2, PGK1, RPLP0, PUM1, MRPL19, and RPL41), and three candidate genes that were selected through analysis of two independent microarray datasets (IL22RA1, TC22, ZNF224) were determined in 23 primary breast tumors and their matched normal tissues using qRT-PCR. Additionally, 18S rRNA, ACTB, and SDHA were tested using randomly primed cDNAs from 13 breast tumor pairs to assess the rRNA/mRNA ratio. The tumors exhibited significantly lower rRNA/mRNA ratio when compared to their normals, on average. The expression of the studied RGs in breast tumors did not exhibit differences in terms of grade, ER, or PR status. The stability of RGs was examined based on two different statistical models, namely GeNorm and NormFinder. Among the 18 tested endogenous reference genes, ACTB and SDHA were identified as the most suitable reference genes for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in the analysis of normal matched tumor breast tissue pairs by both programs. In addition, the expression of the gelsolin (GSN) gene, a well-known downregulated target in breast tumors, was analyzed using the two most suitable genes and different RG combinations to validate their effectiveness as a normalization factor (NF). The GSN expression of the tumors used in this study was significantly lower than that of normals showing the effectivity of using ACTB and SDHA as suitable RGs in this set of tumor-normal tissue panel. The combinational use of the best performing two RGs (ACTB and SDHA) as a normalization factor can be recommended to minimize sample variability and to increase the accuracy and resolution of gene expression normalization in tumor-normal paired breast cancer qRT-PCR studies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.