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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cancer research in asian american, native hawaiian, and pacific islander populations: accelerating cancer knowledge by acknowledging and leveraging heterogeneity.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population is large, growing, and extremely heterogeneous. Not only do they bear unique burdens of incidence and outcomes for certain cancer types, they exhibit substantial variability in cancer incidence and survival patterns across the ethnic groups. By acknowledging and leveraging this heterogeneity through investing in cancer research within these populations, we have a unique opportunity to accelerate the availability of useful and impactful cancer knowledge. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Cancer in Asian and Pacific Islander Populations." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(11); 2202-5. ©2014 AACR.
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Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: A pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Intrauterine devices (IUDs), long-acting and reversible contraceptives, induce a number of immunological and biochemical changes in the uterine environment that could affect endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We addressed this relationship through a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. We combined individual-level data from 4 cohort and 14 case-control studies, in total 8,801 EC cases and 15,357 controls. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated pooled odds ratios (pooled-ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC risk associated with ever use, type of device, ages at first and last use, duration of use and time since last use, stratified by study and adjusted for confounders. Ever use of IUDs was inversely related to EC risk (pooled-OR?=?0.81, 95% CI?=?0.74-0.90). Compared with never use, reduced risk of EC was observed for inert IUDs (pooled-OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.58-0.82), older age at first use (?35 years pooled-OR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.43-0.67), older age at last use (?45 years pooled-OR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.50-0.72), longer duration of use (?10 years pooled-OR?=?0.61, 95% CI?=?0.52-0.71) and recent use (within 1 year of study entry pooled-OR?=?0.39, 95% CI?=?0.30-0.49). Future studies are needed to assess the respective roles of detection biases and biologic effects related to foreign body responses in the endometrium, heavier bleeding (and increased clearance of carcinogenic cells) and localized hormonal changes.
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Light at night and breast cancer risk among California teachers.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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There is convincing evidence that circadian disruption mediated by exposure to light at night promotes mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The role that light at night plays in human breast cancer etiology remains unknown. We evaluated the relationship between estimates of indoor and outdoor light at night and the risk of breast cancer among members of the California Teachers Study.
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Orthopaedic clinical care model in a pediatric orthopaedic setting: outcomes of a 1: 1 model--orthopaedic surgeon and nurse practitioner.
Orthop Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Over the last 10 years, nurse practitioners have become an essential part of the multidisciplinary orthopaedic team within a Level 1 pediatric trauma hospital. This overview will outline the process used and noted results during the development of a new model of care for pediatric orthopaedic patients, in both the hospital setting and outpatient clinics. Data from a 12-month period was reviewed in an effort to show the benefits of establishing a 1:1 model utilizing an orthopaedic surgeon and nurse practitioner. The advantages of this team concept include increased access to care, fiscal improvement, and positive patient outcomes due to standardized protocols and patient continuity.
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Continued rapid increase in thyroid cancer incidence in california: trends by patient, tumor, and neighborhood characteristics.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Incorporating 22 years of incidence data through 2009, we extend examination of these trends among a wide array of subgroups defined by patient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity), tumor (tumor size and stage), and neighborhood (socioeconomic status and residence in ethnic enclaves) characteristics, to identify possible reasons for this increase.
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Cross-cancer pleiotropic analysis of endometrial cancer: PAGE and E2C2 consortia.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), several of which have been associated with multiple cancer sites suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesized that SNPs associated with other cancers may be additionally associated with endometrial cancer. We examined 213 SNPs previously associated with 14 other cancers for their associations with endometrial cancer in 3758 endometrial cancer cases and 5966 controls of European ancestry from two consortia: Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology and the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. Study-specific logistic regression estimates adjusted for age, body mass index and the most significant principal components of genetic ancestry were combined using fixed-effect meta-analysis to evaluate the association between each SNP and endometrial cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.35×10(-4) was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. SNP rs7679673, ~6.3kb upstream of TET2 and previously reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk, was associated with endometrial cancer risk in the direction opposite to that for prostate cancer [meta-analysis odds ratio = 0.87 (per copy of the C allele), 95% confidence interval = 0.81, 0.93; P = 7.37×10(-5)] with no evidence of heterogeneity across studies (P heterogeneity = 0.66). This pleiotropic analysis is the first to suggest TET2 as a susceptibility locus for endometrial cancer.
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A pooled analysis of waist circumference and mortality in 650,000 adults.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To assess the independent effect of waist circumference on mortality across the entire body mass index (BMI) range and to estimate the loss in life expectancy related to a higher waist circumference.
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Diabetes mellitus and risk of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for endocrine cancers; however, the association with thyroid cancer is not clear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between thyroid cancer and DM.
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Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most studies have examined risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than measures of overall diet.
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Proximal humerus fractures.
Orthop Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.
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Reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and pancreatic cancer risk in the CTS.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Female steroid hormones are hypothesized to play a protective role in pancreatic cancer risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies that examined hormone-related exposures have been inconsistent. The California Teachers Study is a cohort study of female public school professionals that was established in 1995-1996. Of the 118,164 eligible study participants, 323 women were diagnosed with incident invasive pancreatic cancer through December 31, 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of pancreatic cancer risk with reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use. Current users of estrogen-only therapy at baseline (1995-1996) had a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than did participants who had never used hormone therapy (hazard ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.84). Use of estrogen-plus-progestin therapy was not associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. A longer duration of oral contraceptive use (?10 years of use compared with never use) was associated with an increased risk of cancer (hazard ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.49). Reproductive factors, including age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, and age at menopause, were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Our results suggest that increased estrogen exposure through estrogen-only therapy may reduce pancreatic cancer risk in women.
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Genome-wide association study of endometrial cancer in E2C2.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Endometrial cancer (EC), a neoplasm of the uterine epithelial lining, is the most common gynecological malignancy in developed countries and the fourth most common cancer among US women. Women with a family history of EC have an increased risk for the disease, suggesting that inherited genetic factors play a role. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of Type I EC. Stage 1 included 5,472 women (2,695 cases and 2,777 controls) of European ancestry from seven studies. We selected independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that displayed the most significant associations with EC in Stage 1 for replication among 17,948 women (4,382 cases and 13,566 controls) in a multiethnic population (African America, Asian, Latina, Hawaiian and European ancestry), from nine studies. Although no novel variants reached genome-wide significance, we replicated previously identified associations with genetic markers near the HNF1B locus. Our findings suggest that larger studies with specific tumor classification are necessary to identify novel genetic polymorphisms associated with EC susceptibility.
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Type I and II endometrial cancers: have they different risk factors?
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Endometrial cancers have long been divided into estrogen-dependent type I and the less common clinically aggressive estrogen-independent type II. Little is known about risk factors for type II tumors because most studies lack sufficient cases to study these much less common tumors separately. We examined whether so-called classical endometrial cancer risk factors also influence the risk of type II tumors.
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Determinants and within-person variability of urinary cadmium concentrations among women in northern California.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Urinary Cd (U-Cd) concentration is considered a biomarker of long-term exposure.
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Coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous.
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Early-life factors and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women: the role of adolescent body size.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Adult body size has long been known to influence breast cancer risk, and there is now increasing evidence that childhood and adolescent body size may also play a role.
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Folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer have produced inconsistent results. The statistical power to examine this association has been limited in previous studies partly because of small sample size and limited range of folate intake in some studies.
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Hormonal factors and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Despite the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer, there is limited information on its etiology. The strikingly higher rates in young women, compared with men, suggest that sex steroid hormones may be involved in the development of this disease.
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Age-specific effects of hormone therapy use on overall mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality among women in the California Teachers Study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Although the Womens Health Initiative trial suggested that menopausal hormone therapy (HT) does not reduce coronary heart disease mortality overall, subsequent results have suggested that there may be a benefit in younger women. The California Teachers Study questionnaire and mortality data were used to examine whether age modified the association between HT and the relative risk of overall mortality and ischemic heart disease deaths.
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Adulthood residential ultraviolet radiation, sun sensitivity, dietary vitamin D, and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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To lend clarity to inconsistent prior findings of an inverse association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and risk of lymphoid malignancies, we examined the association of prospectively ascertained residential ambient UVR exposure with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), multiple myeloma (MM), and classical Hodgkin lymphoma in the California Teachers Study cohort. Among 121 216 eligible women, 629 were diagnosed with NHL, 119 with MM, and 38 with Hodgkin lymphoma between 1995-1996 and 2007. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Residential UVR levels within a 20-km radius were associated with reduced risk of overall NHL (RR for highest vs lowest statewide quartile of minimum UVR [? 5100 vs < 4915 W-h/m(2)], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.80), especially diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (RR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.78) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.01), and MM (RR for maximum UVR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90). These associations were not modified by skin sensitivity to sunlight, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or neighborhood socioeconomic status. Dietary vitamin D also was not associated with risk of lymphoid malignancies. These results support a protective effect of routine residential UVR exposure against lymphomagenesis through mechanisms possibly independent of vitamin D.
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Variations in sex hormone metabolism genes, postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of endometrial cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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We investigated whether variants in sex steroid hormone metabolism genes modify the effect of hormone therapy (HT) on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women. A nested case-control study was conducted within the California Teachers Study (CTS). We genotyped htSNPs in six genes involved in the hormone metabolism in 286 endometrial cancer cases and 488 controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for each haplotype using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age. The strongest interaction was observed between duration of estrogen therapy (ET) use and haplotype 1A in CYP11A1 (p(interaction) = 0.0027; p(interaction) = 0.010 after correcting for multiple testing within each gene). The OR for endometrial cancer per copy of haplotype 1A was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.05-3.96) for long-term ET users and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.69-1.18) for never users. The most significant interaction with estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) was found for two haplotypes on CYP19A1 and EPT use (haplotype 4A, p(interaction) = 0.024 and haplotype 3B, p(interaction) = 0.043). However, neither this interaction, nor the ET or EPT interactions for any other genes, was statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Variations in CYP11A1 may modify the effect of ET use on risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer; however, larger studies are needed to explore these findings further.
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Nativity and papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates among Hispanic women in California.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Overall, the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in Hispanic women residing in the United States (US) is similar to that of non-Hispanic white women. However, little is known as to whether rates in Hispanic women vary by nativity, which may influence exposure to important risk factors.
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The association of polymorphisms in hormone metabolism pathway genes, menopausal hormone therapy, and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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The female sex steroids estrogen and progesterone are important in breast cancer etiology. It therefore seems plausible that variation in genes involved in metabolism of these hormones may affect breast cancer risk, and that these associations may vary depending on menopausal status and use of hormone therapy.
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A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Epidemiologic studies of pancreatic cancer risk have reported null or nonsignificant positive associations for obesity, while associations for height have been null. Waist and hip circumference have been evaluated infrequently. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies on 846,340 individuals was conducted; 2,135 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during follow-up. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then pooled using a random effects model. Compared to individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at baseline between 21-22.9 kg/m(2) , pancreatic cancer risk was 47% higher (95%CI:23-75%) among obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2) ) individuals. A positive association was observed for BMI in early adulthood (pooled multivariate [MV]RR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.09-1.56 comparing BMI ? 25 kg/m(2) to a BMI between 21 and 22.9 kg/m(2) ). Compared to individuals who were not overweight in early adulthood (BMI < 25 kg/m(2) ) and not obese at baseline (BMI < 30 kg/m(2) ), pancreatic cancer risk was 54% higher (95%CI = 24-93%) for those who were overweight in early adulthood and obese at baseline. We observed a 40% higher risk among individuals who had gained BMI ? 10 kg/m(2) between BMI at baseline and younger ages compared to individuals whose BMI remained stable. Results were either similar or slightly stronger among never smokers. A positive association was observed between waist to hip ratio (WHR) and pancreatic cancer risk (pooled MVRR = 1.35 comparing the highest versus lowest quartile, 95%CI = 1.03-1.78). BMI and WHR were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Maintaining normal body weight may offer a feasible approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from pancreatic cancer.
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Papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates vary significantly by birthplace in Asian American women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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To investigate how birthplace influences the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among Asian American women.
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Adult body size, hormone receptor status, and premenopausal breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the San Francisco Bay Area breast cancer study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Large body size has been associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women. Data on other racial/ethnic populations are limited. The authors examined the association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and adult body size in 672 cases and 808 controls aged ?35 years from a population-based case-control study conducted in 1995-2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (Hispanics: 375 cases, 483 controls; African Americans: 154 cases, 160 controls; non-Hispanic whites: 143 cases, 165 controls). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Height was associated with increased breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile: odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.53; P(trend) < 0.01); the association did not vary by hormone receptor status or race/ethnicity. Body mass index (measured as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared) was inversely associated with risk in all 3 racial/ethnic groups, but only for estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive tumors (body mass index ?30 vs. <25: odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.61). Other body size measures (current weight, body build, adult weight gain, young adult weight and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) were similarly inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer but not estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative disease. Despite racial/ethnic differences in body size, inverse associations were similar across the 3 racial/ethnic groups when stratified by hormone receptor status.
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Alcohol consumption over time and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Several previous studies found inverse associations between alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma. However, most studies were retrospective, and few distinguished former drinkers or infrequent drinkers from consistent nondrinkers. Therefore, the authors investigated whether history of alcohol drinking affected risks of NHL and multiple myeloma among 102,721 eligible women in the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort study in which 496 women were diagnosed with B-cell NHL and 101 were diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1995-1996 and December 31, 2007. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Risk of all types of B-cell NHL combined or multiple myeloma was not associated with self-reported past consumption of alcohol, beer, wine, or liquor at ages 18-22 years, at ages 30-35 years, or during the year before baseline. NHL subtypes were inconsistently associated with alcohol intake. However, women who were former alcohol drinkers at baseline were at elevated risk of overall B-cell NHL (rate ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.97) and follicular lymphoma (rate ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 3.28). The higher risk among former drinkers emphasizes the importance of classifying both current and past alcohol consumption and suggests that factors related to quitting drinking, rather than alcohol itself, may increase B-cell NHL risk.
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A retrospective quality improvement study of ketorolac use following spinal fusion in pediatric patients.
Orthop Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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There are studies and literature that support the claim that ketorolac use after spinal fusion in the adult population can increase the risk of pseudarthrosis, instrumentation failure, and/or nonunion. There is limited research when using ketorolac in the pediatric population, especially short-term use.
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Dietary phytocompounds and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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We examined whether dietary intake of isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, or specific foods rich in these compounds is associated with reduced risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in a large, prospective cohort of women.
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Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene and risk of endometrial cancer: a haplotype-based approach.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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It is well established that estrogen increases endometrial cancer risk, whereas progesterone opposes the estrogen effects. The PROGINS allele of the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene reduces the function of PGR and has been associated with increased risk of the endometrioid type ovarian cancer. We investigated whether genetic variation in PGR is also associated with endometrial cancer risk using a haplotype-based approach.
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Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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We investigated the association between hypertension, antihypertensive (AH) medication use, and breast cancer in a large prospective study, the California Teachers Study (CTS).
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Lifetime physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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The role of moderate physical activity and life patterns of activity in reducing endometrial cancer risk remains uncertain.
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Body size and the risk of endometrial cancer by hormone therapy use in postmenopausal women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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To investigate whether hormone therapy (HT) and obesity are associated with endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
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Pregnancy-related factors and the risk of breast carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Although pregnancy-related factors such as nulliparity and late age at first full-term pregnancy are well-established risk factors for invasive breast cancer, the roles of these factors in the natural history of breast cancer development remain unclear.
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Transdermal selegiline in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy.
Psychosomatics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) during a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is controversial.
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Body size and the risk of ovarian cancer by hormone therapy use in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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To investigate whether obesity and hormone therapy (HT) are associated with ovarian cancer risk among women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
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Hidden breast cancer disparities in Asian women: disaggregating incidence rates by ethnicity and migrant status.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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We estimated trends in breast cancer incidence rates for specific Asian populations in California to determine if disparities exist by immigrant status and age.
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Long-term postmenopausal hormone therapy and endometrial cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Estrogen-alone therapy (ET) or estrogen and progestin (EPT) as menopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been commonly used to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Treatments containing > or = 10 days per month of progestin are considered relatively safe with respect to endometrial cancer risk. However, the endometrial safety of long-term EPT regimens is uncertain. We conducted a case-control study of 311 invasive endometrial cancer cases and 570 controls nested within the California Teachers Study cohort. We used unconditional logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between long-term HT use and endometrial cancer risk, and to assess the modifying effect of body mass index (BMI). Long-term (> or = 10 years) use of ET, sequential EPT with <10 days per month progestin, and continuous-combined EPT (> or = 25 days/month progestin) were all associated with an elevated risk of endometrial cancer (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.5-8.1; OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.2; and OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3, respectively; all P(trend) < 0.001). The risk associated with short-term use was elevated only for ET preparations. The association for continuous-combined EPT was confined to thinner women (BMI, <25 kg/m2; P(interaction) = 0.03). Among heavier women (BMI, > or = 25 kg/m2), use of continuous-combined EPT was associated with a statistically nonsignificant reduction in risk. These findings confirm that long-term use of ET, sequential EPT, or, among normal weight women, continuous-combined EPT is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer.
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Recent breast cancer incidence trends according to hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Recent, international declines in breast cancer incidence are unprecedented, and the causes remain controversial. Few data sources can address breast cancer incidence trends according to pertinent characteristics like hormone therapy use history.
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Lawn mower injuries in pediatric patients.
J Trauma Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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Lawn mower injuries are painful, devastating, and life-altering. Pediatric patients who sustain these injuries suffer various forms of physical trauma. Some are minor, but many others are disfiguring or even fatal. The psychological and social impact is far-reaching as well. These injuries have high rates of morbidity, include many days lost from school, and can cause financial loss for the parents due to the hospitalization and missed work. The primary objective with regards to lawn mower injuries is prevention that is accomplished by education. However, once the patient has been injured and admitted to the hospital, then immediate treatment with timely discharge is the main objective. Excellent wound care, acceptable cosmetic appearance, and infection prevention are the ultimate goals. Use of the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) device has helped facilitate the end results. Psychological adjustment with regards to this traumatic event is also addressed immediately for both the patient and the caregivers. Inpatient and outpatient counseling and follow-up all play a role in this stressful time.
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Body size, recreational physical activity, and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk among women in the California teachers study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2009
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Nutritional status and physical activity are known to alter immune function, which may be relevant to lymphomagenesis. The authors examined body size measurements and recreational physical activity in relation to risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the prospective California Teachers Study. Between 1995 and 2007, 574 women were diagnosed with incident B-cell NHL among 121,216 eligible women aged 22-84 years at cohort entry. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazards models for all B-cell NHL combined and for the 3 most common subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Height was positively associated with risk of all B-cell NHLs (for >1.70 vs. 1.61-1.65 m, relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.96) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.41). Weight and body mass index at age 18 years were positive predictors of B-cell NHL risk overall. These findings indicate that greater height, which may reflect genetics, early life immune function, infectious exposures, nutrition, or growth hormone levels, may play a role in NHL etiology. Adiposity at age 18 years may be more relevant to NHL etiology than that in later life.
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Second primary breast cancer occurrence according to hormone receptor status.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Contralateral second primary breast cancers occur in 4% of female breast cancer survivors. Little is known about differences in risk for second primary breast cancers related to the estrogen and progesterone receptor (hormone receptor [HR]) status of the first tumor.
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Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for >or=600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for >or=400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for alpha-carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for beta-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection.
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Maximizing resources to study an uncommon cancer: E2C2--Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Endometrial cancer affects more than 40,000 women a year in the U.S. While the association of this disease with high body mass index and sex steroid hormones is well known, there are many questions about etiology that have not been resolved. Little is known about the genetic basis for risk associated with hormones or obesity, other common genetic factors associated with risk, or gene-environment interactions. E2C2, the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium, was formed in 2006 to provide a collaborative environment for addressing these questions by pooling data from existing studies. This allows for investigations of uncommon risk factors, risk for rare histologic subtypes, and associations within strata that cannot be achieved in individual studies. This report describes the establishment of the consortium, ongoing projects that demonstrate the advantages of collaborative efforts, and challenges faced. Overall, the consortium promises to provide an important means of furthering our knowledge about this cancer.
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Two estrogen-related variants in CYP19A1 and endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Common variants in CYP19A1 (the A alleles of rs749292 and rs727479) have been associated with a 10% to 20% increase in circulating estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that the presence of one or both A alleles in these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is associated with increased endometrial cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis in a large pooled analysis of 4,998 endometrial cancer cases and 8,285 controls from 10 studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. The majority of women (>66%) were whites, with smaller proportions of other races and ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, and Latinas) also included in this pooled analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between SNPs/haplotypes and endometrial cancer risk. Carrying the A allele of either of these SNPs was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, with pooled odds ratios per allele of 1.14, 95% confidence interval of 1.09-1.21, and P = 7.1 x 10(-7) for rs749292, and odds ratio per allele of 1.08, 95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.14, and P = 0.009 for rs727479. For rs749292, these associations were generally stronger among women age >or=55 years. For both SNPs, risk increased with increasing body mass index, and for rs727479, this pattern seemed stronger among women age >or=55 years (P interaction = 0.007). The combination of A alleles in the two SNPs, either by direct count or by haplotype analysis, did not increase risk above that observed for the individual SNPs. Our study provides evidence that CYP19A1 genetic variation influences susceptibility to endometrial cancer, particularly among older and obese women.
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Recreational physical activity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer among women in the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol
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Little is known about the relationship between physical activity and thyroid cancer risk, and few cohort data on this association exist. Thus, the present study aimed to prospectively examine long-term activity and risk of papillary thyroid cancer among women.
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Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of pancreatic cancer in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7-20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk.
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Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women following the cessation of hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk, but its effect may be modified by hormone therapy (HT) use, such that exposure to both may be synergistic. Because many women stopped taking HT after mid-2002, it is important to quantify risks associated with alcohol consumption in the context of HT cessation, as these risks may be more relevant to cancer prevention efforts today.
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Age at last birth in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: pooled analysis in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (P(trend) < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years.
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Body size and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer subtypes in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
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PURPOSE: To evaluate how the association between body size and breast cancer risk varies by tumor receptor subtype, host factors, and other exposures among women in the California Teachers Study cohort. METHODS: Among 52,642 postmenopausal women, 2,321 developed invasive breast cancer with known estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status (1,652 ER+PR+, 338 ER+PR-, and 312 ER-PR-) between 1995 and 2007. In a subset of 35,529 with waist circumference data, 1,377 developed invasive breast cancer with known ERPR status (991 ER+PR+, 208 ER+PR-, 169 ER-PR-) between 1997 and 2007. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Obesity, adult weight gain of ?40 pounds, greater abdominal adiposity, and greater height increased the risk of ER+PR+ breast cancer. The increased risk associated with postmenopausal obesity was limited to those who did not use hormone therapy (HT) at cohort entry (RR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78 for BMI ? 30 vs. < 25 kg/m(2); p-interaction = 0.14) and those who were not overweight or obese at age 18 (p-interaction = 0.06). The increased risk associated with greater abdominal adiposity was limited to those who were not also overweight or obese (p-interaction = 0.01). Neither obesity, abdominal adiposity, nor height was associated with the risk of ER-PR- tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of body size on postmenopausal breast cancer risk differed by hormone receptor subtype, and among women with ER+PR+ tumors, by HT use and early adult body size.
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