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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Replacement of caloric sweeteners with lower- or no-calorie alternatives may facilitate weight loss or weight maintenance by helping to reduce energy intake; however, past research examining low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) and body weight has produced mixed results.
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Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The objective of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effect of whey protein (WP), with or without resistance exercise, on body weight and body composition in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in generally healthy adult study populations.
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Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation.
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Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA.
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Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Although a large body of literature has been devoted to examining the relationship between eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and blood pressure, past systematic reviews have been hampered by narrow inclusion criteria and a limited scope of analytical subgroups. In addition, no meta-analysis to date has captured the substantial volume of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 2 years. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of EPA+DHA, without upper dose limits and including food sources, on blood pressure in RCTs.
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Higher diet quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Increased attention in dietary research and guidance has been focused on dietary patterns, rather than on single nutrients or food groups, because dietary components are consumed in combination and correlated with one another. However, the collective body of research on the topic has been hampered by the lack of consistency in methods used. We examined the relationships between 4 indices--the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)--and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,823). Data from a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire were used to calculate scores; adjusted HRs and 95% CIs were estimated. We documented 86,419 deaths, including 23,502 CVD- and 29,415 cancer-specific deaths, during 15 y of follow-up. Higher index scores were associated with a 12-28% decreased risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Specifically, comparing the highest with the lowest quintile scores, adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for men were as follows: HEI-2010 HR: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.80), AHEI-2010 HR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.78), aMED HR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.79), and DASH HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.85); for women, these were HEI-2010 HR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.80), AHEI-2010 HR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.79), aMED HR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.79), and DASH HR: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.81). Similarly, high adherence on each index was protective for CVD and cancer mortality examined separately. These findings indicate that multiple scores reflect core tenets of a healthy diet that may lower the risk of mortality outcomes, including federal guidance as operationalized in the HEI-2010, Harvard's Healthy Eating Plate as captured in the AHEI-2010, a Mediterranean diet as adapted in an Americanized aMED, and the DASH Eating Plan as included in the DASH score.
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Daughters and Mothers Against Breast Cancer (DAMES): main outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in overweight mothers with breast cancer and their overweight daughters.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Few studies to date have used the cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to promote healthy behavior changes in survivors of cancer and their family members. Given the role of obesity in the primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer, the authors explored the feasibility of a mother-daughter weight loss intervention.
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A systematic review of multivitamin-multimineral use and cardiovascular disease and cancer incidence and total mortality.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Multivitamin-multimineral (MVM) supplements are the most frequently used dietary supplements in the United States, with one third or more of the population using at least one daily. However, the health-related implications of MVM use are unclear. Thus, we systematically reviewed and summarized the prospective studies of MVM supplementation and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer incidence, to critically evaluate the current evidence on this topic. We included studies of generally healthy adult populations that evaluated multivitamin (the most commonly used dietary supplement) and/or multimineral supplement use or simultaneous use of 3 or more vitamins and minerals. We did not evaluate individual supplements. A total of 12 cohort studies and 3 primary prevention randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were conducted in the United States (n = 11), and the remaining were conducted in European countries (n = 3) and Japan (n = 1). Although between-study methodological variation was present, most relative risks hovered closely around or slightly below the null value. No clear patterns of associations by study country, gender, smoking status, or frequency of use were observed. Based upon the available scientific evidence to date, supplementation with MVMs does not appear to increase all-cause mortality, cancer incidence or mortality, or CVD incidence or mortality and may provide a modest protective benefit.
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Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge.
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Combining genome-wide methods to investigate the genetic complexity of courtship song variation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Little is currently known about the genetic complexity of quantitative behavioral variation, the types of genes involved, or their effects on intermediate phenotypes. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study of Drosophila melanogaster courtship song variation using 168 sequenced inbred lines, and fail to find highly significant associations. However, by combining these data with results from a well-powered Evolve and Resequence (E&R) study on the same trait, we provide statistical evidence that some power to associate genotype and phenotype is available. Genes that are significant in both analyses are enriched for expression in the nervous system, and affect neural development and synaptic growth when perturbed. Quantitative complementation at one of these loci, Syntrophin-like 1, supports a hypothesis that variation at this locus affects variation in the inter-pulse interval of courtship song. These results suggest that experimental evolution may provide an approach for genome-scale replication in Drosophila.
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Association of dietary and supplemental folate intake and polymorphisms in three FOCM pathway genes with colorectal cancer in a population-based case-control study.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Previous research has shown that greater intakes of dietary folate are associated with reduced risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) also may be involved in altering CRC risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of folate intake (and intakes of related dietary components such as methionine), 35 SNPs in three FOCM pathway genes (MTHFD1, MTHFR, and TYMS), and their interactions on CRC risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania (686 cases, 740 controls). Diet and supplement use was assessed for the year before diagnosis or interview for cases and controls, respectively, with a modified Diet History Questionnaire from the National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Using a dominant model for the variant allele, several SNPs were significantly associated with CRC including MTHFD1 rs8003379 (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.00-2.73) and rs17824591 (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.41) and the TYMS rs2853533 SNP (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.05-1.80). Using a nondominant model, the AA genotype for MTHFR rs1476413 exhibited a marginally significant (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.00-2.44) association with CRC. Two TYMS SNPs (rs16948305 and rs495139) exhibited significant (P = 0.024 and P = 0.040, respectively) gene-diet interactions with folate intake. One MTHFD1 (P = 0.019) and one MTHFR (P = 0.042) SNP exhibited gene-diet interactions with methionine intake. These findings suggest that allelic variants in genes involved in FOCM interact with dietary factors including folate and methionine to modify risk for CRC.
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Association of dietary and supplemental iron and colorectal cancer in a population-based study.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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We evaluated the role of dietary iron, heme iron, and supplemental iron on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania, including 1005 incident cases and 1062 controls. Diet was assessed through a modified food frequency questionnaire that included supplement use and a meat-specific module. Cases reported intakes for the year before diagnosis, whereas controls reported intakes for the year before interview. Heme iron intake was calculated using a new heme database developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, there were no significant associations between heme iron or total iron intake and CRC incidence. Dietary iron intake was inversely associated with CRC among women (OR Q5 vs. Q1=0.45; 95% CI=0.22-0.92), but not among men. Supplemental iron intake of more than 18 mg/day versus none was positively associated with CRC incidence (OR=2.31; 95% CI=1.48-3.59; P-trend<0.001), an effect that was observed in both men (OR=2.56; 95% CI=1.30-5.05) and women (OR=2.46; 95% CI=1.34-4.52). These findings suggest that consumption of more than 18 mg/day of supplemental iron may increase risk for CRC.
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Meat-related compounds and colorectal cancer risk by anatomical subsite.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends < 0.05). For analyses by meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends < 0.05). Inverse associations were observed between unprocessed poultry and colorectal, colon, proximal colon, and rectal tumors; grilled/barbequed poultry and proximal colon cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends < 0.05). HCAs, PAHs, nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted.
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Alcohol-attributable cancer deaths and years of potential life lost in the United States.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Our goal was to provide current estimates of alcohol-attributable cancer mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States.
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Why US adults use dietary supplements.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Dietary supplements are used by more than half of adults, although to our knowledge, the reasons motivating use have not been previously examined in US adults using nationally representative data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine motivations for dietary supplement use, characterize the types of products used for the most commonly reported motivations, and to examine the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about dietary supplements.
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Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the U.S.: novel assessment methodology.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been linked with poor diet quality, weight gain, and increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have been hampered by inconsistent definitions and a failure to capture all types of SSBs.
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The effect of copy number variation in the phase II detoxification genes UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 on colorectal cancer risk.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Genetic polymorphisms in combination with the Western-style diet, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity have been hypothesized to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Metabolizers of environmental carcinogenic and endogenous compounds affecting CRC risk include the phase II detoxification UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, which are 2 of the most commonly deleted genes in the genome.
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Childrens daily fruit and vegetable intake: associations with maternal intake and child weight status.
J Nutr Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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To evaluate associations between childrens and their mothers fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and childrens FV intake and weight status.
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A sex-chromosome mutation in Silene latifolia.
Sex. Plant Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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Silene latifolia is dioecious, yet rare hermaphrodites have been found, and such natural mutants can provide valuable insight into genetic mechanisms. Here, we describe a hermaphrodite-inducing mutation that is almost certainly localized to the gynoecium-suppression region of the Y chromosome in S. latifolia. The mutant Y chromosome was passed through the megaspore, and the presence of two X chromosomes was not necessary for seed development in the parent. This result supports a lack of degeneration of the Y chromosome in S. latifolia, consistent with the relatively recent formation of the sex chromosomes in this species. When crossed to wild-type plants, hermaphrodites performed poorly as females, producing low seed numbers. When hermaphrodites were pollen donors, the sex ratio of offspring they produced through crosses was biased towards females. This suggests that hermaphroditic S. latifolia would fail to thrive and potentially explains the rarity of hermaphrodites in natural populations of S. latifolia. These results indicate that the Y chromosome in Silene latifolia remains very similar to the X, perhaps mostly differing in the primary sex determination regions.
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Mechanisms promoting the long-term persistence of a Wolbachia infection in a laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread endosymbionts across diverse insect taxa. Despite this prevalence, our understanding of how Wolbachia persists within populations is not well understood. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) appears to be an important phenotype maintaining Wolbachia in many insects, but it is believed to be too weak to maintain Wolbachia in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that Wolbachia must also have other effects on this species. Here we estimate the net selective effect of Wolbachia on its host in a laboratory-adapted population of D. melanogaster, to determine the mechanisms leading to its persistence in the laboratory environment. We found i) no significant effects of Wolbachia infection on female egg-to-adult survival or adult fitness, ii) no reduced juvenile survival in males, iii) substantial levels of CI, and iv) a vertical transmission rate of Wolbachia higher than 99%. The fitness of cured females was, however, severely reduced (a decline of 37%) due to CI in offspring. Taken together these findings indicate that Wolbachia is maintained in our laboratory environment due to a combination of a nearly perfect transmission rate and substantial CI. Our results show that there would be strong selection against females losing their infection and producing progeny free from Wolbachia.
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Natural variation in decision-making behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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There has been considerable recent interest in using Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the molecular basis of decision-making behavior. Deciding where to place eggs is likely one of the most important decisions for a female fly, as eggs are vulnerable and larvae have limited motility. Here, we show that many natural genotypes of D. melanogaster prefer to lay eggs near nutritious substrate, rather than in nutritious substrate. These preferences are highly polymorphic in both degree and direction, with considerable heritability (0.488) and evolvability.Relative preferences are modulated by the distance between options and the overall concentration of ethanol, suggesting Drosophila integrate many environmental factors when making oviposition decisions. As oviposition-related decisions can be efficiently assessed by simply counting eggs, oviposition behavior is an excellent model for understanding information processing in insects. Associating natural genetic polymorphisms with decision-making variation will shed light on the molecular basis of host choice behavior, the evolutionary maintenance of genetic variation, and the mechanistic nature of preference variation in general.
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Development and evaluation of a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 using the Nutrition Data System for Research.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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To develop and evaluate a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) with the widely used Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) based on the method developed for use with the US Department of Agricultures (USDA) Food and Nutrient Dietary Data System (FNDDS) and MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED).
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Diet index-based and empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with colorectal cancer risk.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Previous studies have derived patterns by measuring compliance with preestablished dietary guidance or empirical methods, such as principal components analysis (PCA). Our objective was to examine colorectal cancer risk associated with patterns identified by both methods. The study included 431 incident colorectal cancer cases (225 men, 206 women) and 726 healthy controls (330 men, 396 women) participating in a population-based, case-control study. PCA identified sex-specific dietary patterns and the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05) assessed adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. A fruits and vegetables pattern and a meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern were identified among men and women; a third pattern (alcohol and sweetened beverages) was identified in men. The fruits and vegetables pattern was inversely associated with risk among men [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.21-0.69 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile] and women (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.19-0.65). The meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern was positively associated with risk in women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.08-4.50) and there was a suggestion of a positive association among men (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 0.84-2.90; P-trend = 0.070). Men and women with greater HEI-05 scores had a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99; OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.24-0.77, respectively). Following the Dietary Guidelines or a dietary pattern lower in meat, potatoes, high fat, and refined foods and higher in fruits and vegetables may reduce colorectal cancer risk.
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Dietary patterns and colorectal adenoma and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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A number of studies exploring associations between individual dietary components and colorectal adenoma or cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. The study of food-based dietary patterns in relation to chronic disease risk represents an alternative approach to the evaluation of single dietary exposures in epidemiological investigations. Results from prospective cohort and population-based case-control studies examining associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer or adenoma risk were evaluated and described in this review. Despite notable differences in population characteristics, study design, and methods used for characterizing dietary patterns across the different studies, two general dietary patterns were found to modestly predict colorectal adenoma and cancer risk. A healthier pattern consisting of greater intakes of fruits and vegetables, and lower intakes of red and processed meat, appeared protective against colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence. Findings also suggest that a less healthy pattern characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, as well as potatoes and refined carbohydrates, may increase risk. Continued research efforts are needed to evaluate the cumulative and interactive effects of numerous dietary exposures on colorectal cancer risk.
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Associations between lifestyle factors and quality of life among older long-term breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Older cancer survivors are at increased risk for secondary cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and functional decline and, thus, may benefit from health-related interventions. However, to the authors knowledge, little is known regarding the health behaviors of older cancer survivors and the associations of those behaviors with quality-of-life outcomes, especially during the long-term post-treatment period.
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Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults.
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Effects of home-based diet and exercise on functional outcomes among older, overweight long-term cancer survivors: RENEW: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Five-year survival rates for early stage colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer currently exceed 90% and are increasing. Cancer survivors are at greater risk for second malignancies, other comorbidities, and accelerated functional decline. Lifestyle interventions may provide benefit, but it is unknown whether long-term cancer survivors can modify their lifestyle behaviors sufficiently to improve functional status.
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Dietary supplement use in adult cancer survivors.
Oncol Nurs Forum
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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To assess dietary supplement use and its association with demographic and health-related characteristics among cancer survivors and to investigate differences in supplement use patterns by cancer site.
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Reach out to ENhancE Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): design, methods and recruitment challenges of a home-based exercise and diet intervention to improve physical function among long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase healthcare costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted.
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Phytochemicals and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.
Nutr Clin Pract
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A number of epidemiological studies have investigated associations between various phytochemicals and cancer risk. Phytoestrogens and carotenoids are the two most commonly studied classes of phytochemicals; phytosterols, isothiocyanates, and chlorophyll also have been investigated, although to a much lesser extent. Because there have been no systematic reviews of the literature on all phytochemicals and cancer risk to date, this article systematically reviews 96 published epidemiological studies that examined associations between phytochemicals and cancer risk. Most studies found null associations between individual phytochemicals and cancer risk at various sites. In addition, results from past studies have been largely inconsistent, and observed associations have been of relatively modest magnitude. The most consistent protective effects were observed for higher levels--dietary intake, serum, plasma, or urinary metabolites--of ?-carotene and renal cell cancer, ?-cryptoxanthin and lung cancer, isothiocyanates and lung cancer, isothiocyanates and gastrointestinal cancer, lignans and postmenopausal breast cancer, and flavonoids and lung cancer. Although elevated risk of certain cancers with higher levels of certain phytochemicals was observed, an insufficient pool of studies examining the same associations or inconsistent findings across studies limit the ability to conclude that any one phytochemical increases cancer risk. Additional research is needed to support previously identified associations in cases where only one study has examined a particular relationship. Importantly, continued research efforts are needed to evaluate the cumulative and interactive effects of numerous phytochemicals and phytochemical-rich foods on cancer risk.
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Dietary patterns differ between urban and rural older, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and are associated with body mass index.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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Older adult cancer survivors are at greater risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that can be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors can be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high-risk population.
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Isolated in a technologically connected world?: Changes in the core professional ties of female researchers in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala, India.
Sociol Q
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Using panel data gathered across two waves (2001 and 2005) from researchers in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala, India, we examine three questions: (1) To what extent do gender differences exist in the core professional networks of scientists in low-income areas? (2) How do gender differences shift over time? (3) Does use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) mediate the relationship between gender and core network composition? Our results indicate that over a period marked by dramatic increases in access to and use of various ICTs, the composition and size of female researchers core professional ties have either not changed significantly or have changed in an unexpected direction. Indeed, the size of womens ties are retracting over time rather than expanding.
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Reach out to enhance wellness home-based diet-exercise intervention promotes reproducible and sustainable long-term improvements in health behaviors, body weight, and physical functioning in older, overweight/obese cancer survivors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Diet and exercise interventions have been tested in cancer survivors as a means to reduce late effects and comorbidity, but few have assessed adherence and health outcomes long term.
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Investigating natural variation in Drosophila courtship song by the evolve and resequence approach.
Genetics
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A primary goal of population genetics is to determine the genetic basis of natural trait variation. We could significantly advance this goal by developing comprehensive genome-wide approaches to link genotype and phenotype in model organisms. Here we combine artificial selection with population-based resequencing to investigate the genetic basis of variation in the interpulse interval (IPI) of Drosophila melanogaster courtship song. We performed divergent selection on replicate populations for only 14 generations, but had considerable power to differentiate alleles that evolved due to selection from those that evolved stochastically. We identified a large number of variants that changed frequency in response to selection for this simple behavior, and they are highly underrepresented on the X chromosome. Though our power was adequate using this experimental technique, the ability to differentiate causal variants from those affected by linked selection requires further development.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.