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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
From the radiologic pathology archives: gastrointestinal lymphoma: radiologic and pathologic findings.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have a common lymphoid origin but variable pathologic and imaging features. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (ENMZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are the most common. ENMZL usually occurs in the stomach, where it is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, and is typically a superficial spreading lesion that causes mucosal nodularity or ulceration and mild wall thickening. DLBCL may arise de novo or from transformation of ENMZL or other low-grade lymphomas. This form of lymphoma produces extensive wall thickening or a bulky mass, but obstruction is uncommon. Mantle cell lymphoma is the classic cause of lymphomatous polyposis, but multiple polyps or nodules can also be seen with ENMZL and follicular lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma is usually characterized by an ileocecal mass or wall thickening in the terminal ileum in young children, often in the setting of widespread disease. Primary GI Hodgkin lymphoma, which is rare, may be manifested by a variety of findings, though stenosis is more common than with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is frequently associated with celiac disease and is characterized by wall thickening, ulceration, and even perforation of the jejunum. Accurate radiologic diagnosis of GI lymphoma requires a multifactorial approach based on the clinical findings, site of involvement, imaging findings, and associated complications. ©RSNA, 2014.
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Linking Chemical Parameters to Sensory Panel Results through Neural Networks To Distinguish Olive Oil Quality.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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A wide variety of olive oil samples from different origins and olive types has been chemically analyzed as well as evaluated by trained sensory panelists. Six chemical parameters have been obtained for each sample (free fatty acids, peroxide value, two UV absorption parameters (K232 and K268), 1,2-diacylglycerol content, and pyropheophytins) and linked to their quality using an artificial neural network-based model. Herein, the nonlinear algorithms were used to distinguish olive oil quality. Two different methods were defined to assess the statistical performance of the model (a K-fold cross-validation (K = 6) and three different blind tests), and both of them showed around a 95-96% correct classification rate. These results support that a relationship between the chemical and the sensory analyses exists and that the mathematical tool can potentially be implemented into a device that could be employed for various useful applications.
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System to measure the range of motion of the joints of the human hand .
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Today, the manual goniometer is a common tool used in clinical practice to measure the range of motion (ROM) of joints in the hand. This device is not only tedious and highly timeconsuming to use, but its accuracy mainly depends on the experience of the examiner. The majority of electronic goniometers currently available on the market exhibit these same limitations. This document presents the physical design and attributes of a system known as the MULTIELGON, which can be used automatically to obtain multiple measurements of the angles of the hand's small finger joints simultaneously using a novel angle-to-voltage transducer. The reproducibility and repeatability of the transducer were evaluated; low dispersion and high homogeneity were demonstrated. Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare the accuracy of the novel transducer (A) and traditional manual goniometer (B); the correlation coefficient was 0.9995. The Bland-Altman analysis determined the limits of agreement (1.4° to 1.7°) with a 95% confidence interval for any variation between the instruments (A and B), which gave readings differing by less than 3.1°. Differences were sufficiently small to propose that the manual goniometer can be replaced by the transducer; moreover A is best to evaluate the hand's small finger joints than B. The system is comprised of the device, the interface and the MULTIELGON GUI. The device consists of 14 angle-to-voltage transducers that can be attached to joints in the hand using a PVC clamp and an elastic glove. The MULTIELGON can be utilized to evaluate patients, as well as record and manage ROM data for surgical and rehabilitation decisions.
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Role of centrality for the identification of influential spreaders in complex networks.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The identification of the most influential spreaders in networks is important to control and understand the spreading capabilities of the system as well as to ensure an efficient information diffusion such as in rumorlike dynamics. Recent works have suggested that the identification of influential spreaders is not independent of the dynamics being studied. For instance, the key disease spreaders might not necessarily be so important when it comes to analyzing social contagion or rumor propagation. Additionally, it has been shown that different metrics (degree, coreness, etc.) might identify different influential nodes even for the same dynamical processes with diverse degrees of accuracy. In this paper, we investigate how nine centrality measures correlate with the disease and rumor spreading capabilities of the nodes in different synthetic and real-world (both spatial and nonspatial) networks. We also propose a generalization of the random walk accessibility as a new centrality measure and derive analytical expressions for the latter measure for simple network configurations. Our results show that for nonspatial networks, the k-core and degree centralities are the most correlated to epidemic spreading, whereas the average neighborhood degree, the closeness centrality, and accessibility are the most related to rumor dynamics. On the contrary, for spatial networks, the accessibility measure outperforms the rest of the centrality metrics in almost all cases regardless of the kind of dynamics considered. Therefore, an important consequence of our analysis is that previous studies performed in synthetic random networks cannot be generalized to the case of spatial networks.
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Exploring new roles for the rpoS gene in the survival and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in economically important plants of the family Rosaceae. This bacterial pathogen spends part of its life cycle coping with starvation and other fluctuating environmental conditions. In many Gram-negative bacteria, starvation and other stress responses are regulated by the sigma factor RpoS. We obtained an E. amylovora rpoS mutant to explore the role of this gene in starvation responses and its potential implication in other processes not yet studied in this pathogen. Results showed that E. amylovora needs rpoS to develop normal starvation survival and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) responses. Furthermore, this gene contributed to stationary phase cross-protection against oxidative, osmotic, and acid stresses and was essential for cross-protection against heat shock, but nonessential against acid shock. RpoS also mediated regulation of motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and virulence in immature loquats, but not in pear plantlets, and contributed to E. amylovora survival in nonhost tissues during incompatible interactions. Our results reveal some unique roles for the rpoS gene in E. amylovora and provide new knowledge on the regulation of different processes related to its ecology, including survival in different environments and virulence in immature fruits.
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In the (sub)tropics allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma classification of allergic rhinitis is more useful than perennial-seasonal classification.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Two different allergic rhinitis (AR) symptom phenotype classifications exist. Treatment recommendations are based on intermittent-persistent (INT-PER) cataloging, but clinical trials still use the former seasonal AR-perennial AR (SAR-PAR) classification. This study was designed to describe how INT-PER, mild-moderate/severe and SAR-PAR of patients seen by allergists are distributed over the different climate zones in a (sub)tropical country and how these phenotypes relate to allergen sensitization patterns.
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Determination of Cystatin C in human serum by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using mass overlapping peptides.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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We propose a peptide-based isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach for Cystatin C determination in human serum samples, a clinical marker for renal status for which backup by a mass spectrometry based primary method has been missing so far. In contrast to common protocols, the isotope labelled version of the proteotypic signature peptide is designed such as keeping the isotopic difference as little as possible with respect to the peptide released from the protein. Peptides labelled in two (13)C atoms are added to the serum samples just before proteolysis. After two steps of chromatographic purification the sample is measured by selected reaction monitoring using a LC-MS/MS. Resolution of the first quadrupole is reduced to transmit the whole parent ion cluster to the collision cell for monitoring accurate isotopic distributions of the molecular fragments. Molar fractions of labelled and natural abundance peptides are directly obtained from the experimental mass spectra of the in-cell fragment ions. Thus, the natural abundance protein concentration is obtained from the fragment-ion spectrum of the sample without resorting to extra calibration runs. Applicability of the approach is demonstrated by the measurement of the serum concentration of Cystatin C in Reference Material ERM R-DA471/IFCC and real samples.
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Confronting passive and active sensors with non-Gaussian statistics.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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This paper has two motivations: firstly, to compare the Digital Surface Models (DSM) derived by passive (digital camera) and by active (terrestrial laser scanner) remote sensing systems when applied to specific architectural objects, and secondly, to test how well the Gaussian classic statistics, with its Least Squares principle, adapts to data sets where asymmetrical gross errors may appear and whether this approach should be changed for a non-parametric one. The field of geomatic technology automation is immersed in a high demanding competition in which any innovation by one of the contenders immediately challenges the opponents to propose a better improvement. Nowadays, we seem to be witnessing an improvement of terrestrial photogrammetry and its integration with computer vision to overcome the performance limitations of laser scanning methods. Through this contribution some of the issues of this "technological race" are examined from the point of view of photogrammetry. A new software is introduced and an experimental test is designed, performed and assessed to try to cast some light on this thrilling match. For the case considered in this study, the results show good agreement between both sensors, despite considerable asymmetry. This asymmetry suggests that the standard Normal parameters are not adequate to assess this type of data, especially when accuracy is of importance. In this case, standard deviation fails to provide a good estimation of the results, whereas the results obtained for the Median Absolute Deviation and for the Biweight Midvariance are more appropriate measures.
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Early experience with the AMPLATZER vascular plug IV for the occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The recent generation of AMPLATZER Vascular Plug (AVP; ie, the AVP IV) was used for the occlusion of eight pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in five patients. A treatment was considered successful when there was a reduction or disappearance of the aneurysmal sac. At a mean follow-up of 20.1 months, no recanalization of PAVMs was observed on multidetector computed tomographic angiography. This shows the AVP IV to be safe and effective as an embolic device to occlude PAVMs.
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The prognostic importance of weight loss in coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To assess the prognostic impact of weight loss on clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Imaging Crohn disease: MR enterography.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Magnetic resonance enterography in Crohn disease management has been rapidly growing in importance during recent years. Being familiar to this technique is essential for radiologists and also, to some extent, for gastroenterologists. Our aim is to study and describe the imaging findings in magnetic resonance enterography in Crohn disease to develop a comprehensive and useful review article and imaging atlas.
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Eigencorneas: application of principal component analysis to corneal topography.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To determine the minimum number of orthonormal basis functions needed to accurately represent the great majority of corneal topographies from a normal population.
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Nitric oxide from mononuclear cells may be involved in platelet responsiveness to aspirin.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain why some platelets have a reduced response to aspirin (ASA). Among them, it was reported an increased circulating level of vitamin-D-binding protein (DBP). In addition, nitric oxide (NO) released from mononuclear cells was involved in the antiplatelet effects of ASA. The aim was to analyse the relationship between platelet response to ASA and both NO generation and vitamin-D-binding protein content in mononuclear cells.
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Determination of the enrichment of isotopically labelled molecules by mass spectrometry.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A general method for the determination of the enrichment of isotopically labelled molecules by mass spectrometry (MS) is described. In contrast to other published procedures, the method described here takes into account and corrects for measurement errors such as the contribution at M?-?1 due to loss of hydrogen or lack of spectral resolution and provides an uncertainty value for the determined enrichment. The general procedure requires the following steps: (1) evaluation of linearity in the mass spectrometer by injecting the natural abundance compound at different concentration levels, (2) determination of the purity of the mass cluster using the natural abundance analogue, (3) calculation of the theoretical isotope composition of the labelled compound using different tentative isotope enrichments, (4) calculation of 'convoluted' isotope distributions for the labelled compound taking into account the purity of the mass cluster determined with the natural abundance analogue and (5) comparison of the isotope distributions measured for the labelled compound with those calculated for different isotope enrichments using linear regression. The method was applied to a series of commercially available (13)C- and (2)H-labelled compounds and to a suite of singly (13)C-labelled ?2-agonist prepared in-house both by gas chromatography (GC)-MS, GC-tandem MS (MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-MS/MS with satisfactory results. It was observed that the main uncertainty source for the isotope enrichment was the uncertainty in the purity of the measured cluster as determined with the natural abundance compound.
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Repulsive Casimir effect with Chern insulators.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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We theoretically predict that the Casimir force in vacuum between two Chern insulator plates can be repulsive (attractive) at long distances whenever the sign of the Chern numbers characterizing the two plates are opposite (equal). A unique feature of this system is that the sign of the force can be tuned simply by turning over one of the plates or alternatively by electrostatic doping. We calculate and take into account the full optical response of the plates and argue that such repulsion is a general phenomena for these systems as it relies on the quantized zero frequency Hall conductivity. We show that achieving repulsion is possible with thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, that were recently discovered to be Chern insulators with quantized Hall conductivity.
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Extrapituitary growth hormone synthesis in humans.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The gene for pituitary growth hormone (GH-N) in man belongs to a multigene locus located at chromosome 17q24.2, which also harbors four additional genes: one for a placental variant of GH-N (named GH-V) and three of chorionic somatommamotropin (CSH) type. Their tandem arrangement from 5' to 3' is: GH-N, CSH-L, CSH-1, GH-V and CSH-2. GH-N is mainly expressed in the pituitary from birth throughout life, while the remaining genes are expressed in the placenta of pregnant women. Pituitary somatotrophs secrete GH into the bloodstream to act at receptor sites in most tissues. GH participates in the regulation of several complex physiological processes, including growth and metabolism. Recently, the presence of GH has been described in several extrapituitary sites, such as neural, ocular, reproductive, immune, cardiovascular, muscular, dermal and skeletal tissues. It has been proposed that GH has an autocrine action in these tissues. While the body of evidence for its presence is constantly growing, research of its possible function and implications lag behind. In this review we highlight the evidence of extrapituitary synthesis of GH in humans.
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Fetal hypoxia increases vulnerability of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats: role of glucocorticoid receptors.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Gestational hypoxia is a common stress to the fetal development and increases the risk of neonatal morbidity. The present study tested the hypothesis that fetal hypoxia results in heightened brain vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in neonatal rats via down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the developing brain. Time-dated pregnant rats were exposed to hypoxia (10.5% O2) from days 15 to 21 of gestation. Brain HI injury was determined in day 10 pups. Maternal hypoxia resulted in asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction in the fetus. The brain HI injury was significantly increased in maternal hypoxia-treated pups as compared with the normoxia control in both males and females. Activation of brain GR by dexamethasone injection into the right lateral ventricle produced a concentration-dependent reduction of HI-induced brain injury in control pups. Maternal hypoxia significantly decreased GR mRNA and protein abundance in the fetal brain and neonatal hippocampus and abolished the dexamethasone-mediated neuroprotective effect in pup brains. This decreased GR expression was resulted from increased DNA methylation, decreased binding of transcription factors Egr-1 and Sp1 to GR gene exon 17 and 111 promoters, and reduced expression of GR exon 17 and 111 mRNA variants. The results demonstrate that gestational hypoxia causes epigenetic repression of GR gene expression in the developing brain resulting in the heightened brain vulnerability to HI injury in neonatal rats.
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Development of an isotope dilution GC-MS procedure for the routine determination of creatinine in complex serum samples.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The accurate determination of creatinine in serum is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. The determination of serum creatinine in clinical laboratories is routinely carried out by the Jaffe method or by enzymatic methods that may suffer from interferences. So, the development of reliable, fast and interference-free routine methods for complex serum samples is required. A fast method using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed using minimally (13)C labeled creatinine analogs, multiple linear regression and rapid derivatization of creatinine with acetylacetone in 2 min by using focused microwave technology. The proposed method was validated with the analyses of two Certified Reference Materials (ERM-DA252a and ERM-DA253a) and compared with the Jaffe and enzymatic methods when analyzing real serum samples containing variable levels of bilirubin The proposed method is capable of providing accurate serum creatinine concentrations in less than 45 min from sample arrival to full data treatment and can be an alternative routine procedure for creatinine determinations in complex serum samples.
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Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France).
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (<0.01-0.4% day(-1)) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3-55.3% day(-1)), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3-43.5% day(-1)) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0-3.7 g (Hg) d(-1), in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d(-1)). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8-26.9 g (Hg) d(-1)) may also limit HgT inputs to coastal waters (33-69 g (Hg) d(-1)). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone.
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Mid-infrared plasmonic inductors: enhancing inductance with meandering lines.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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We present a mid-infrared inductor that when applied to an extraordinary transmission hole array produces a strong redshift of the resonant peak accompanied by an unprecedented enlargement of the operation bandwidth. The importance of the result is twofold: from a fundamental viewpoint, the direct applicability of equivalent circuit concepts borrowed from microwaves is demonstrated, in frequencies as high as 17 THz upholding unification of plasmonics and microwave concepts and allowing for a simplification of structure design and analysis; in practical terms, a broadband funnelling of infrared radiation with fractional bandwidth and efficiency as high as 97% and 48%, respectively, is achieved through an area less than one hundredth the squared wavelength, which leads to an impressive accessible strong field localization that may be of great interest in sensing applications.
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An EAACI "European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI)": the methodology.
Clin Transl Allergy
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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At present, there is no European report on clinically relevant systemic reactions due to the regular use of allergen immunotherapy (AIT), administered either subcutaneously or sublingually (SCIT and SLIT, respectively) outside clinical trials. Using an electronic survey and a "harmonised terminology" according to MedDRA, we aimed to prospectively collect systemic adverse reactions due to AIT from real life clinical settings. Under the framework of the EAACI, a team of European specialists in AIT, pharmacovigilance, epidemiology and drugs regulation set up a web-based prospective pilot survey to be conducted in three European countries (France, Germany and Spain). A designated "national coordinator" was responsible for following ethics requirements relative to each country and to select at least 30 doctors per country. Patients were recruited the same day they received their first dose of either SCIT or SLIT. Patient inclusion criteria were: adults and children, with IgE mediated pollen, house dust mite, Alternaria, and/or animal dander respiratory allergies who will initiate AIT. A list of 31 symptoms terms were extracted from the MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) dictionary to harmonize the reporting of all adverse systemic reactions in this survey. The SurveyMonkey® online instrument was used by participant doctors to submit information directly to a blinded central database.
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Immunological cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen: implication of major and minor allergens.
World Allergy Organ J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Grasses and olive trees are the most common sources of allergenic pollen worldwide. Although they share some allergens, there are few studies analyzing the in vitro cross-reactivity between them. The aim was to define the cross-reactivity between Olea europaea and Phleum pratense using well-characterized sera of allergic children from Madrid, Spain.
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Critical role of TLR2 and MyD88 for functional response of macrophages to a group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 from snake venom.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The snake venom MT-III is a group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzyme with functional and structural similarities with mammalian pro-inflammatory sPLA2s of the same group. Previously, we demonstrated that MT-III directly activates the innate inflammatory response of macrophages, including release of inflammatory mediators and formation of lipid droplets (LDs). However, the mechanisms coordinating these processes remain unclear. In the present study, by using TLR2-/- or MyD88-/- or C57BL/6 (WT) male mice, we report that TLR2 and MyD88 signaling have a critical role in MT-III-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. MT-III caused a marked release of PGE2, PGD2, PGJ2, IL-1? and IL-10 and increased the number of LDs in WT macrophages. In MT-III-stimulated TLR2-/- macrophages, formation of LDs and release of eicosanoids and cytokines were abrogated. In MyD88-/- macrophages, MT-III-induced release of PGE2, IL-1? and IL-10 was abrogated, but release of PGD2 and PGJ2 was maintained. In addition, COX-2 protein expression seen in MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages was abolished in both TLR2-/- and MyD88-/- cells, while perilipin 2 expression was abolished only in MyD88-/- cells. We further demonstrated a reduction of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and a release of the TLR2 agonists palmitic and oleic acid from MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages compared with WT control cells, thus suggesting these fatty acids as major messengers for MT-III-induced engagement of TLR2/MyD88 signaling. Collectively, our findings identify for the first time a TLR2 and MyD88-dependent mechanism that underlies group IIA sPLA2-induced inflammatory response in macrophages.
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Comparative proteomic study in serum of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Alterations in the sera proteins between patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG), Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma (PEXG), and healthy controls were identified through a proven approach utilizing equalization of high-abundance serum proteins with ProteoMiner™, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), MALDI-TOF/TOF, and nanoLC-MS-MS. Quantitative immunoassays of the 17 most-differentially-altered proteins identified in this analysis confirmed that they were also over expressed in the intact serum of newly recruited glaucoma patients. Overall, this report identifies a panel of candidates for glaucoma biomarkers and supports their further validation in large populations studies. Additionally, functional pathway analysis of these candidate proteins suggested that they are part of a network linked to regulating immune and inflammatory-related processes. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000198.
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Development of a powered mobile module for the ArmAssist home-based telerehabilitation platform.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The ArmAssist, developed by Tecnalia, is a system for at-home telerehabilitation of post-stroke arm impairments. It consists of a wireless mobile base module, a global position and orientation detection mat, a PC with display monitor, and a tele-rehabilitation software platform. This paper presents the recent development results on the mobile module augmenting its functionality by adding actuation components. Three DC servo motors were employed to drive the mobile module and a position control algorithm based on the kinematic model and velocity mode control was implemented such that the module tracks a path defined in the training software. Pilot tests of the powered mobile module were performed in experiments with different load conditions and two unimpaired subjects. Both test results show that the module is able to follow the predefined path within an acceptable error range for reach movement training. Further study and testing of the system in realistic conditions following stroke will be a future topic of research.
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Improving the match between ability and challenge: Toward a framework for automatic level adaptation in game-based assessment and training.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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It is believed that the quality of arm mobility in planar reach movements can be adequately characterized by measures of planar position and vertical force. For the purpose of impairment assessment, it is further proposed that a complete picture of mobility performance can be represented through the assessment of metrics representative of each of four capacities: 1) Range of motion, 2) Range of force, 3) Control of motion, and 4) Control of force. In this paper, a set of games for mobility assessment is presented and initial plots of motion profiles and several computed metrics are shown for one patient in the performance of range of motion and control of motion assessments. Assessment plots are shown for four of seven training sessions and metrics are computed at each of the seven sessions to show the progression over the course of the 2-week clinical pilot study with the ArmAssist.
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Mechanisms of adverse cardiometabolic consequences of obesity.
Curr Atheroscler Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Obesity is an epidemic that threatens the health of millions of people worldwide and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. There are multiple and complex mechanisms to explain how obesity can cause cardiovascular disease. In recent years, studies have shown some limitations in the way we currently define obesity and assess adiposity. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity and on the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular comorbidities, and provides a brief review of the latest studies focused on normal weight obesity and the obesity paradox.
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From the radiologic pathology archives: esophageal neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Esophageal neoplasms have a wide spectrum of clinical features, pathologic findings, and imaging manifestations. Leiomyomas are the most common benign esophageal neoplasm, typically appearing as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Fibrovascular polyps arise in the cervical esophagus, gradually elongating as they are pulled inferiorly by esophageal peristalsis. Granular cell tumors are generally incidental small intramural masses with an appearance similar to that of leiomyomas. Malignant esophageal neoplasms are a common cause of cancer mortality, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma. Both of these tumors occur in older men, most often appearing as irregular infiltrative lesions at barium examination, with evidence of tumor spread beyond the esophagus at cross-sectional imaging. Adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett esophagus and is much more likely than SCC to involve the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal involvement by lymphoma is usually secondary to tumor spread from the stomach or mediastinum. Spindle cell carcinoma is a biphasic malignancy with carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements that forms a bulky polypoid intraluminal mass. Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that may be hypervascular and is usually associated with metastatic disease at presentation. Understanding the imaging appearances and pathologic bases of esophageal neoplasms is essential for their detection, differential diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning.
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Transpulmonary pressure and gas exchange during decremental PEEP titration in pulmonary ARDS patients.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Selection of the PEEP associated with the best compliance of the respiratory system during decremental PEEP titration can be used for the treatment of patients suffering from ARDS. We describe changes in transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and gas exchange during a decremental PEEP titration maneuver in subjects with pulmonary ARDS.
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Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution.
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Human Cadaveric Specimen Study of the Prostatic Arterial Anatomy: Implications for Arterial Embolization.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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To describe and illustrate the prostatic arterial anatomy from human cadaveric specimens, highlighting implications for prostatic arterial embolization.
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Availability and characteristics of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs in South America.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs decrease morbidity and mortality rates in patients with coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in Latin America. This study was carried out to assess the characteristics and current level of CR program implementation in South America.
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Light regulates motility, attachment and virulence in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pto) is the causal agent of the bacterial speck of tomato, which leads to significant economic losses in this crop. Pto inhabits the tomato phyllosphere, where the pathogen is highly exposed to light, among other environmental factors. Light represents a stressful condition and acts as a source of information associated with different plant defence levels. Here, we analysed the presence of both blue and red light photoreceptors in a group of Pseudomonas. In addition, we studied the effect of white, blue and red light on Pto features related to epiphytic fitness. While white and blue light inhibit motility, bacterial attachment to plant leaves is promoted. Moreover, these phenotypes are altered in a blue-light receptor mutant. These light-controlled changes during the epiphytic stage cause a reduction in virulence, highlighting the relevance of motility during the entry process to the plant apoplast. This study demonstrated the key role of light perception in the Pto phenotype switching and its effect on virulence.
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[Predicting risk of caries in schoolchildren from northwestern Mexico: longitudinal study].
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To analyze the caries risk through the Bratthalls Cariogram (BC) and the frequency of dental caries in a Mexican northwest children population for 12 months period.
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Perceptual basis of evolving Western musical styles.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The brain processes temporal statistics to predict future events and to categorize perceptual objects. These statistics, called expectancies, are found in music perception, and they span a variety of different features and time scales. Specifically, there is evidence that music perception involves strong expectancies regarding the distribution of a melodic interval, namely, the distance between two consecutive notes within the context of another. The recent availability of a large Western music dataset, consisting of the historical record condensed as melodic interval counts, has opened new possibilities for data-driven analysis of musical perception. In this context, we present an analytical approach that, based on cognitive theories of music expectation and machine learning techniques, recovers a set of factors that accurately identifies historical trends and stylistic transitions between the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Post-Romantic periods. We also offer a plausible musicological and cognitive interpretation of these factors, allowing us to propose them as data-driven principles of melodic expectation.
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An automated sample preparation for detection of 72 doping-related substances.
Drug Test Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Automation of sample preparation procedures in a doping control laboratory is of great interest due to the large number of samples that have to be analyzed, especially in large events where a high throughput protocol is required to process samples over 24 h. The automation of such protocols requires specific equipment capable of carrying out the diverse mechanical tasks required for accomplishing these analytical methodologies, which include pipetting, shaking, heating, or crimping. An automated sample preparation procedure for the determination of doping-related substances by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis, including enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-phase extraction and derivatization steps, was developed by using an automated liquid handling system. This paper presents a description of the equipment, together with the validation data for 72 doping-related compounds including extraction efficiency, evaluation of carry-over, interferences, and robustness. Validation was approached as a comparison between the results obtained using the manual protocol and the transferred automated one. The described methodology can be applied for sample preparation in routine anti-doping analysis with high sample throughput and suitable performance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Airway evaluation by indirect laryngoscopy in patients with lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Prevalence of the lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is unknown but it is believed that its presence is associated with the difficult airway. To investigate this, indirect laryngoscopy was performed on patients in the preoperative evaluation and this pathology was diagnosed. The relationship with difficulty of viewing the larynx, intubation and ventilation, under general anaesthesia and using direct laryngoscopy, was then studied.
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Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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An epsilon-near-zero graded-index converging lens with planar faces is proposed and analyzed. Each perfectly-electric conducting (PEC) waveguide comprising the lens operates slightly above its cut-off frequency and has the same length but different cross-sectional dimensions. This allows controlling individually the propagation constant and the normalized characteristic impedance of each waveguide for the desired phase front at the lens output while Fresnel reflection losses are minimized. A complete theoretical analysis based on the waveguide theory and Fermats principle is provided. This is complemented with numerical simulation results of two-dimensional and three-dimensional lenses, made of PEC and aluminum, respectively, and working in the terahertz regime, which show good agreement with the analytical work.
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ERBB4 confers metastatic capacity in Ewing sarcoma.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Metastatic spread is the single-most powerful predictor of poor outcome in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Therefore targeting pathways that drive metastasis has tremendous potential to reduce the burden of disease in ES. We previously showed that activation of the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase suppresses anoikis, or detachment-induced cell death, and induces chemoresistance in ES cell lines in vitro. We now show that ERBB4 is transcriptionally overexpressed in ES cell lines derived from chemoresistant or metastatic ES tumours. ERBB4 activates the PI3K-Akt cascade and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and both pathways contribute to ERBB4-mediated activation of the Rac1 GTPase in vitro and in vivo. ERBB4 augments tumour invasion and metastasis in vivo, and these effects are blocked by ERBB4 knockdown. ERBB4 expression correlates significantly with reduced disease-free survival, and increased expression is observed in metastatic compared to primary patient-matched ES biopsies. Our findings identify a novel ERBB4-PI3K-Akt-FAK-Rac1 pathway associated with aggressive disease in ES. These results predict that therapeutic targeting of ERBB4, alone or in combination with cytotoxic agents, may suppress the metastatic phenotype in ES.
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An MRAS, SHOC2, and SCRIB Complex Coordinates ERK Pathway Activation with Polarity and Tumorigenic Growth.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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SHOC2 is mutated in Noonan syndrome and plays a key role in the activation of the ERK-MAPK pathway, which is upregulated in the majority of human cancers. SHOC2 functions as a PP1-regulatory protein and as an effector of MRAS. Here we show that SHOC2 and MRAS form a complex with SCRIB, a polarity protein with tumor suppressor properties. SCRIB functions as a PP1-regulatory protein and antagonizes SHOC2-mediated RAF dephosphorylation through a mechanism involving competition for PP1 molecules within the same macromolecular complex. SHOC2 function is selectively required for the malignant properties of tumor cells with mutant RAS, and both MRAS and SHOC2 play a key role in polarized migration. We propose that MRAS, through its ability to recruit a complex with paradoxical components, coordinates ERK pathway spatiotemporal dynamics with polarity and that this complex plays a key role during tumorigenic growth.
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Estimation with neural networks of the water content in imidazolium-based ionic liquids using their experimental density and viscosity values.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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A multilayer perceptron neural network (NN) model has been created for the estimation of the water content present in the following ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate. To achieve this goal, their density and viscosity values were used. The experimental values of these physicochemical properties, employed to design the NN model, were measured and registered at 298.15K. They were determined at different relative humidity values ranging from 11.1 to 84.3%. The estimated results were then compared with the experimental measurements of the water content, which were carried out by the Karl Fischer technique, and the difference between the real and estimated values was less than 0.05 and 3.1% in the verification and validation processes, respectively. In addition, an external validation process was developed using four bibliographical references. In this case, the mean prediction error was less than 6.3%. In light of these results, the NN model shows an acceptable goodness of fit, sufficient robustness, and an adequate estimative capacity to determine the water content inside the studied range of the ILs analyzed.
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[Interindividual variability in recovery after traumatic brain injury: effect of cognitive reserve].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive reserve in recovery after a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Different authors proposed that this construct might account for the mismatch between TBI severity, its clinical expression, and subsequent recovery.
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Fetal hypoxia results in programming of aberrant angiotensin ii receptor expression patterns and kidney development.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The present study tested the hypothesis that fetal hypoxia adversely affects kidney development in fetal and offspring rats and alter the expression patterns of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptors.
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Diagnostic performance of weight loss to predict body fatness improvement in cardiac rehabilitation patients.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To determine the diagnostic performance of weight loss to identify fat mass loss in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients.
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Congenital absence of preputial foreskin: an extremely uncommon anomaly.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The part of the penile skin that covers the glans penis is named prepuce or foreskin. The embryologic development of the prepuce and urethra is related. Several congenital anomalies of the prepuce have been previously reported, but the absence of the prepuce with a normal development of the urethra is a very rare association. We report a sporadic case with absence of the prepuce and normal urethral development.
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Screening for occult malignancy with FDG-PET/CT in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Extensive screening strategies to detect occult cancer in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complex and no benefit in terms of survival has been reported. FDG-PET/CT (2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography), a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and staging of malignancies, could be useful in this setting. Consecutive patients ? 50 years with a first unprovoked VTE episode were prospectively included. Screening with FDG-PET/CT was performed 3-4 weeks after the index event. If positive, appropriate diagnostic work-up was programmed. Clinical follow-up continued for 2 years. Blood samples were collected to assess coagulation biomarkers. FDG-PET/CT was negative in 68/99 patients (68.7%), while suspicious FDG uptake was detected in 31/99 patients (31.3%). Additional diagnostic work-up confirmed a malignancy in 7/31 patients (22.6%), with six of them at early stage. During follow-up, two patients with negative FDG-PET/CT were diagnosed with cancer. Sensitivity (S), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT as single tool for the detection of occult malignancy were 77.8% (95% CI: 0.51-1), 22.6% (95% CI: 0.08-0.37) and 97.1% (95% CI: 0.93-1), respectively. Median tissue factor (TF) activity in patients with occult cancer was 5.38 pM vs. 2.40 pM in those without cancer (p = 0.03). Limitation of FDG-PET/CT screening to patients with TF activity > 2.8 pM would improve the PPV to 37.5% and reduce the costs of a single cancer diagnosis from 20,711€ to 11,670€. FDG-PET/CT is feasible for the screening of occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE, showing high S and NPV. The addition of TF activity determination may be useful for patient selection.
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Overcoming matrix effects in electrospray: quantitation of ?-agonists in complex matrices by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using singly (13)C-labeled analogues.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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In this work, the implementation of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using minimal labeling and isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD) is evaluated as a strategy for the minimization of matrix effects during trace determination of ?2-agonists in complex matrices by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). First, the parameters affecting the measurement of isotopic composition of organic compounds by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry with a time-of-flight analyzer were evaluated using as a case of study three different ?2-agonists: clenbuterol, clenproperol and brombuterol. Then, a calibration graph-free IDMS methodology was evaluated in order to overcome matrix effects in LC-ESI-MS in complex samples. In this procedure singly (13)C-labeled analogues of clenbuterol, clenproperol and brombuterol were employed in combination with IPD. Using this approach accurate and precise results were obtained in the simultaneous quantification of ?2-agonists in human urine and bovine liver, even at the sub ngg(-1) and particularly in spite of the previously reported matrix effects. Recovery rates in the range of 97-114% in fortified human urine and from 95% to 111% in fortified bovine liver were obtained with RSD (%) of independent recovery experiments always lower than 6%. These results demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the use of (13)C1-labeled standards and IPD is a reliable approach for accurate LC-MS quantitation of small molecules and compatible with full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometry.
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Microstructural brain and multivoxel spectroscopy in very low birth weight infants related to insulin-like growth factor concentration and early growth.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Very low birth weight (VLBW) children have higher risk of neurologic disabilities and growth factors are essential for brain maturation.
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Neural networks to estimate the water content of imidazolium-based ionic liquids using their refractive indices.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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A non-linear model has been developed to estimate the water content of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate ionic liquids using their respective refractive index values. The experimental values measured to design the neural network (NN) model were registered at 298.15K. These were determined at different relative humidity values which ranged from 11.1% to 84.3%. The estimated results were compared with experimental measurements of water content obtained by the Karl Fischer technique, and the differences between the real and estimated values were less than 0.06% in the internal validation process. In addition, an external validation test was developed using bibliographical references. In this case, the mean prediction error was less than 5.4%. In light of these results, the NN model shows an acceptable goodness of fit, sufficient robustness, and a more than adequate predictive capacity to estimate the water content of the ILs through the analysis of their refractive index.
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Synthesis of nanostructured porous silica coatings on titanium and their cell adhesive and osteogenic differentiation properties.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Nanostructured porous silica coatings were synthesized on titanium by the combined sol-gel and evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The silica-coating structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen sorptometry. The effect of the nanoporous surface on apatite formation in simulated body fluid, protein adsorption, osteoblast cell adhesion behavior, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) is reported. Silica coatings with highly ordered sub-10 nm porosity accelerate early osteoblast adhesive response, a favorable cell response that is attributed to an indirect effect due to the high protein adsorption observed on the large-specific surface area of the nanoporous coating but is also probably due to direct mechanical stimulus from the nanostructured topography. The nanoporous silica coatings, particularly those doped with calcium and phosphate, also promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs with spontaneous mineral nodule formation in basal conditions. The bioactive surface properties exhibited by the nanostructured porous silica coatings make these materials a promising alternative to improve the osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants and could have future impact on the nanoscale design of implant surfaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Dehydrated egg white: an allergen source for improving efficacy and safety in the diagnosis and treatment for egg allergy.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Raw and cooked eggs are used as allergens in oral food challenge (OFC). Raw egg is the best option, as it keeps proteins intact and retains their allergenicity, albeit microbiologically safe manipulation is difficult. Therefore, the use of dehydrated egg white (DEW) could improve the efficacy and safety profile of OFC. The aim of the study was to compare the allergenicity of DEW, a product that undergoes a double heat treatment (pasteurization and drying), with that of raw egg white (REW) and determine the efficacy of DEW in the diagnosis of egg allergy.
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Monitoring and modelling to support wastewater system management in developing mega-cities.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Urban drainage system models can be useful to assess and manage system performance and to plan its development. However, due to data and computational costs, sophisticated, high-resolution contemporary models of the sewer system may not be applicable. This constraint is particularly marked in developing country mega-cities where catchments can be large, data tend to be scarce, and there are many unknowns, for example regarding sources, losses and wrong connections. This paper presents work undertaken over the last 7 years to develop a suitable monitoring and modelling framework to support operation and development of the wastewater system of Bogotá (Colombia). Components of the framework covered here are: (a) the flow and water quality database, (b) a wastewater pollution load generator, and (c) a semi-distributed sewer network model, which aims at a complexity that matches the information available from the previous two components. Results from a catchment within Bogotá, area 150 km(2) and with 2.5 million inhabitants, show that the model outputs capture the scale and dynamics of the observed concentrations and loads at various points on the sewer system. However uncertainty is high because much of variability of observed dry weather flow profiles is apparently random. Against this variability, the effects of in-sewer processes were not identifiable except where backwaters caused particularly high retention times. Hence the work has resulted in an operational model with a scientifically justified, yet useful, level of complexity for Bogotá. More generally, the work demonstrates the value of monitoring and modelling programmes, including having modellers actively involved in monitoring specification and operations; and the insights into suitable level of model complexity that may be gained by uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.
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Platelet content of nitric oxide synthase 3 phosphorylated at serine(1177) is associated with the functional response of platelets to aspirin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To analyse if platelet responsiveness to aspirin (ASA) may be associated with a different ability of platelets to generate nitric oxide (NO).
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Contribution of Doñana wetlands to carbon sequestration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water CO2 fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010-2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous CO2 transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of CO2 (-0.8 and 36.3 mmol(CO2) m(-2) d(-1)). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and -1.2 mmol(CO2) m(-2) d(-1)). Overall, Doñanas water bodies were a net annual source of CO2 (5.2 mol(C) m(-2) y(-1). Up-scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous CO2 transport (13.1 Gg(C) y(-1)). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net CO2 sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration.
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Albendazole versus metronidazole in the treatment of adult giardiasis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections.
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Premolars restored with posts of different materials: fatigue analysis.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Previous works studied the effect of the material and the dimensions of the post on the biomechanical performance (fracture strength and stress distribution) of restored teeth, under static loads. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the post material (glass fibre and stainless steel) on restored teeth, which have the final crown, under dynamic conditions. The use of a biomechanical model, including a fatigue analysis from FEA, is presented as a powerful method to study the effect of the material of the intraradicular post. The inclusion of the fatigue analysis allows for a more realistic study that takes into account the dynamic nature of masticatory forces. At the same time, the results obtained are easier to interpret by both dentists and mechanical engineers. No differences were found, with the load and number of cycles considered, between glass fibre and stainless steel as material for the intraradicular post used in premolars restorations.
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Evaluation of hexavalent chromium extraction method EPA method 3060A for soils using XANES spectroscopy.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) occurrence in soils is generally determined using an extraction step to transfer it to the liquid phase where it is more easily detected and quantified. In this work, the performance of the most common extraction procedure (EPA Method 3060A) using NaOH-Na(2)CO(3) solutions is evaluated using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), which enables the quantification of Cr(VI) directly in the solid state. Results obtained with both methods were compared for three solid samples with different matrices: a soil containing chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a loamy soil, and a paint sludge. Results showed that Cr(VI) contents determined by the two methods differ significantly, and that the EPA Method 3060A procedure underestimated the Cr(VI) content in all studied samples. The underestimation is particularly pronounced for COPR. Low extraction yield for EPA Method 3060A was found to be the main reason. The Cr(VI) present in COPR was found to be more concentrated in magnetic phases. This work provides new XANES analyses of SRM 2701 and its extraction residues for the purpose of benchmarking EPA 3060A performance.
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Bipolar electrothermal vessel sealing system and 5-mm 2 expandable trocar approach in pediatric laparoscopic varicocelectomy: a successful time-effective technical refinement.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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To present our initial experience with electrothermal bipolar vessel device and only 2 expandable ports for laparoscopic Palomo varicocele procedure in pediatric and adolescent population.
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[Evidence-Based Cardiology: practical applications from epidemiology. III. Diagnostic capacity of a clinical test].
Arch Cardiol Mex
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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This article reviews different characteristics of validity in a clinical diagnostic test. In particular, we emphasize the likelihood ratio as an instrument that facilitates the use of epidemiologic concepts in clinical diagnosis.
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[Related systemic reactions to allergen immunotherapy in Monterrey, Mexico].
Rev Alerg Mex
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Background: Patients who receive allergen immunotherapy (IT) have a potential risk of systemic reactions, however such reactions are rare when IT administered properly. The frequency of systemic reactions (SR) due to conventional IT is less than 1%. Objective: To determine the frequency of secondary SR to allergen IT, and to identify the possible factors involved in developing them. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study that included 2.319 patients who received 14.600 allergen immunotherapy injections during the period from May 1, 2001 to April 30, 2002. Results: Twelve patients had a SR (age 7 - 40 years), all of which occurred within the first 30 minutes after the IT. These were more frequent during the dose - increase phase (58%). The frequency of (RS) in relation to the number of injections was 1:1216, and regarding to the number of patients, 1:193. The clinical manifestations included bronchospasm 83%, urticaria 67%, gastrointestinal symptoms and hypotension 8.3%. The 58% had anaphylaxis and pulmonary or dermatological symptoms only in 33% and 8.3% respectively. The possible factors involved in the onset of SR were: sensitivity identified by large skin reactions in skin test (PC) 83%, uncontrolled asthma 50%, application of allergens IT during high pollination season 42%, inadequate immunotherapy scheme monitoring 17%. Conclusions: The frequency of SR in this group of patients was low as that reported in other publications.
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Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. ib
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov. (type strain LMG 25992(T)=CFBP 2051(T)), with the automatic creation of Dickeya dadantii subsp. dadantii subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 25991(T)=CFBP 1269(T)).
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Coordinated defects in hepatic long chain fatty acid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation contribute to insulin resistance in non-human primates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.
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New and old mechanisms associated with hypertension in the elderly.
Int J Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Hypertension is a widely prevalent and important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that increase with aging. The hallmark of hypertension in the elderly is increased vascular dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms by which increased blood pressure leads to vascular injury and impaired endothelial function are not well defined. In the present paper, we will analyze several mechanisms described in the scientific literature involved in hypertension in the elderly as endothelial dysfunction, increased oxygen delivery to tissues, inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and increased concentration of active metabolites. Also, we will focus on new molecular mechanisms involved in hypertension such as telomeres shortening, progenitor cells, circulating microparticles, and epigenetic factors that have appeared as possible causes of hypertension in the elderly. These molecular mechanisms may elucidate different origin for hypertension in the elderly and provide us with new targets for hypertension treatment.
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Nanostructure evaluation of healthy and fluorotic dentin by atomic force microscopy before and after phosphoric acid etching.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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The aim was to characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the nanostructure of human dentin surfaces affected by dental fluorosis (DF) before and after phosphoric acid etching. This study included 240 human dentin samples classified according to the severity of DF, which were divided into four groups using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Samples were analyzed by AFM before and after acid etching for 15, 30, and 60 s. The roughness (R(a)) for healthy dentin, and dentin with mild, moderate, and severe fluorosis were 440 nm, 442 nm, 445 nm, and 449 nm, respectively. After 15, 30, and 60 s of acid etching, all healthy and fluorotic dentin samples increased in roughness (p<0.05). The diameter of dentinal tubule orifices (D(t)) in healthy human dentin increased after acid etching for 60 s. We conclude that effective etching times are 15 s for healthy and mild dentin fluorosis, 30-s for moderately fluorosed dentin, and 45-60 s for severe fluorotic dentin.
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Sequence and role in virulence of the three plasmid complement of the model tumor-inducing bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 is a model for the study of the molecular basis of disease production and tumor formation in woody hosts, and its draft genome sequence has been recently obtained. Here we closed the sequence of the plasmid complement of this strain, composed of three circular molecules of 78,357 nt (pPsv48A), 45,220 nt (pPsv48B), and 42,103 nt (pPsv48C), all belonging to the pPT23A-like family of plasmids widely distributed in the P. syringae complex. A total of 152 coding sequences were predicted in the plasmid complement, of which 38 are hypothetical proteins and seven correspond to putative virulence genes. Plasmid pPsv48A contains an incomplete Type IVB secretion system, the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector gene hopAF1, gene ptz, involved in cytokinin biosynthesis, and three copies of a gene highly conserved in plant-associated proteobacteria, which is preceded by a hrp box motif. A complete Type IVA secretion system, a well conserved origin of transfer (oriT), and a homolog of the T3SS effector gene hopAO1 are present in pPsv48B, while pPsv48C contains a gene with significant homology to isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase, type 1. Several potential mobile elements were found on the three plasmids, including three types of MITE, a derivative of IS801, and a new transposon effector, ISPsy30. Although the replication regions of these three plasmids are phylogenetically closely related, their structure is diverse, suggesting that the plasmid architecture results from an active exchange of sequences. Artificial inoculations of olive plants with mutants cured of plasmids pPsv48A and pPsv48B showed that pPsv48A is necessary for full virulence and for the development of mature xylem vessels within the knots; we were unable to obtain mutants cured of pPsv48C, which contains five putative toxin-antitoxin genes.
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Acute effects of corticosterone injection on paternal behavior in California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers.
Horm Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Glucocorticoids are thought to mediate the disruption of parental behavior in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous research supports their role in chronic stress; however, no study has experimentally tested the effects of acute glucocorticoid elevation on paternal behavior. We tested the prediction that acute corticosterone (CORT) increases would decrease paternal behavior in California mouse fathers and would lead to longer-term effects on reproductive success, as even short-term increases in CORT have been shown to produce lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. First-time fathers were injected with 30 mg/kg CORT, 60 mg/kg CORT or vehicle, or left unmanipulated. Interactions between the male and its pup(s) were recorded 1.5-2h after injection and scored for paternal and non-paternal behavior. Treatment groups were combined into control (unmanipulated + vehicle, n = 15) and CORT (30 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, n = 16) for analysis based on resulting plasma CORT concentrations. CORT treatment did not alter paternal or non-paternal behaviors or any long-term measures (male body mass or temperature, pup growth rate, pup survival, interbirth interval, number or mass of pups born in the second litter). Fathers showed a significant rise in body mass at day 30 postpartum, followed by a decrease in body mass after the birth of the second litter; however, this pattern did not differ between the CORT and control groups. In summary, acute elevation of plasma CORT did not alter direct paternal behavior, body mass, or reproductive outcomes, suggesting that acute CORT elevation alone does not overtly disrupt paternal care in this biparental mammal.
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Species-specific stable isotope analysis by the hyphenation of chromatographic techniques with MC-ICPMS.
Mass Spectrom Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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This work reviews the basis and all the existing publications on the hyphenation of chromatography-based techniques to MC-ICPMS for isotopic studies that were published until the end of 2010. A brief historical retrospective of the measurement of isotope ratios from transient signals by ICPMS with different sample introduction techniques is also included. The most important experimental parameters and data reduction strategies affecting the accurate and precise measurement of compound-specific isotope ratios by either HPLC or GC coupled to MC-ICPMS are discussed. All the applications are reported and critically reviewed in terms of analytical characteristics, performances, optimization, advantages and disadvantages and future applicability to the environmental, geochemical, or bioinorganic studies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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