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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simplification to coformulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir versus continuation of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with emtricitabine and tenofovir in adults with virologically suppressed HIV (STRATEGY-PI): 48 week results of a randomised,
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Patients with HIV on antiretroviral therapy might benefit from regimen simplification to reduce pill burden and dosing frequency. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of simplifying the treatment regimen for adults with virologically suppressed HIV infection from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor and emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir) regimen to coformulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir.
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Modeling and simulation approach to support dosing and study design requirements for treating HIV-related neuropsychiatric disease with the NK1-R antagonist aprepitant.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Psychiatric illness is common in HIV-infected patients and underlines the importance for screening not only for cognitive impairment but also for co-morbid mental disease. The rationale for combining immunomodulatory neurokinin- 1 receptor (NK1-R) antagonists with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is based on multimodal pharmacologic mechanisms. The NK1-R antagonist aprepitant's potential utility as a drug for depression is complicated by >99.9% protein binding and both enzyme inhibition and induction of CYP3A4. A population-based PK model developed from a pilot Phase 1B trial in 19 HIV-infected patients (125 or 250 mg/d aprepitant for 2 weeks) was modified to account for enzyme induction and impact of an exposure enhancer on CYP3A4 metabolism. Likelihood of clinical success in depression was assessed based on achievement of target trough plasma concentration and evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. Scenarios were generated for varying daily dose (375, 625, 750 and 875 mg), pharmacokinetic variability, exposure enhancement (EE), duration (2 and 6 months) and sample size (n=12 and 24/arm). Daily dosing of ? 625 mg with EE yielded desirable troughs (based on in vitro infectivity experiments) of > 2.65 ug/mL for the majority of virtual patients simulated. Results are dependent on the degree of exposure enhancement and extent of enzyme induction. Actual threshold exposure requirements for aprepitant in HIV-associated depression are unknown though preclinical evidence supports trough levels > 2.65 ug/mL. If 100% NK1r blockage is necessary for efficacy, doses of 875 mg (625 mg with EE) or higher may be required. The benefit of aprepitant on innate immunity(natural killer cells) and absence of negative effects onex vivo neutrophil chemotaxis alleviates concerns regarding drug dependent inhibition (DDI)-mediated infection risk.
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A randomized controlled trial of palifermin (recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor) for the treatment of inadequate CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery in patients with HIV-1 infection on antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Poor CD4 lymphocyte recovery on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with reduced function of the thymus. Palifermin (keratinocyte growth factor), by providing support to the thymic epithelium, promotes lymphopoiesis in animal models of bone marrow transplantation and graft-versus-host disease.
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Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study of BMS-791325, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor, in HCV genotype 1 infection.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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BMS-791325 is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase with low-nanomolar potency against genotypes 1a (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3 nM) and 1b (EC50, 7 nM) in vitro. BMS-791325 safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study in 24 patients (interferon naive and experienced) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection, randomized (5:1) to receive a single dose of BMS-791325 (100, 300, 600, or 900 mg) or placebo. The prevalence and phenotype of HCV variants at baseline and specific posttreatment time points were assessed. Antiviral activity was observed in all cohorts, with a mean HCV RNA decline of ?2.5 log10 copies/ml observed 24 h after a single 300-mg dose. Mean plasma half-life among cohorts was 7 to 9 h; individual 24-hour levels exceeded the protein-adjusted EC90 for genotype 1 at all doses. BMS-791325 was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events or discontinuations. Enrichment for resistance variants was not observed at 100 to 600 mg. At 900 mg, variants (P495L/S) associated with BMS-791325 resistance in vitro were transiently observed in one patient, concurrent with an observed HCV RNA decline of 3.4 log10 IU/ml, but were replaced with wild type by 48 h. Single doses of BMS-791325 were well tolerated; demonstrated rapid, substantial, and exposure-related antiviral activity; displayed dose-related increases in exposure; and showed viral kinetic and pharmacokinetic profiles supportive of once- or twice-daily dosing. These results support its further development in combination with other direct-acting antivirals for HCV genotype 1 infection. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00664625.).
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Lipid levels and changes in body fat distribution in treatment-naive, HIV-1-Infected adults treated with rilpivirine or Efavirenz for 96 weeks in the ECHO and THRIVE trials.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Pooled ECHO/THRIVE lipid and body fat data are presented from the ECHO (Efficacy Comparison in Treatment-Naïve, HIV-Infected Subjects of TMC278 and Efavirenz) and THRIVE (TMC278 Against HIV, in a Once-Daily Regimen Versus Efavirenz) trials.
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Simplification to rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor antiretroviral therapy in a randomized trial of HIV-1 RNA-suppressed participants.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral simplification from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen [protease inhibitor+RTV+two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs); ?6 months of exposure prior to study entry with no prior treatment failure] to the single-tablet regimen (STR) rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (RPV/FTC/TDF) in virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected participants.
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Seroprotection of HIV-infected subjects after influenza A(H1N1) vaccination is directly associated with baseline frequency of naive T cells.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, despite receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), often have impaired vaccine responses. We examined the role that immune activation and cellular phenotypes play in influenza A(H1N1) vaccine responsiveness in HIV-infected subjects receiving ART. Subjects received the H1N1 vaccine (15-µg dose; Novartis), and antibody titers at baseline and after immunization were evaluated. Subjects were classified as responders if, by week 3, seroprotection guidelines were met. Responders had higher percentages of baseline naive T cells and lower percentages of terminally differentiated T cells, compared with nonresponders. Additionally, the naive CD4(+) T-cell percentage and age were negatively correlated. Preservation of naive T-cell populations by starting therapy early could impact vaccine responses against influenza virus and other pathogens, especially as this population ages.
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Gene editing of CCR5 in autologous CD4 T cells of persons infected with HIV.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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CCR5 is the major coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated whether site-specific modification of the gene ("gene editing")--in this case, the infusion of autologous CD4 T cells in which the CCR5 gene was rendered permanently dysfunctional by a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)--is safe.
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Addition of nitazoxanide to PEG-IFN and ribavirin to improve HCV treatment response in HIV-1 and HCV genotype 1 coinfected persons naïve to HCV therapy: results of the ACTG A5269 trial.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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We hypothesized that nitazoxanide (NTZ) added to pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN) and weight-based ribavirin (WBR) would improve hepatitis C virus (HCV) virologic responses in HCV treatment-naïve HIV-1/HCV genotype 1 coinfected persons.
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Weight and lean body mass change with antiretroviral initiation and impact on bone mineral density.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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To compare the effect that initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens has on weight, BMI, and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD).
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Low baseline CD4+ count is associated with greater bone mineral density loss after antiretroviral therapy initiation.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases 2%-6% in the 2 years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Pre-ART immune deficiency and early immune recovery may contribute to this loss.
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Comparison of cardiovascular disease risk markers in HIV-infected patients receiving abacavir and tenofovir: the nucleoside inflammation, coagulation and endothelial function (NICE) study.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The association between abacavir (ABC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in HIV-infected persons is unclear. Putative mechanisms for an effect of ABC on CVD risk including endothelial dysfunction have been proposed; however, a biological mechanism has not been established. ??Methods: Cross-sectional study of HIV-infected subjects with HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL, randomly assigned to ABC or tenofovir (TDF) as initial therapy during a prior clinical trial. A small cohort of subjects on zidovudine (ZDV; not randomly assigned) were studied to explore long-term exposure to this agent. All underwent brachial artery ultrasound for flow-mediated dilation (FMD), D-dimer, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fasting lipids were measured. Between arm differences were evaluated by multivariable linear or logistic regression modeling. ??Results: There were 148 subjects (46 on ABC, 72 on TDF, and 30 on ZDV). Demographic characteristics were balanced across the groups except, as expected, ZDV-treated participants were older, had higher CD4 counts, and longer ART duration. After adjusting for age, brachial artery diameter, and treatment duration, FMD was similar in those on ABC (3.9%) and TDF (5.4%, p=0.181). FMD was higher in those on ZDV (6.1%; p<0.005). Levels of IL-6, hsCRP and detectable D-dimer were similar between groups. ??Conclusions: Among individuals assigned to ABC or TDF in randomized clinical trials there were no significant differences in FMD or markers of inflammation and coagulation. Whether ABC contributes to risk of CVD remains unclear, but our results suggest that endothelial dysfunction, heightened inflammation, and altered coagulation are unlikely to be mechanisms by which the drug could increase CVD risk above that seen with TDF.
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Tolerability of intramuscular and intradermal delivery by CELLECTRA(®) adaptive constant current electroporation device in healthy volunteers.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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DNA vaccines are being developed as a potentially safe and effective immunization platform. However, translation of DNA vaccines into a clinical setting has produced results that have fallen short of those generated in a preclinical setting. Various strategies are being developed to address this lack of potency, including improvements in delivery methods. Electroporation (EP) creates transient increases in cell membrane permeability, thus enhancing DNA uptake and leading to a more robust immune response. Here, we report on the safety and tolerability of delivering sterile saline via intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) injection followed by in vivo electroporation using the CELLECTRA(®) adaptive constant current device in healthy adults from two open-label studies. Pain, as assessed by VAS, was highest immediately after EP but diminishes by about 50% within 5 min. Mean VAS scores appear to correlate with the amount of energy delivered and depth of needle insertion, especially for intramuscular EP. Mean scores did not exceed 7 out of 10 or 3 out of 10 for IM and ID EP, respectively. The majority of adverse events included mild to moderate injection site reactions that resolved within one day. No deaths or serious adverse events were reported during the course of either study. Overall, injection followed by EP with the CELLECTRA(®) device was well-tolerated and no significant safety concerns were identified. These studies support the further development of electroporation as a vaccine delivery method to enhance immunogenicity, particularly for diseases in which traditional vaccination approaches are ineffective.
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In vitro and in vivo effects of IGF-I on adiposity in HIV-associated metabolic disease: a pilot study.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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We tested the effects of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in an adipocyte model of HIV lipodystrophy and in an open label study on body composition and metabolism in patients with HIV lipodystrophy.
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Hepatitis C Co-infection and Severity of Liver Disease as Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures Among HIV-Infected Patients.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Osteoporosis is increasingly reported in the aging HIV-positive population, and co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) may further increase the risk of osteoporosis. However, it remains unclear whether HCV-related increased fracture risk is a function of the severity of liver disease. We calculated the time-updated alanine aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) score (an indirect marker of hepatic fibrosis) in all HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Clinical Case Registry between 1984 and 2009. The association between HCV co-infection and incident osteoporotic fracture (defined as closed wrist, vertebral, or hip fracture) was assessed in univariate and multivariate Cox survival models adjusting for traditional risk factors for osteoporosis and APRI score or the presence of cirrhosis. A total of 772 osteoporotic fractures were identified among 56,660 HIV-infected patients (98.1% male; 31.3% HCV co-infected; median age 44.0 years) contributing 305,237 patient-years of follow-up. Fracture rates were significantly higher among HIV/HCV patients than HIV-only patients (2.57 versus 2.07/1000 patient-years, relative risk?=?1.24, p?
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Early versus delayed antiretroviral therapy and cerebrospinal fluid fungal clearance in adults with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The burden of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) predicts clinical outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and is lower in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study tested the hypothesis that initiation of ART during initial treatment of HIV/CM would improve CSF clearance of C. neoformans.
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Patient monitoring and follow-up in lentiviral clinical trials.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Lentiviral vectors are being used with increasing frequency in human clinical trials. We were the first to use lentiviral vectors in clinical trials in 2003. Our lentiviral vector encoded a long RNA antisense sequence to the HIV-1 envelope and was used in an ex vivo autologous setting to provide viral load control in HIV-1 positive subjects failing anti-HIV therapy. A total of 65 subjects have been treated in Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials in six institutions.
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Impact of transitioning from HIV clinical trials to routine medical care on clinical outcomes and patient perceptions.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Participation in antiretroviral therapy clinical trials (ART-RCTs) offers many advantages including access to new drugs, close monitoring, and cost savings. These same benefits may pose a risk to patients ending ART-RCTs and returning to routine care; as they may experience changes to their drug regimen, decreased monitoring, and new out-of-pocket costs. We aimed to evaluate this transition and determine its effects on viral outcomes and patient perceptions. A retrospective cohort was assembled from participants of naïve ART-RCTs at the University of Pennsylvania between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009. Data were collected in the 12 months prior to and after trial completion. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate viral failure rates and to identify factors associated with viral failure. Qualitative interviews were held with a subset of patients. Content analysis was used to identify thematic differences between patients with viral failure and those with viral suppression. In total, 116 patients enrolled in 5 ART-RCTs from 2000 to 2009. Viral failure was observed in 39 patients (34%). Nonwhites, high enrollment CD4 count, and trial completion in 1999-2002 were risk factors for failure. Patients transitioning from ART-RCTs to routine care had a 20% increased odds of failure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.20 (95% CI [0.37, 3.88])). Nine patients with viral suppression and three with viral failure in the year after trail completion were interviewed. Suppressed patients were more eager to continue trial participation, nervous about leaving the trial, and felt prepared to return to routine care. In contrast, those with viral failure were less concerned about the transition. These findings suggest that the posttrial period may be a vulnerable time for patients. Patients without a healthy fear of transitioning from ART-RCTs to routine care may be at increased risk of viral failure. Focus should be given to assisting patients during this transition.
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HIV-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine-threonine kinase activation in APCs leads to programmed death-1 ligand upregulation and suppression of HIV-specific CD8 T cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Recent evidence demonstrates that HIV-1 infection leads to the attenuation of cellular immune responses, which has been correlated with the increased expression of programmed death (PD)-1 on virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. PD-1 is induced upon T cell activation, and its prolonged expression facilitates CD8(+) T cell inhibitory signals when bound to its B7 family ligands, PD-ligand (L)1/2, which are expressed on APCs. Importantly, early reports demonstrated that blockade of the PD-1/PD-L interaction by Abs may help to counter the development of immune exhaustion driven by HIV viral persistence. To better understand the regulation of the PD-1 pathway during HIV infection, we examined the ability of the virus to induce PD-L expression on macrophages and dendritic cells. We found a direct relationship between the infection of APCs and the expression of PD-L1 in which virus-mediated upregulation induced a state of nonresponsiveness in uninfected HIV-specific T cells. Furthermore, this exhaustion phenotype was revitalized by the blockade of PD-L1, after which T cells regained their capacity for proliferation and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-?, IL-2, and IL-12 upon restimulation. In addition, we identify a critical role for the PI3K/serine-threonine kinase signaling pathway in PD-L1 upregulation of APCs by HIV, because inhibition of these intracellular signal transducer enzymes significantly reduced PD-L1 induction by infection. These data identify a novel mechanism by which HIV exploits the immunosuppressive PD-1 pathway and suggest a new role for virus-infected cells in the local corruption of immune responses required for viral suppression.
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Disease-modifying therapeutic concepts for HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Chronic HIV infection is associated with persistent immune activation and inflammation even among patients virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy for years. Chronic immune activation has been associated with poor outcomes--both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining clinical events--and persistent CD4 T-cell depletion. The cause of chronic immune activation in well-controlled HIV infection is unknown. Proposed drivers include residual viral replication, microbial translocation, and coinfecting pathogens. Therapeutic interventions targeting immune activation are emerging, from approaches that interfere directly with activation and inflammatory pathways to those that prevent microbial translocation or decrease the availability of host target cells for the virus. In the context of the disappointing results of the interleukin-2 trials, the main challenges to developing these disease-modifying therapies include identifying an adequate target population and choosing surrogate endpoints that will provide positive proof-of-concept that the interventions will translate into long-term clinical benefit before embarking on large clinical endpoint trials.
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Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist famotidine on the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir-ritonavir with or without tenofovir in HIV-infected patients.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Significant pharmacokinetic interactions can result between acid-suppressing agents and some protease inhibitors (PIs) in the management of HIV infection. In healthy subjects, famotidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist, reduces exposures of atazanavir by 4-28% at doses of 20-40 mg twice daily. This study evaluated the effect of famotidine 20-40 mg twice daily on the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily with and without tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg in HIV-infected patients (n=40; 87.5% male; mean age 42, range 26-63 years; 55% white). Coadministration of famotidine 40 mg and atazanavir/ritonavir to HIV-infected patients reduced exposures of atazanavir by approximately 20%. This is comparable to reductions seen in HIV-uninfected subjects. Coadministration of famotidine 20 mg had less impact on atazanavir exposures, with no reduction of atazanavir geometric mean plasma concentration at 24 h postdose (C(min)). In the presence of TDF, administration of famotidine 20-40 mg twice daily 2 h after and 10 h before atazanavir/ritonavir reduced exposures of atazanavir by 19-25%. However, all individual atazanavir C(min) values remained at least five-fold above the population mean protein-binding adjusted 90% maximum effect (EC(90)) against wild-type HIV (14 ng/mL). No viral load rebound was observed at end of study. The results confirmed that coadministration of an H(2)-receptor antagonist with atazanavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients resulted in similar magnitude of reductions in atazanavir exposures as in healthy subjects. This supports the current dose recommendations for coadministration of an H(2)-receptor antagonist with atazanavir/ritonavir.
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Abacavir use and risk of acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular events in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Some studies have suggested that exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with abacavir is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, are increasingly recognized among HIV-infected individuals. Low vitamin D levels increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients without HIV infection.
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Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naive persons randomized to receive abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine along with efavirenz or atazanavir-ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Long-term effects of abacavir (ABC)-lamivudine (3TC), compared with tenofovir (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r), on bone mineral density (BMD) have not been analyzed.
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A randomized, placebo controlled, double masked phase IB study evaluating the safety and antiviral activity of aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in HIV-1 infected adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have anti-HIV activity in monocyte-derived macrophages, decrease CCR5 expression and improve natural killer cell function ex vivo. Aprepitant is a NK1R antagonist approved by FDA as an antiemetic.
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European mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and metabolic changes during antiretroviral therapy in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5142.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences metabolic diseases and perhaps antiretroviral therapy (ART) complications. We explored associations between European mtDNA haplogroups and metabolic changes among A5142 participants.
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Anti-HIV-1 activity of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant and synergistic interactions with other antiretrovirals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists interfere with binding of neuropeptide substance P to NK1R and exhibit novel anti-HIV-1 activities. Since NK1R antagonists effectively penetrate the blood-brain barrier to reduce the inflammatory response within the brain, we wished to evaluate their potential as anti-HIV-1 candidates for targeting HIV-1 infections of the central nervous system.
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Bone disease in HIV infection: a practical review and recommendations for HIV care providers.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with a 2%-6% decrease in BMD over the first 2 years, a decrease that is similar in magnitude to that sustained during the first 2 years of menopause. Recent studies have also described increased fracture rates in the HIV-infected population. The causes of low BMD in individuals with HIV infection appear to be multifactorial and likely represent a complex interaction between HIV infection, traditional osteoporosis risk factors, and antiretroviral-related factors. In this review, we make the point that HIV infection should be considered as a risk factor for bone disease. We recommend screening patients with fragility fractures, all HIV-infected post-menopausal women, and all HIV-infected men ?50 years of age. We also discuss the importance of considering secondary causes of osteoporosis. Finally, we discuss treatment of the more severe cases of bone disease, while outlining the caveats and gaps in our knowledge.
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Poor immunogenicity of the H1N1 2009 vaccine in well controlled HIV-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the H1N1 2009 vaccine in HIV-positive individuals.
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Aging and HIV infection: a comparison between older HIV-infected persons and the general population.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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As HIV-infected persons age, the relative contribution of HIV infection, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and the normal aging process to the frequent comorbidities is unknown.
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Phase I/II trial of the anti-HIV activity of mifepristone in HIV-infected subjects ACTG 5200.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Mifepristone is a glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor shown in vitro to have anti-HIV activity and anti-simian immunodeficiency virus activity in a macaque model. A phase I/II trial was performed to assess the drugs safety and anti-HIV activity.
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Viral hepatitis is associated with reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected women but not men.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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Few studies have examined the impact of viral hepatitis on bone mineral density (BMD), and none have done so among HIV-infected patients. Our objective was to determine whether viral hepatitis was associated with low BMD in HIV.
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Analysis of lentiviral vector integration in HIV+ study subjects receiving autologous infusions of gene modified CD4+ T cells.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Lentiviral vector-based gene therapy has been used to target the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using an antisense env payload. We have analyzed lentiviral-vector integration sites from three treated individuals. We compared integration sites from the ex vivo vector-transduced CD4+ cell products to sites from cells recovered at several times after infusion. Integration sites were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing, yielding a total of 7,782 unique integration sites from the ex vivo product and 237 unique sites from cells recovered after infusion. Integrated vector copies in both data sets were found to be strongly enriched within active genes and near epigenetic marks associated with active transcription units. Analysis of integration relative to nucleosome structure on target DNA indicated favoring of integration in outward facing DNA major grooves on the nucleosome surface. There was no indication that growth of transduced cells after infusion resulted in enrichment for integration sites near proto-oncogene 5-ends or within tumor suppressor genes. Thus, this first look at the longitudinal evolution of cells transduced with a lentiviral vector after infusion of gene modified CD4+ cells provided no evidence for abnormal expansions of cells due to vector-mediated insertional activation of proto-oncogenes.
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Antiviral effects of autologous CD4 T cells genetically modified with a conditionally replicating lentiviral vector expressing long antisense to HIV.
Blood
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We report the safety and tolerability of 87 infusions of lentiviral vector–modified autologous CD4 T cells (VRX496-T; trade name, Lexgenleucel-T) in 17 HIV patients with well-controlled viremia. Antiviral effects were studied during analytic treatment interruption in a subset of 13 patients. VRX496-T was associated with a decrease in viral load set points in 6 of 8 subjects (P = .08). In addition, A ? G transitions were enriched in HIV sequences after infusion, which is consistent with a model in which transduced CD4 T cells exert antisense-mediated genetic pressure on HIV during infection. Engraftment of vector-modified CD4 T cells was measured in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and was correlated with engraftment in blood. The engraftment half-life in the blood was approximately 5 weeks, with stable persistence in some patients for up to 5 years. Conditional replication of VRX496 was detected periodically through 1 year after infusion. No evidence of clonal selection of lentiviral vector–transduced T cells or integration enrichment near oncogenes was detected. This is the first demonstration that gene-modified cells can exert genetic pressure on HIV. We conclude that gene-modified T cells have the potential to decrease the fitness of HIV-1 and conditionally replicative lentiviral vectors have a promising safety profile in T cells.
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Vitamin D Levels, Natural H1N1 Infection and Response to H1N1 Vaccine among HIV-Infected Individuals.
J AIDS Clin Res
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BACKGROUND: Beyond its role in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D plays a critical role in immunological responses to pathogens. We evaluated the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D levels and susceptibility to natural H1N1 infection and H1N1 vaccine responses in HIV infected individuals. METHODS: This was a sub study of an H1N1 vaccine trial conducted at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009/10. We compared the 25-OH vitamin D levels among individuals with and without baseline evidence of prior H1N1 infection and between vaccine responders and non-responders. RESULTS: 120 participants enrolled in the trial, 71% male, 68% African American, median age 46 years. The majority had controlled HIV disease. At baseline, 86% had 25-OH vitamin D levels < 30 ng/ml and 54% had levels < 20 ng/ml. Thirty participants (25%) had evidence of prior H1N1 exposure. There was no difference in mean 25-OH vitamin D levels among patients with or without prior natural H1N1 infection (21 ng/ml vs 20 ng/ml, p=0.72). Among participants without previous H1N1 exposure, only 61% developed protective antibody titers following vaccination. 25-OH vitamin D levels were similar between vaccine responders (20 ng/ml) and non-responders (20 ng/ml) (p=0.83). CONCLUSION: Although 25-OH vitamin D deficiency was very common among HIV-infected individuals, it was not associated with natural susceptibility to H1N1 or to vaccine responses.
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Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a monotherapy results in suppression of HIV type 1 replication and decreased cell-associated HIV DNA integration.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated immune reconstitution fails to restore the capacity of the immune system to spontaneously control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication.
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Metabolic syndrome before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, many of which are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined prevalence and incidence of MetS and risk factors for MetS in ART-naive HIV-infected individuals starting ART.
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Risk of hip fracture associated with hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis C/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.
Hepatology
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with reduced bone mineral density, but its association with fracture rates is unknown, particularly in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Our aims were to determine whether persons with HCV infection alone are at increased risk for hip fracture, compared to uninfected individuals, and to examine whether the risk of hip fracture is higher among HCV/HIV-coinfected persons, compared to those with HCV alone, those with HIV alone, and those uninfected with either virus. We conducted a cohort study in 36,950 HCV/HIV-coinfected, 276,901 HCV-monoinfected, 95,827 HIV-monoinfected, and 3,110,904 HCV/HIV-uninfected persons within the U.S. Medicaid populations of California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (1999-2005). Incidence rates of hip fracture were lowest among uninfected persons (1.29 events/1,000 person-years), increased with the presence of either HIV infection (1.95 events/1,000 person-years) or HCV infection (2.69 events/1,000 person-years), and were highest among HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals (3.06 events/1,000 person-years). HCV/HIV coinfection was associated with an increased relative hazard (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval; CI]) of hip fracture, compared to HCV-monoinfected (HR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.25-1.53), HIV-monoinfected (females: HR, 1.76; 95% CI: 1.44-2.16; males: HR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.20-1.55), and HCV/HIV-uninfected persons (females: HR, 2.65; 95% CI: 2.21-3.17; males: HR, 2.20; 95% CI: 1.97-2.47). HCV monoinfection was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, compared to uninfected individuals, and the relative increase was highest in the youngest age groups (females, 18-39 years: HR, 3.56; 95% CI: 2.93-4.32; males, 18-39 years: HR, 2.40; 95% CI: 2.02-2.84).
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Efficacy and safety of rilpivirine in treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected patients with hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection enrolled in the Phase III randomized, double-blind ECHO and THRIVE trials.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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The efficacy and hepatic safety of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors rilpivirine (TMC278) and efavirenz were compared in treatment-naive, HIV-infected adults with concurrent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the pooled week 48 analysis of the Phase III, double-blind, randomized ECHO (NCT00540449) and THRIVE (NCT00543725) trials.
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Metabolic effects of darunavir/ritonavir versus atazanavir/ritonavir in treatment-naive, HIV type 1-infected subjects over 48 weeks.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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We assessed metabolic changes for darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) once daily (qd) versus atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) qd with fixed-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine. This was a phase 4, multicenter, open-label, randomized exploratory study. Treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected adults received DRV/r 800/100 mg qd or ATV/r 300/100 mg qd, both with emtricitabine/tenofovir 200/300 mg qd. Primary end point: change in triglyceride levels from baseline to week 12. Secondary end points: week 12 and week 48 changes in lipid parameters, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory/coagulation/bacterial translocation biomarkers, viral load, CD4(+) cell count, and week 48 changes in adipose tissue distribution and subjects perceptions of body changes. In the DRV/r arm, 32/34 and 29/34 subjects completed weeks 12 and 48, respectively; in the ATV/r arm, 30/31 and 25/31 subjects completed weeks 12 and 48, respectively. Small changes in lipid parameters from baseline to weeks 12 and 48 were observed in both arms. Differences were noted between arms in mean changes in total cholesterol (DRV/r, 20.3 mg/dl; ATV/r, 4.6 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein A1 (DRV/r, 10.7 mg/dl; ATV/r, -0.7 mg/dl) at week 12. At week 48, no clinically relevant differences between arms were noted for changes in any lipid parameter, fasting glucose, or insulin sensitivity. Biomarkers generally decreased and efficacy parameters improved in both arms over 48 weeks. Changes in adipose tissue were small and comparable between arms. Subjects perceptions of body changes generally improved in both study arms. This first pilot comparison in HIV-1-infected subjects suggests that DRV/r has a metabolic profile similar to ATV/r over 48 weeks of treatment. Further randomized studies are warranted.
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Osteoporotic fracture risk associated with cumulative exposure to tenofovir and other antiretroviral agents.
AIDS
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Whereas tenofovir (TDF) exposure has been associated with decreased bone density, it remains unclear whether it is associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.