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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a population-based human sample of men and women.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stable organic compounds generated through different industrial activities. Liver is involved in the metabolism of POPs, and hence exposure to POPs may interfere with liver function. Although a few studies have shown adverse effects of POPs on liver function, large-scale studies involving humans are lacking. We performed this large population-based cross-sectional study to assess the associations between different POPs and liver dysfunction biomarkers.
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Persistent organic pollutants are related to the change in circulating lipid levels during a 5 year follow-up.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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When reporting circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), usually lipid-normalized values are given. However, animal experiments and some human data indicate that exposure to POPs may change lipid values. The aim of the present study is to investigate if POP levels can predict future changes in levels of circulating lipids. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, lipids were measured at age 70 and at age 75 in 598 subjects without lipid-lowering medication. Twenty-three different POPs, including 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine pesticides, one dioxin (OCDD) and one flame retardant brominated compound (BDE47) were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) at age 70. Strong relationships were seen among the baseline levels of the non-dioxin-like PCBs 194, 206 and 209 and the degree of increase in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol during the 5 year follow-up. These relationships were generally stronger when lipid-normalized levels were used compared to wet-weight based levels. On the contrary, for two of the pesticides, hexachlorobenzene and trans-nonachlordane, levels were inversely related to the change in LDL-cholesterol, with strongest associations found using wet-weight based levels. PCBs 194, 206 and 209 were inversely related to the change in HDL-cholesterol, in particular for wet-weight based levels. However, these relationships were only significant for wet-weight PCB 194 following adjustment for multiple testing. None of the POPs was related to the change in serum triglycerides. When investigating the association between the change in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol across different categories of change in BMI, we noted robust results especially in the group with stable BMI, suggesting that the observed relationships were not due to fluctuations in BMI over time. In conclusion, POPs are related to the change in lipids over time, especially LDL-cholesterol. This may explain why POP exposure previously has been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
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The identification of complex interactions in epidemiology and toxicology: a simulation study of boosted regression trees.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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There is a need to evaluate complex interaction effects on human health, such as those induced by mixtures of environmental contaminants. The usual approach is to formulate an additive statistical model and check for departures using product terms between the variables of interest. In this paper, we present an approach to search for interaction effects among several variables using boosted regression trees.
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Serum levels of monobenzylphthalate (MBzP) is related to carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Background exposure to environmental contaminants has recently emerged as a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease in general and to atheroclerosis in particular. This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate if serum concentrations of the phthalate metabolite monobenzylphthalate (MBzP) are related to atheroclerosis in the carotid arteries.
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Influence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population-based samples.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a large group of chemicals widely used and produced in various industrial applications. Many cell culture/animal studies have shown that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Since such data is lacking in humans, we conducted a large population-based study to analyze associations between POPs and oxidative stress markers. We measured following POPs; 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polybrominated diphenyl ether 47, and oxidative stress markers; homocysteine, reduced [GSH] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG], glutathione ratio [GSSG/GSH], total glutathione, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], ox-LDL antibodies, conjugated dienes, baseline conjugated dienes of LDL, and total anti-oxidative capacity in plasma samples collected from 992 70-year old individuals (50% women) from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the associations between oxidative stress markers and summary measures of POPs including the total toxic equivalence (TEQ), sums of PCBs and OC pesticides (main exposures) while adjusting for potential confounders. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, sum of PCBs showed strong associations with ox-LDL (?=0.94; P=2.9*10(-6)). Further, sum of PCBs showed association with glutathione-related markers (GSSG: ?=-0.01; P=6.0*10(-7); GSSG/GSH: ?=-0.002; P=9.7*10(-10)), although in reverse direction. Other summary measures did not show any significant association with these markers. In our study of elderly individuals from the general population, we show that plasma levels of POPs are associated with markers of increased oxidative stress thereby suggesting that even low dose background exposure to POPs may be involved in oxidative stress.
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Persistent organic pollutants and inflammatory markers in a cross-sectional study of elderly swedish people: the PIVUS cohort.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are generated through various industrial activities and released in the surrounding environment. Different animal studies have shown effects of different POPs on various inflammatory markers.
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Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003-0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005-0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs.
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Genetic variation in the CYP2B6 gene is related to circulating 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) concentrations: an observational population-based study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Since human CYP2B6 has been identified as the major CYP enzyme involved in the metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and that human 2B6 is a highly polymorphic CYP, with known functional variants, we evaluated if circulating concentrations of a major brominated flame retardant, BDE-47, were related to genetic variation in the CYP2B6 gene in a population sample.
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Bisphenol A is related to circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin, but not to fat mass or fat distribution in humans.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Since bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in experimental studies, we explored the associations between BPA and fat mass, fat distribution and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin in humans.
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Influence of persistent organic pollutants on the complement system in a population-based human sample.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic compounds generated through various industrial activities and have adverse effects on human health. Studies performed in cell cultures and animals have revealed that POPs can alter immune-system functioning. The complement system is part of innate immune system that helps to clear pathogens from the body. We performed a large-scale population-based study to find out associations between summary measures of different POPs and different complement system markers.
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Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women.
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Ceruloplasmin and ?-amyloid precursor protein confer neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury and lower neuronal iron.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is in part complicated by pro-oxidant iron elevation independent of brain hemorrhage. Ceruloplasmin (CP) and ?-amyloid protein precursor (APP) are known neuroprotective proteins that reduce oxidative damage through iron regulation. We surveyed iron, CP, and APP in brain tissue from control and TBI-affected patients who were stratified according to time of death following injury. We observed CP and APP induction after TBI accompanying iron accumulation. Elevated APP and CP expression was also observed in a mouse model of focal cortical contusion injury concomitant with iron elevation. To determine if changes in APP or CP were neuroprotective we employed the same TBI model on APP(-/-) and CP(-/-) mice and found that both exhibited exaggerated infarct volume and iron accumulation postinjury. Evidence supports a regulatory role of both proteins in defence against iron-induced oxidative damage after TBI, which presents as a tractable therapeutic target.
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Does mortality risk of cigarette smoking depend on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants? Prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cigarette smoking is an important cause of preventable death globally, but associations between smoking and mortality vary substantially across country and calendar time. Although methodological biases have been discussed, it is biologically plausible that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides can affect this association. This study was performed to evaluate if associations of cigarette smoking with mortality were modified by serum concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides. We evaluated cigarette smoking in 111 total deaths among 986 men and women aged 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) with mean follow-up for 7.7 years. The association between cigarette smoking and total mortality depended on serum concentration of PCBs and OC pesticides (P value for interaction = 0.02). Among participants in the highest tertile of the serum POPs summary score, former and current smokers had 3.7 (95% CI, 1.5-9.3) and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.3-17.7) times higher mortality hazard, respectively, than never smokers. In contrast, the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality among participants in the lowest tertile of the serum POPs summary score was much weaker and statistically non-significant. The strong smoking-mortality association observed among elderly people with high POPs was mainly driven by low risk of mortality among never smokers with high POPs. As smoking is increasing in many low-income and middle-income countries and POPs contamination is a continuing problem in these areas, the interactions between these two important health-related issues should be considered in future research.
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Whole blood and serum concentrations of metals in a Swedish population-based sample.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Objective. While the potential toxicity of metals in humans is a well-established field of research, there are few studies that examine circulating concentrations of metals in large population-based samples. The aim of this study was to analyze levels of heavy metals and trace elements in both whole blood and serum in an elderly population, and to examine if gender, kidney function, haemoglobin or serum albumin could impact the distribution of metals between whole blood and serum. Methods. Whole blood and serum samples from 1016 70-year-olds living in Uppsala, Sweden, were analyzed for aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Distribution between whole blood and serum was evaluated by the ratio between whole blood and serum concentration (B/S-ratio). Results. Concentrations differed significantly between whole blood and serum measurements for all 11 metals (p < 0.00001). The highest B/S-ratios were found for lead (27), zinc (9), manganese (6), and nickel (4). Copper (0.86), cobalt (0.84), and molybdenum (0.86) showed B/S-ratios < 1. Especially the B/S-ratios for chromium, mercury and nickel correlated with kidney function (GFR) (r = 0.21, - 0.21 and - 0.36 respectively, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. The distribution between whole blood and serum varied considerably for different metals. This distribution correlated with physiological factors, mainly with kidney function, for several of the metals.
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Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Lipid Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in rodents was shown to induce obesity, yet the mechanism by which BPA might induce obesity is still unclear. We employed the genetically tractable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, to test the effects of raising them on food containing various concentrations of BPA. Of note, raising males on food containing BPA were susceptible to starvation, possibly by inhibiting their ability to perform lipolysis during starvation, leading to significantly increased lipid content after 24 hr of fasting. Furthermore, feeding males with BPA significantly inhibited the expression of insulin-like peptides. From these results, we conclude that BPA may inhibit lipid recruitment during starvation in Drosophila.
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Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances and prevalent diabetes in the elderly.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Several environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, bisphenol A and phthalates, have been linked to diabetes. We therefore investigated whether other kinds of contaminants, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), also called perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), are also associated with diabetes.
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Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed: a reply to a "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a recently published, and is in our considered opinion inaccurate and factually incorrect, editorial that has appeared in several journals in toxicology. Some of the shortcomings of the editorial are discussed in detail. We call for a better founded scientific debate which may help to overcome a polarisation of views detrimental to reaching a consensus about scientific foundations for endocrine disrupter regulation in the EU.
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Persistent organic pollutants and abnormal geometry of the left ventricle in the elderly.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Established risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, as these risk factors explain only part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) might also play a role in LVH, because exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl 126 induced cardiac growth in rats.
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Quantification of total and visceral adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats using water-fat separated single echo MRI.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The aim of this study was to setup a rodent model for modest weight gain and an MRI-based quantification of body composition on a clinical 1.5 T MRI system for studies of obesity and environmental factors and their possible association.
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Global DNA hypermethylation is associated with high serum levels of persistent organic pollutants in an elderly population.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Dioxin exposure has experimentally been associated with changes in DNA methylation, an epigenetic change that is associated with disease. The present study aims to investigate if serum levels of dioxin and other persistent environmental pollutants are related to global DNA methylation in a human sample. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (all aged 70), global DNA methylation was measured by the Luminometric Methylation Assay in 524 subjects. Twenty-three different POPs, including 16 PCBs, five pesticides, one dioxin (OCDD) and one brominated flame retardant (BDE47) were analysed by HRGC/HRMS. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-receptor were analysed by mini-sequencing. High levels of toxic equivalency (TEQ) for PCBs and dioxin were associated with DNA hypermethylation (p=0.030). This was mainly attributed to coplanar non-ortho PCBs. While no significant associations were found between DNA methylation and SNPs in the Ah-receptor, an interaction was found between the SNP rs2237297 and TEQ so that TEQ was associated with hypermethylation (p=0.009) only in subjects with one G-allele (n=103). Also high levels of the PCB126 congener, the OCDD, and the pesticide metabolite p,p-DDE were related to DNA hypermethylation (p=0.01, 0.03 and 0.003, respectively). In conclusion, in a sample of elderly subjects, high TEQ including PCBs and the dioxin OCDD and high serum levels of PCB126, OCDD, and p,p-DDE were related to global DNA hypermethylation in a cross-sectional analysis.
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A rapid method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in human serum using 96-well plates and column-switching ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To facilitate high-throughput analysis suitable for large epidemiological studies we developed an automated column-switching ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs; C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12, and C13), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, and C10), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and five groups of structural perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers in human serum or plasma. The analytical procedure involves rapid protein precipitation using 96-well plates followed by an automated sample clean-up using an on-line trap column removing many potentially interfering sample components while through the mobile phase gradient the target analytes are eluted onto the analytical column for further separation and subsequent mass detection. The method was linear (R(2)<0.995) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 60ngmL(-1) with method detection limits ranging between 0.01 and 0.17ngmL(-1) depending on the analyte. The developed method was precise, with repeatability (n=7) and reproducibility (n=103) coefficients of variation between 2% and 20% for most compounds including PFOS (2% and 8%) and its structural isomers (2-6% and 4-8%). The method was in conformity with a standard reference material. The column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural PFOS isomers in human plasma from an epidemiological study.
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Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants in relation to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by abdominal MRI.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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We and others have shown relationships between circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and different measures of obesity in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Since viscerally located fat seems to be the most harmful type, we investigated whether plasma POP levels were more closely related to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) than to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT).
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Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are associated with left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in the elderly.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Major risk factors for congestive heart failure (CHF) are myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, smoking, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain part of the risk of CHF, we investigated whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) might also play a role.
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An environmental wide association study (EWAS) approach to the metabolic syndrome.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Environmental contaminants have previously been linked to components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). However, exposure to environmental contaminants is in part determined by various lifestyle factors.
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Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma predict development of type 2 diabetes in the elderly: the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lipophilic chemicals that accumulate mainly in adipose tissue, have recently been linked to type 2 diabetes. However, evidence from prospective studies is sparse. This study was performed to evaluate prospective associations of type 2 diabetes with selected POPs among the elderly.
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Gender differences for associations between circulating levels of metals and coronary risk in the elderly.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Several studies have pointed out associations between various metals and cardiovascular disease. Since cardiovascular disease prevalence is different between males and females, we investigated whether circulating levels of metals related differently to coronary risk in men and women. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, coronary risk was assessed by the Framingham Risk Score together with circulating blood levels of 11 different trace and heavy metals in 1016 subjects aged 70 years. Circulating levels of cadmium, copper and manganese were significantly higher in women than in men, while mercury, zinc and lead were significantly lower following adjustment for kidney function (measured by glomerular filtration rate, GFR). No significant differences between women and men were seen regarding levels of aluminium, molybdenum, cobalt, chromium and nickel. When all 11 metals were entered as independent variables together with GFR in multiple models in the Framingham Risk Score as the dependent variable, cadmium was the major determinant of the Framingham Risk Score in women (p<0.0001, followed by zinc p=0.03), while copper was the major determinant of the Framingham Risk Score in men (p<0.0001, followed by inverse relations vs. aluminium p=0.01 and nickel p=0.01). There are gender differences in levels of metals and also regarding the association between metals and coronary risk, with cadmium levels being most important for women and copper levels for men in this elderly population.
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Associations of persistent organic pollutants with abdominal obesity in the elderly: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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In animal experiments, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have induced visceral obesity. To address this possibility in humans, we evaluated associations between POPs and abdominal obesity both cross-sectionally and prospectively.
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Circulating levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates in an elderly population in Sweden, based on the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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The plastic manufacture compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, are ubiquitous and have therefore been detected in virtually all types of analyzed human samples. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate concentrations of serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites in seniors residing in the city of Uppsala, Sweden (2) to evaluate gender differences in relation to serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites in the subjects. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), encompassing 1016 subjects, all aged 70, serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites were measured by Isotope Dilution-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. BPA and four out of ten phthalate metabolites, namely, Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), Monomethyl phthalate (MMP), Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), were detectable in almost all subjects. Of the remaining phthalate metabolites, Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MeHHP), and Mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were seen in some 300-700 of the subjects, whereas Monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) were found in only a few and Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) was not detected in any subject. Neither the circulation levels of BPA nor those of phthalate metabolites differ between the genders in this elderly population of residents in Uppsala, Sweden.
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A rapid method for screening of the Stockholm Convention POPs in small amounts of human plasma using SPE and HRGC/HRMS.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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A rapid analytical screening method allowing simultaneous analysis of 23 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human plasma was developed. Sample preparation based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with additional clean-up using small multilayer silica gel columns. SPE was performed using a custom made polystyrene-divinylbenzene sorbent for the extraction of chlorinated and brominated POPs. Special efforts to reduce sample volume and improve speed and efficiency of the analytical procedure were made. Determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE #47) in 0.5 mL human plasma was performed by using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Recovery of POPs ranged between 46% and 110%, and reproducibility was below 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all target compounds, except for trans-nonachlor and OCDD, which were present only at low levels. Limits of detection (LOD) were for the PCBs between 0.8 and 117.7 pg mL(-1) plasma and for the OC pesticides between 5.9 and 89.1 pg mL(-1) plasma. The LOD for OCDD and BDE #47 were 1.4 pg mL(-1) plasma, and 9.2 pg mL(-1) plasma, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to 1016 human plasma samples from an epidemiological study on cardiovascular disease.
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Circulating levels of metals are related to carotid atherosclerosis in elderly.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate if blood levels of trace and/or heavy metals are related to atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study in elderly. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects, all aged 70), the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was recorded by ultrasound. The numbers of carotid arteries with plaques (0, 1 or 2) were recorded. Also the thickness (IMT) and gray scale (IM-GSM) of the intima-media complex were measured together with plaque echogenicity. Eleven heavy metals and trace elements were analyzed in whole blood, using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. Nickel levels were related to the number of carotid arteries with plaques in an inverted U-shaped manner after multiple adjustment for gender, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, smoking, antihypertensive treatment and statin use (p=0.026). IM-GSM and plaque echogenicity were both inversely related to chromium in a linear fashion, and to aluminum in an inverted U-shaped manner (both p<0.0001 for IM-GSM). The relationships between metals and IMT were modest. Circulating levels of some metals, like nickel, aluminum and chromium, were related to atherosclerotic plaques or the echogenicity of the IM-GSM and overt plaques independently of cardiovascular risk factors, including lipids.
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Circulating levels of bisphenol A and phthalates are related to carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Bisphenol A (BPA) levels have previously been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Since CHD is an atherosclerotic disease, we investigated if circulating levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites are related to atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study.
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Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants associate in divergent ways to fat mass measured by DXA in humans.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Environmental contaminants have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity.
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High dietary intake of retinol leads to bone marrow hypoxia and diaphyseal endosteal mineralization in rats.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Vitamin A (retinol) is the only molecule known to induce spontaneous fractures in laboratory animals and we have identified retinol as a risk factor for fracture in humans. Since subsequent observational studies in humans and old animal data both show that high retinol intake appears to only have small effects on bone mineral density (BMD) we undertook a mechanistic study of how excess retinol reduces bone diameter while leaving BMD essentially unaffected. We fed growing rats high doses of retinol for only 1 week. Bone analysis involved antibody-based methods, histology, pQCT, biomechanics and bone compartment-specific PCR together with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of bone mineral. Excess dietary retinol induced weakening of bones with little apparent effect on BMD. Periosteal osteoclasts increased but unexpectedly endosteal osteoclasts disappeared and there was a reduction of osteoclastic serum markers. There was also a lack of capillary erythrocytes, endothelial cells and serum retinol transport protein in the endosteal/marrow compartment. A further indication of reduced endosteal/marrow blood flow was the increased expression of hypoxia-associated genes. Also, in contrast to the inhibitory effects in vitro, the marrow of retinol-treated rats showed increased expression of osteogenic genes. Finally, we show that hypervitaminotic bones have a higher degree of mineralization, which is in line with biomechanical data of preserved stiffness in spite of thinner bones. Together these novel findings suggest that a rapid primary effect of excess retinol on bone tissue is the impairment of endosteal/marrow blood flow leading to hypoxia and pathological endosteal mineralization.
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Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Both industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants can interfere with bone modeling and remodeling. Recently, detailed toxicological bone studies have been performed following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts most of its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).
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Pregnant ewes exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting pollutants through sewage sludge-fertilized pasture show an anti-estrogenic effect in their trabecular bone.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Pregnant ewes were maintained on pastures fertilized, twice yearly, with either sewage sludge (2.25tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T) or inorganic fertilizer containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen (Control; C), to determine effects on maternal and fetal bone structures, density and mechanical properties of exposure to environmental concentrations of multiple endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and heavy metal pollutants. The ewes were maintained on the respective pastures from the age of about 8months until they were 4-6years of age and they were slaughtered at 110d gestation. Metaphyseal parts of adult ewe femurs exhibited a significantly reduced mean, total cross sectional area (CSA, -4%; p<0.05), lower trabecular bone mineral content (BMC, mg/mm; -18%; p<0.05), trabecular bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm(3), -8.0%; p<0.05) and trabecular CSA, mm(2), -11.1%; p<0.05) in T compared with C animals. Femurs of T ewes were stronger than those of C ewes but this may reflect greater body weights. At the mid-diaphyseal part of the fetal bones, there was a reduction in endosteal circumference (-6.7%, p<0.05) and marrow cavity area (-13.8%, p<0.05) in the female T fetuses compared with female C fetuses. In the male fetuses the mid-diaphyseal part total bone mineral content was higher (+3.0%, p<0.05) in T than in C animals. No treatment difference in biomechanical bending was detected in the fetuses. It is concluded that ewes grazing pasture fertilized with sewage sludge exhibited an anti-estrogenic effect on their trabecular bone in the form of reduced mineral content and density, despite increased body weight. It is suggested that human exposure to low levels of multiple EDCs may have implications for bone structure and human health.
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Transgenic mice with a constitutively active aryl hydrocarbon receptor display a gender-specific bone phenotype.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Bone tissue homeostasis is governed by hormones, growth factors, and cytokines and can be distorted by environmental pollutants, such as ligands to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). A transgenic mouse expressing a constitutively active aryl hydrocarbon receptor (CA-AhR), mimicking continuous low-dose exposure to AhR ligands, was used to explore potential long-term effects of these ligands on bone. The density, content, and dimensions of cortical and trabecular bone, as well as physical properties, were significantly altered in female transgenic mice, while almost no alterations were detected in males. Osteoclast volume density and serum level of C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), reflecting osteoclast activity, were both increased by approximately 60% in female CA-AhR mice, while serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, reflecting osteoclast numbers, was unchanged. Subsequently, the resorption index (CTX/TRAP 5b) was increased by 90%, indicating increased osteoclast activity in female CA-AhR. Moreover, the protein level of the osteoclast collagenase cathepsin K was increased by 40% in bone extracts of female CA-AhR mice. The messenger RNA expression of several osteoclast- and osteoblast-associated genes was altered in female transgenic mice but not in males. Notably, early markers for osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation were normal, while the expression of functional markers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were reduced. In conclusion, a low continuous activation of the AhR leads to a skeletal phenotype with increased bone resorption associated with more ductile bones in females but not in males. The results indicate the presence of an interaction between the AhR and a female-specific mechanism implicated in inhibition of osteoclast development and function. Female bone tissue appears more susceptible to dioxins and other AhR ligands than male bone tissue.
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Effects on bone tissue in ewes (Ovies aries) and their foetuses exposed to PCB 118 and PCB 153.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low levels of mono-ortho PCB 118 and di-ortho PCB 153, affect bone composition and strength in ewes (Dala breed) and their foetuses following exposure starting at conception and ending a week before expected delivery. In male foetuses, trabecular bone mineral content at the metaphysis was almost 30% lower in the PCB 118 (49 microg/kg body wt/day) group compared to the control group (corn oil) (ANCOVA, P<0.05). In female foetuses of the PCB 153 (98 microg/kg body wt/day) group trabecular cross-sectional area at the metaphysis was 19% smaller than in the controls (ANCOVA, P<0.05). At the diaphysis a smaller marrow cavity area (up to 24% reduction) was observed in female and male foetuses exposed to PCB 153 compared with controls (ANCOVA, P<0.05). There were also significant differences at the mid diaphyseal measure point between the PCB 153 and the control group females (ANCOVA, P<0.05). Cortical and total bone mineral density, cortical thickness were significantly higher, endosteal circumference shorter and marrow cavity significantly smaller in the PCB 153 group (ANCOVA, P<0.05). In conclusion there were gender dependent effects on bone tissue and cortical bone was more affected than trabecular bone.
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Exposure to pastures fertilised with sewage sludge disrupts bone tissue homeostasis in sheep.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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The femurs of male and female sheep (Ovis aries), aged 18 months, bred on pastures fertilized twice annually with sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T)) or on pastures treated with inorganic fertilizer (Control; C) were studied, using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) and the three-point bending test. Males were maintained on the respective treatments from conception to weaning and then maintained on control pastures while the females were maintained on the respective treatments until slaughter. T rams exhibited increased total bone mineral density (BMD) at the metaphyseal part of femur (+10.5%, p<0.01) compared with C rams but had a reduced total cross sectional area (CSA, -11.5%, p<0.001), trabecular CSA (-17.1%, p<0.01) and periosteal circumference (-5.7%, p<0.001). In the mid-diaphyseal part, T rams had an increased total BMD (+13.8%, p<0.0001) and stiffness (+6.4%, p<0.01) but reduced total CSA (-12.1%, p<0.0001) and marrow cavity (-25.8%, p<0.0001), relative to C rams. In ewes although pQCT analysis of neither the metaphyseal nor the mid-diaphyseal part of the female femur bones showed any significant differences with treatment, the biomechanical method revealed a reduction in load at failure (-17.3%, p<0.01) and stiffness (-10.7%, p<0.05) amongst T ewes. It is concluded that exposure to pollutants present in sewage sludge can perturb bone tissue homeostasis in sheep, but particularly in males.
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Short-term exposure to dioxin impairs bone tissue in male rats.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2009
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Chronic and sub-chronic studies in rats have previously shown that dioxin-like compounds impair the bone tissue homeostasis. In the present study, tibiae and serum were analyzed to study possible effects of short term dioxin exposure on rats. Two month old (ca. 200g) male rats were injected with 50microg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) kg(-1) bw and tibiae were excised 5d following the exposure. Bone composition, dimensions and strength were analyzed by pQCT and three-point bending test on tibiae. In addition, detailed bone composition was analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Analysis of the serum bone biomarkers procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and carboxyterminal cross linking teleopeptide (CTX) were also performed. pQCT-results showed alterations in the metaphysis, with a significant decrease in trabecular bone cross-sectional area (-19%, p<0.05) and a significant increase in total bone mineral density (+7%, p<0.05) in TCDD-exposed rats. Analyses of the bones by ICP-OES and FTIR showed that bones from exposed rats had a higher relative proportion of crystalline phosphate (+13% for a1080 and +11% for a1113, p<0.05) and lower acid phosphate content (-22% for a1145, p<0.05), resembling the composition of more mature bones. Serum analysis showed that the bone formation marker PINP was decreased (-37%, p<0.05) and that the bone resorption marker CTX was increased (+14%, p<0.05) indicating a net loss of bone tissue. In conclusion, 5d of exposure to TCDD was sufficient to negatively affect bone tissue in male rats.
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Effects of 3,3,4,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on vertebral bone mineralization and on thyroxin and vitamin D levels in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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The aim of the present study is to use Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, to make a more detailed description of toxic effects of 3,3,4,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on bone tissue at the microstructural and at the molecular level as a result of an altered bone metabolism. We have analysed potential changes on vitamin D and thyroxin serum levels since these hormones represent endocrine endpoints that are critical for bone growth and development. For this purpose Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed (n=10) to PCB126 (i.p.) for 3 months (total dose, 384microg/kg bodyweight), while control rats (n=10) were injected with corn oil (vehicle). Results from FTIR showed that vertebrae from the exposed rats had an overall lower degree of mineralization (-8.5%; p<0.05) compared with the controls. In addition, results from peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) analyses showed significant increases in the trabecular bone mineral density (+12%; p<0.05) in the exposed group compared with the controls. The TEM analyses also showed an alteration in the crystallinity properties of vertebral bone mineral with a significant decrease in the size and crystallinity of apatite crystal forming the bone tissue in the exposed vs. non-exposed rats. Serum analysis revealed lower levels of thyroid hormones, FT4 (-42%; p<0.005), TT4 (-26%; p<0.005), and vitamin D (-21%; p<0.005) in exposed group compared to control animals. The complementary techniques (TEM and FTIR) used in this study have revealed insights into possible bone mineralization alteration due to PCB126 exposure. The lowering of both the thyroxin and vitamin D serum levels might be an underlying explanation for the observed effects on bone mineralization.
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Bisphenol A exposure increases liver fat in juvenile fructose-fed Fischer 344 rats.
Toxicology
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Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in rodents. To evaluate if exposure also later in life could induce obesity or liver damage we investigated these hypothesises in an experimental rat model.
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Elevated circulating levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
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Identified risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain a part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated if trace and heavy metals might also play a role in LVH. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography together with eleven different trace and heavy metals in 993 subjects aged 70 years. Only copper levels were significantly related to LVMI following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001). However, both copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were related to RWT following adjustment (p<0.0001). When divided into four geometric groups, both Cu and Ni were elevated in subjects with concentric remodelling and concentric LVH, but not in those with eccentric hypertrophy, when compared to subjects with a normal left ventricle. No relationships were found for zinc, aluminium, manganese, molybdenum, mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt or chromium. Elevated levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with LVH, especially of the concentric type, following adjustment for known risk factors for LVH.
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Background exposure to persistent organic pollutants predicts stroke in the elderly.
Environ Int
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Background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate mainly in adipose tissue, has recently emerged as a new risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This prospective study was performed to evaluate if plasma concentrations of selected POPs predict incident stroke among the elderly. Twenty-one POPs (including 16 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether (BDE), and 1 dioxin) were measured in plasma collected at baseline in 898 participants aged 70 years of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Stroke diagnosis was validated by hospital records. During the five year follow-up, 35 subjects developed hospital-treated stroke. After adjusting for known stroke risk factors, most PCBs with 4, 5, or 6 chlorine atoms, p,p-DDE, trans-nonachlor, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin significantly predicted the risk of stroke. Across quartiles of summary measures of PCBs and OC pesticides, the adjusted ORs were 1.0, 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.2-2.5), 1.2 (0.4-3.4), and 2.1 (0.7-6.2) for PCBs and 1.0, 1.2 (0.3-4.2), 2.3 (0.7-6.9), and 3.0 (1.0-9.4) for OC pesticides (P for trend=0.11 and 0.03, respectively). The adjusted ORs among participants ? 90th percentile of the summary measures were 5.5 (1.7-18.1) for PCBs and 4.0 (1.1-14.6) for OC pesticides; corresponding ORs for those ? 95th percentile were 7.8 (2.1-29.6) and 9.5 (2.3-38.9). Background exposure to POPs may play an important role in development or progression of stroke in the elderly.
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An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
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We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (?6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (?6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.
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Circulating levels of phthalate metabolites are associated with prevalent diabetes in the elderly.
Diabetes Care
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Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial high-volume chemicals known as ligands to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Because PPAR-? agonists modulate insulin sensitivity and are used to treat type 2 diabetes, we investigated whether circulating levels of phthalate metabolites are related to prevalent type 2 diabetes.
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Serum concentrations of phthalate metabolites are related to abdominal fat distribution two years later in elderly women.
Environ Health
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Phthalates, commonly used to soften plastic goods, are known PPAR-agonists affecting lipid metabolism and adipocytes in the experimental setting. We evaluated if circulating concentrations of phthalates were related to different indices of obesity using data from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Data from both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used.
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Small amphipathic molecules modulate secondary structure and amyloid fibril-forming kinetics of Alzheimer disease peptide A?(1-42).
J. Biol. Chem.
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Amyloid fibril formation is associated with a number of debilitating systemic and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the most prominent is Alzheimer disease in which aggregation and deposition of the A? peptide occur. A? is widely considered to mediate the extensive neuronal loss observed in this disease through the formation of soluble oligomeric species, with the final fibrillar end product of the aggregation process being relatively inert. Factors that influence the aggregation of these amyloid-forming proteins are therefore very important. We have screened a library of 96 amphipathic molecules for effects on A?(1-42) aggregation and self-association. We find, using thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopy assays, that 30 of the molecules inhibit the aggregation process, whereas 36 activate fibril formation. Several activators and inhibitors were subjected to further analysis using analytical ultracentrifugation and circular dichroism. Activators typically display a 1:10 peptide:detergent stoichiometry for maximal activation, whereas the inhibitors are effective at a 1:1 stoichiometry. Analytical ultracentrifugation and circular dichroism experiments show that activators promote a mixture of unfolded and ?-sheet structures and rapidly form large aggregates, whereas inhibitors induce ?-helical structures that form stable dimeric/trimeric oligomers. The results suggest that A?(1-42) contains at least one small molecule binding site, which modulates the secondary structure and aggregation processes. Further studies of the binding of these compounds to A? may provide insight for developing therapeutic strategies aimed at stabilizing A? in a favorable conformation.
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Associations between circulating levels of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites and coronary risk in the elderly.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
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Studies have pointed out associations between various chemicals with estrogenic activity and cardiovascular disease. Being ubiquitous, the plastic additive substances bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates have been detected in almost all types of analyzed human samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether circulating levels of BPA and/or four selected phthalate metabolites are associated to coronary risk in an elderly population. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, coronary risk was assessed by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) together with circulating serum levels of BPA and the four phthalate metabolites monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in 1016 subjects aged 70 years. BPA, MEHP, and MMP were associated to LDL-cholesterol and MEHP to HDL-cholesterol, MEP to diastolic blood pressure and MiBP to fasting glucose when the compounds were investigated one by one. After Bonferronni correction, only the relations for MMP to LDL-cholesterol (p<0.0001), MEP to diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0002), and MiBP to fasting glucose (p<0.0001) remained significant. MMP was associated to the FRS (p=0.02), but after Bonferronni correction, this association was not significant. In conclusion, associations were found between MMP and LDL-cholesterol, MEP and diastolic blood pressure, and MiBP and fasting glucose. We did not observe any strong associations between BPA nor any of the four phthalate metabolites and Framingham Risk Score in this elderly population.
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Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among elderly men and women from Sweden: results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).
Environ Int
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Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are a huge group of chemicals that have been linked to various adverse health effects in humans. Large epidemiological studies investigating gender differences in levels of POPs in the elderly are limited and the results from these are not always consistent. The present study was undertaken to examine the background levels of a broad range of POPs in human plasma samples among elderly men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender. Levels of 23 POPs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (50.2% women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Measurements were performed using high resolution gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and the POPs studied were 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, and one brominated flame retardant. The concentrations of the selected POPs were found similar, or comparable, to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations from Sweden and Europe. Differences in levels of POPs between men and women were assessed by using Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Significant (p<0.0001) gender differences in levels of specific POPs were observed and a number of POP concentrations were found to differ between men and women. More specifically, levels of HCB, OCDD, and PCB congeners #74, #105, and #118 were found to be higher in women, while the rest of the majority of POPs were higher in men.
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Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly.
Environ. Health Perspect.
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Increased circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with myocardial infarction. Because myocardial infarction is an atherosclerotic disease, we investigated, in a cross-sectional study, whether POP levels are related to atherosclerosis.
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