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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cost-effectiveness of follow-up of pulmonary nodules incidentally detected on cardiac computed tomographic angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Pulmonary nodules (PNs) are often detected incidentally during coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography, which is increasingly being used to evaluate patients with chest pain symptoms. However, the efficiency of following up on incidentally detected PN is unknown.
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Comparative analysis of 5 lung cancer natural history and screening models that reproduce outcomes of the NLST and PLCO trials.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that low-dose computed tomography screening is an effective way of reducing lung cancer (LC) mortality. However, optimal screening strategies have not been determined to date and it is uncertain whether lighter smokers than those examined in the NLST may also benefit from screening. To address these questions, it is necessary to first develop LC natural history models that can reproduce NLST outcomes and simulate screening programs at the population level.
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Annual financial impact of well-differentiated thyroid cancer care in the United States.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is a prevalent disease, which is increasing in incidence faster than any other cancer. Substantial direct medical care costs are related to the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed patients as well as the ongoing surveillance of patients who have a long life expectancy. Prior analyses of the aggregate health care costs attributable to WDTC in the United States have not been reported.
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Anticipatory guidance through DVD.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The major purpose of the study was to determine if a 5-minute DVD is an effective method for communicating anticipatory guidance to parents at their child's 4-month well-child visit. A total of 84 caregivers were randomly assigned to receive anticipatory guidance through standard care (written anticipatory guidance handout and free talk) or DVD (DVD format + standard care). Participants completed a brief questionnaire immediately before and after their visit. As anticipated, knowledge scores improved significantly from pre-test to post-test. There was also a significant interaction between format used for anticipatory guidance and time. Specifically, there was greater improvement in knowledge over time for parents in the DVD group as compared with the standard care group. Additionally, the mean knowledge level of those in the DVD group as compared with those in the standard care group trended toward significance. Finally, visit length was shortened by nearly 3 minutes in the DVD group, and close to 100% of all respondents, regardless of anticipatory guidance format, indicated that they were very satisfied with their visit and amount of information learned.
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Comparing benefits from many possible computed tomography lung cancer screening programs: extrapolating from the National Lung Screening Trial using comparative modeling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that in current and former smokers aged 55 to 74 years, with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette smoking history and who had quit smoking no more than 15 years ago, 3 annual computed tomography (CT) screens reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 20% relative to 3 annual chest X-ray screens. We compared the benefits achievable with 576 lung cancer screening programs that varied CT screen number and frequency, ages of screening, and eligibility based on smoking.
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Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program.
Curr Surg Rep
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observed in major screening trials in the United States and Europe, as well as attempts to use smoking cessation interventions to augment the benefits from lung cancer screening programs. Second, we review the interaction between smoking habits and pre/post-operative pulmonary resection outcomes, including changes in smoking behavior post-diagnosis and post-treatment. Information from these areas should allow us to maximize benefits from smoking cessation interventions through the entire lung cancer screening process, from the screen itself through potential curative resection after diagnosis.
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Assessing child care providers knowledge and attitudes regarding support of breastfeeding in a region with low breastfeeding prevalence.
J Hum Lact
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Working mothers who place their infants into out-of-home child care face many challenges to sustaining breastfeeding. Child care providers, who are in frequent close contact with young families, may be potential resources for promoting breastfeeding.
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Observation versus initial treatment for men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Observation is underutilized among men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer.
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Microsimulation model predicts survival benefit of radiofrequency ablation and stereotactic body radiotherapy versus radiotherapy for treating inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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A subset of patients with stage IA and IB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is ineligible for surgical resection and undergoes radiation therapy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and stereotactic body radiotherapy are newer potentially attractive alternative therapies.
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The impact of obesity on the rise in esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence: estimates from a disease simulation model.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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The United States has experienced an alarming and unexplained increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) since the 1970s. A concurrent increase in obesity has led some to suggest a relationship between the two trends. We explore the extent of this relationship.
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Cost-effectiveness of computed tomography screening for lung cancer in the United States.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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A randomized trial has demonstrated that lung cancer screening reduces mortality. Identifying participant and program characteristics that influence the cost-effectiveness of screening will help translate trial results into benefits at the population level.
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Annual screening strategies in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers: a comparative effectiveness analysis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Although breast cancer screening with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for breast cancer-susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutation carriers, there is no current consensus on the optimal screening regimen.
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Abdominopelvic CT increases diagnostic certainty and guides management decisions: a prospective investigation of 584 patients in a large academic medical center.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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The objective of our study was to prospectively determine how CT affects physicians diagnostic certainty and management decisions in the setting of patients with nontraumatic abdominal complaints presenting to the emergency department.
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Lung cancer treatment costs, including patient responsibility, by disease stage and treatment modality, 1992 to 2003.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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The objective of this analysis was to estimate costs for lung cancer care and evaluate trends in the share of treatment costs that are the responsibility of Medicare beneficiaries.
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Active surveillance compared with initial treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer: a decision analysis.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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In the United States, 192,000 men were diagnosed as having prostate cancer in 2009, the majority with low-risk, clinically localized disease. Treatment of these cancers is associated with substantial morbidity. Active surveillance is an alternative to initial treatment, but long-term outcomes and effect on quality of life have not been well characterized.
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Cost-effectiveness of breast MR imaging and screen-film mammography for screening BRCA1 gene mutation carriers.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening strategies in which MR imaging and screen-film mammography were used, alone and in combination, in women with BRCA1 mutations. Materials and Methods: Because this study did not involve primary data collection from individual patients, institutional review board approval was not needed. By using a simulation model, we compared three annual screening strategies for a cohort of 25-year-old BRCA1 mutation carriers, as follows: (a) screen-film mammography, (b) MR imaging, and (c) combined MR imaging and screen-film mammography (combined screening). The model was used to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and lifetime costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Input parameters were obtained from the medical literature, existing databases, and calibration. Costs (2007 U.S. dollars) and quality-of-life adjustments were derived from Medicare reimbursement rates and the medical literature. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimates on model results. Results: In the base-case analysis, annual combined screening was most effective (44.62 QALYs), and had the highest cost ($110973), followed by annual MR imaging alone (44.50 QALYs, $108641), and annual mammography alone (44.46 QALYs, $100336). Adding annual MR imaging to annual mammographic screening cost $69125 for each additional QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis indicated that, when the screening MR imaging cost increased to $960 (base case, $577), or breast cancer risk by age 70 years decreased below 58% (base case, 65%), or the sensitivity of combined screening decreased below 76% (base case, 94%), the cost of adding MR imaging to mammography exceeded $100000 per QALY. Conclusion: Annual combined screening provides the greatest life expectancy and is likely cost-effective when the value placed on gaining an additional QALY is in the range of $50000-$100000. (c) RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.09091086/-/DC1.
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Calibration methods used in cancer simulation models and suggested reporting guidelines.
Pharmacoeconomics
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Increasingly, computer simulation models are used for economic and policy evaluation in cancer prevention and control. A models predictions of key outcomes, such as screening effectiveness, depend on the values of unobservable natural history parameters. Calibration is the process of determining the values of unobservable parameters by constraining model output to replicate observed data. Because there are many approaches for model calibration and little consensus on best practices, we surveyed the literature to catalogue the use and reporting of these methods in cancer simulation models. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1980 through 2006) for articles on cancer-screening models and supplemented search results with articles from our personal reference databases. For each article, two authors independently abstracted pre-determined items using a standard form. Data items included cancer site, model type, methods used for determination of unobservable parameter values and description of any calibration protocol. All authors reached consensus on items of disagreement. Reviews and non-cancer models were excluded. Articles describing analytical models, which estimate parameters with statistical approaches (e.g. maximum likelihood) were catalogued separately. Models that included unobservable parameters were analysed and classified by whether calibration methods were reported and if so, the methods used. The review process yielded 154 articles that met our inclusion criteria and, of these, we concluded that 131 may have used calibration methods to determine model parameters. Although the term calibration was not always used, descriptions of calibration or model fitting were found in 50% (n = 66) of the articles, with an additional 16% (n = 21) providing a reference to methods. Calibration target data were identified in nearly all of these articles. Other methodological details, such as the goodness-of-fit metric, were discussed in 54% (n = 47 of 87) of the articles reporting calibration methods, while few details were provided on the algorithms used to search the parameter space. Our review shows that the use of cancer simulation modelling is increasing, although thorough descriptions of calibration procedures are rare in the published literature for these models. Calibration is a key component of model development and is central to the validity and credibility of subsequent analyses and inferences drawn from model predictions. To aid peer-review and facilitate discussion of modelling methods, we propose a standardized Calibration Reporting Checklist for model documentation.
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Calibration of disease simulation model using an engineering approach.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Calibrating a disease simulation models outputs to existing clinical data is vital to generate confidence in the models predictive ability. Calibration involves two challenges: 1) defining a total goodness-of-fit (GOF) score for multiple targets if simultaneous fitting is required, and 2) searching for the optimal parameter set that minimizes the total GOF score (i.e., yields the best fit). To address these two prominent challenges, we have applied an engineering approach to calibrate a microsimulation model, the Lung Cancer Policy Model (LCPM).
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Cost-effectiveness of alternating magnetic resonance imaging and digital mammography screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers.
Cancer
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Current clinical guidelines recommend earlier, more intensive breast cancer screening with both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and mammography for women with breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutations. Unspecified details of screening schedules are a challenge for implementing guidelines.
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Chapter 3: Cohort life tables by smoking status, removing lung cancer as a cause of death.
Risk Anal.
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The purpose of this study was to develop life tables by smoking status removing lung cancer as a cause of death. These life tables are inputs to studies that compare the effectiveness of lung cancer treatments or interventions, and provide a way to quantify time until death from causes other than lung cancer. The study combined actuarial and statistical smoothing methods, as well as data from multiple sources, to develop separate life tables by smoking status, birth cohort, by single year of age, and by sex. For current smokers, separate life tables by smoking quintiles were developed based on the average number of cigarettes smoked per day by birth cohort. The end product is the creation of six non-lung-cancer life tables for males and six tables for females: five current smoker quintiles and one for never smokers. Tables for former smokers are linear combinations of the appropriate table based on the current smoker quintile before quitting smoking and the never smoker probabilities, plus added covariates for the smoking quit age and time since quitting.
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Chapter 13: CISNET lung models: comparison of model assumptions and model structures.
Risk Anal.
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Sophisticated modeling techniques can be powerful tools to help us understand the effects of cancer control interventions on population trends in cancer incidence and mortality. Readers of journal articles are, however, rarely supplied with modeling details. Six modeling groups collaborated as part of the National Cancer Institutes Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) to investigate the contribution of U.S. tobacco-control efforts toward reducing lung cancer deaths over the period 1975-2000. The six models included in this monograph were developed independently and use distinct, complementary approaches toward modeling the natural history of lung cancer. The models used the same data for inputs, and agreed on the design of the analysis and the outcome measures. This article highlights aspects of the models that are most relevant to similarities of or differences between the results. Structured comparisons can increase the transparency of these complex models.
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Chapter 9: The MGH-HMS lung cancer policy model: tobacco control versus screening.
Risk Anal.
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The natural history model underlying the MGH Lung Cancer Policy Model (LCPM) does not include the two-stage clonal expansion model employed in other CISNET lung models. We used the LCPM to predict numbers of U.S. lung cancer deaths for ages 30-84 between 1975 and 2000 under four scenarios as part of the comparative modeling analysis described in this issue. The LCPM is a comprehensive microsimulation model of lung cancer development, progression, detection, treatment, and survival. Individual-level patient histories are aggregated to estimate cohort or population-level outcomes. Lung cancer states are defined according to underlying disease variables, test results, and clinical events. By simulating detailed clinical procedures, the LCPM can predict benefits and harms attributable to a variety of patient management practices, including annual screening programs. Under the scenario of observed smoking patterns, predicted numbers of deaths from the calibrated LCPM were within 2% of observed over all years (1975-2000). The LCPM estimated that historical tobacco control policies achieved 28.6% (25.2% in men, 30.5% in women) of the potential reduction in U.S. lung cancer deaths had smoking had been eliminated entirely. The hypothetical adoption in 1975 of annual helical CT screening of all persons aged 55-74 with at least 30 pack-years of cigarette exposure to historical tobacco control would have yielded a proportion realized of 39.0% (42.0% in men, 33.3% in women). The adoption of annual screening would have prevented less than half as many lung cancer deaths as the elimination of cigarette smoking.
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Impact of reduced tobacco smoking on lung cancer mortality in the United States during 1975-2000.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
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Considerable effort has been expended on tobacco control strategies in the United States since the mid-1950s. However, we have little quantitative information on how changes in smoking behaviors have impacted lung cancer mortality. We quantified the cumulative impact of changes in smoking behaviors that started in the mid-1950s on lung cancer mortality in the United States over the period 1975-2000.
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Using radiation risk models in cancer screening simulations: important assumptions and effects on outcome projections.
Radiology
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To evaluate the effect of incorporating radiation risk into microsimulation (first-order Monte Carlo) models for breast and lung cancer screening to illustrate effects of including radiation risk on patient outcome projections.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.