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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: A global overview.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.
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HIV genomic mutations causing resistance to antiretroviral drugs in seropositive Sicilians.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Through the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy a significant reduction occurred in mortality and morbidity caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The use of antiretroviral drugs resulted in the emergence of resistant viral strains due to mutations that cause a selective advantage to the virus. The aim of our study is to monitor the HIV-1 infection in Sicilians patients evaluating the presence of mutations that make the virus resistant to the therapy. The QIAGEN QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit was used to extract HIV-1 viral RNA from 300 patients while the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene DNA Sequencing System determined viral mutations in the RNA samples. The analysis showed that from 300 subjects, 116 developed Antiretroviral Drug Resistance. The percentage of patients with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and protease inhibitor was 26%, 23% and 20%, respectively. Comparison between drug resistances and mutations showed that 134 individuals had mutations in genes codifying for reverse transcriptase but a little more than 50% were associated with resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors, in particular 78 and 68 subjects developed drug resistances to NRTI and NNRTI classes respectively. Subjects that showed mutations in genes codifying for protease were 216 but only 59 of these were associated with resistance to protease inhibitors. Our findings emphasize the importance of continued resistance surveillance. Monitoring of transmitted resistance continues to be needed among treatment-exposed patients because of the benefit it provides for the development of drugs effective against the most frequently found drug-resistant viruses.
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Nutrient-based dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The role of various foods and nutrients, and their combinations, on prostate cancer risk remains largely undefined. We addressed therefore the issue of complex dietary patterns.
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Worldwide trends in gastric cancer mortality (1980-2011), with predictions to 2015, and incidence by subtype.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Gastric cancer incidence and mortality decreased substantially over the last decades in most countries worldwide, with differences in the trends and distribution of the main topographies across regions. To monitor recent mortality trends (1980-2011) and to compute short-term predictions (2015) of gastric cancer mortality in selected countries worldwide, we analysed mortality data provided by the World Health Organization. We also analysed incidence of cardia and non-cardia cancers using data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (2003-2007). The joinpoint regression over the most recent calendar periods gave estimated annual percent changes (EAPC) around -3% for the European Union (EU) and major European countries, as well as in Japan and Korea, and around -2% in North America and major Latin American countries. In the United States of America (USA), EU and other major countries worldwide, the EAPC, however, were lower than in previous years. The predictions for 2015 show that a levelling off of rates is expected in the USA and a few other countries. The relative contribution of cardia and non-cardia gastric cancers to the overall number of cases varies widely, with a generally higher proportion of cardia cancers in countries with lower gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates (e.g. the USA, Canada and Denmark). Despite the favourable mortality trends worldwide, in some countries the declines are becoming less marked. There still is the need to control Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors, as well as to improve diagnosis and management, to further reduce the burden of gastric cancer.
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Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and gastric cancer risk in Italy.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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We investigated gastric cancer risk in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet using data from two case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1985 and 2007, including 999 incidents, histologically confirmed gastric cancers and 2,628 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-neoplastic diseases. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) based on nine of the major characteristics of the Mediterranean diet in the overall dataset. The Mediterranean Dietary Pattern adherence index (MDP) and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) were considered in the second study only. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of gastric cancer for categories of the three scores using multiple logistic regression models. We found a reduced risk of gastric cancer for increasing levels of the MDS: as compared to subjects in the lowest category of the MDS, the ORs were 0.78, 0.61 and 0.57 in subsequent levels of MDS, with a significant trend in risk. Risk estimates were consistent across strata of age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index, and family history of gastric cancer. We also observed a decreased risk of gastric cancer for the highest versus the lowest quintile for MDP and MAI, with OR of 0.58 and 0.71, respectively. Our study provides convincing evidence of a beneficial role of the Mediterranean diet on gastric cancer.
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Nutritional factors, physical activity, and breast cancer by hormonal receptor status.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To investigate the association between food and nutrient intake, occupational and leisure-time physical activity, and body mass index and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status.
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Lung cancer mortality in European men: trends and predictions.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Lung cancer mortality in men from the European Union (EU) peaked in the late 1980s at an age-standardised (world standard population) rate over 53/100,000 and declined subsequently to reach 44/100,000 in the early 2000s. To provide a comprehensive picture of recent trends in male lung cancer mortality in Europe, we analyzed available data from the World Health Organization up to 2009 and predicted future rates to 2015. Lung cancer mortality rates in EU men continued to fall over recent years, to reach a value of 41.1/100,000 in 2005-2009. The fall was similar at all-ages and in middle-aged men (less than 2% per year over most recent years), but was appreciably larger in young men (aged 20-44 years, over 5% per year). A favourable trend is thus likely to be maintained in the foreseeable future, although the predicted overall EU rate in 2015 is still over 35/100,000, i.e., higher than the US rate in 2007 (33.7/100,000). Over most recent calendar years, overall male lung cancer rates were around 35-40/100,000 in western Europe, as compared to over 50/100,000 in central and eastern Europe. Within western Europe, lung cancer rates were lower in northern countries such as Sweden, but also Finland and the UK (below 30/100,000), where the tobacco-related epidemic started earlier and rates have long been declining, whereas mortality was high in Belgium (51.6), France (42.3), the Netherlands and Spain (around 43.0), where the epidemic started later but is persisting. Widespread measures for smoking control and cessation in middle-aged European men, i.e., in the generations where smoking prevalence used to be high, would lead to appreciable reductions in male lung cancer mortality in the near future. This is particularly urgent in central and eastern European countries.
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Hodgkins lymphoma mortality in the Americas, 1997-2008: achievements and persistent inadequacies.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Although therapeutic advancements have made Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) a largely curable disease, trends in HL mortality have been variable across countries. To provide updated information on HL mortality in the Americas, overall and 20-44 years age-standardized (world population) mortality rates from HL were derived for the 12 Latin American countries providing valid data to the World Health Organization database and with more than two million of inhabitants. For comparative purpose, data for the United States and Canada were also presented. Trends in mortality over the 1997 to 2008 period are based on joinpoint regression analysis. Declines in HL mortality were registered in all Latin American countries except in Venezuela. In most recent years, HL mortality had fallen to about 0.3/100,000 men and 0.2/100,000 women in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Guatemala, that is, to values similar to North America. Despite some declines, rates remained high in Cuba (1/100,000 men and 0.7/100,000 women), Costa Rica and Mexico as well as in Venezuela (between 0.5 and 0.6/100,000 men and between 0.3 and 0.5/100,000 women). In young adults, trends were more favorable in all Latin American countries except Cuba, whose rates remained exceedingly high (0.8/100,000 men and 0.6/100,000 women). Thus, appreciable declines in HL mortality were observed in most Latin America over the last decade, and several major countries reached values comparable to North America. Substantial excess mortality was still observed in Cuba, Costa Rica, Mexico and Venezuela, calling for urgent interventions to improve HL management in these countries.
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The decline in breast cancer mortality in Europe: an update (to 2009).
Breast
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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We updated trends in breast cancer mortality in Europe up to the late 2000s. In the EU, age-adjusted (world standard population) breast cancer mortality rates declined by 6.9% between 2002 and 2006, from 17.9 to 16.7/100,000. The largest falls were in northern European countries, but more recent declines were also observed in central and eastern Europe. In 2007, all major European countries had overall breast cancer rates between 15 and 19/100,000. In relative terms, the declines in mortality were larger at younger age (-11.6% at age 20-49 years between 2002 and 2007 in the EU), and became smaller with advancing age (-6.6% at age 50-69, -5.0% at age 70-79 years). The present report confirms and further quantifies the persisting steady fall in breast cancer mortality in Europe over the last 25-30 years, which is mainly due to advancements in the therapy.
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Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality in young adults: recent trends in Europe.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Over the last two decades, mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) declined by about 30% in the European Union (EU).
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Cancer mortality trend analysis in Italy, 1970-2007.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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To provide an updated review of cancer mortality trends in Italy, cancer mortality and census data, from 1970 to 2007, were extracted from the WHO mortality database and analyzed using age-specific and standardized rates, and joinpoint regression. Total cancer mortality rates in men have been declining by 1.8% yearly since 1994, reaching a rate of 147 per 100 000 residents (world standard) in 2007. In women, total cancer mortality rates have been decreasing by 1.1% yearly since 1991, resulting in a standardized mortality rate of 85 per 100 000 residents in 2007. Avoided deaths, compared with rates of 1988, from lung, intestinal, stomach, and breast cancers amount to 30 646. In men, trends were driven by cancers of the lung and other tobacco-related sites, intestines, and stomach. Favorable trends for cancers of the breast, intestines, stomach, and uterus contributed to falls in mortality rate in women. Downward trends were seen in both sexes for Hodgkins lymphoma, bone cancer, and leukemias. Lung cancer in women showed an upward trend, with mortality rates increasing by 2.6% yearly since 1997, becoming the second cause of cancer mortality in middle-aged women. Rising trends were seen in women for oral and pancreatic cancers, as well. The favorable trends in cancer mortality are related to reduced tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption in men, advancements in treatment and management for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, leukemias, and a few other rare treatable cancers, and improved diagnosis of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. The greater role of tobacco-related deaths in women suggests the need for targeted strategies.
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Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico, 1981-2007.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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The objective of this study was to provide information on recent trends in cancer mortality in Mexico. We analyzed data provided by the World Health Organization, using joinpoint analysis to detect changes in trends between 1981 and 2007. For most cancers, mortality was upward but started to decline in the late 1980s/early 1990s for both sexes. Overall cancer mortality was 75.53/100 000 men, world standard, and 69.2/100 000 women in 2005-2007. Mortality from uterine cancer declined by approximately 2.5% per year in the 1990s, and by approximately 5% per year in the last decade, but its rates remained exceedingly high (9.7/100 000 in 2005-2007). Other major declines over recent years were those of stomach cancer (approximately 2.5% per year, with rates of 6.6/100 000 in men and 4.9/100 000 in women in 2005-2007) and lung cancer (2-2.5% per year, 11.0/100 000 in men and 4.5/100 000 in women in 2005-2007). Mortality leveled off only since the early 1990s for breast and prostate, and since the late 1990s for colorectal cancer. Death rates from cancer in Mexico remained low on a worldwide scale and showed favorable trends over more recent calendar years. Mortality from (cervix) uterine cancer still represents a major public health priority in this country.
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Age-period-cohort analysis of oral cancer mortality in Europe: the end of an epidemic?
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Over the last decade, mortality from oral and pharyngeal cancer has been declining in most European countries, but it had been increasing substantially in Hungary, Slovakia and a few other countries of central Europe, reaching rates comparable to those of lung cancer in several western European countries in males. To update trends in oral cancer mortality and further analyse the recent epidemic in central Europe, official death certifications for oral and pharyngeal cancer for 37 European countries were derived over the period 1970-2007, and an age-period-cohort model was fitted for selected countries. Male oral cancer mortality continued to decline in most European countries, including the Russian Federation, and, more importantly, it also started to decline in some of the countries with the highest male rates, i.e. Hungary and Slovakia; persisting rises were, however, observed in Belarus, Bulgaria and Romania. Oral cancer mortality rates for women were lower than in men and showed no appreciable trend over recent periods in the EU overall. Estimates from the age-period-cohort analysis for most selected countries showed a fall in effects for the cohorts born after the 1950s. For the period effect displayed a rise for the earlier periods, an inversion in the 1990 s and a continuous fall up to the last studied period. Only some former non-market economy countries, like Romania, Ukraine and Lithuania, had rising cohort effect trends up to most recent generations. The major finding of this updated analysis of oral cancer mortality is the leveling of the epidemic for men in most European countries, including Hungary and other central European countries, where mortality from this cancer was exceedingly high. These trends essentially reflect the changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption in various populations.
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Trends in mortality from urologic cancers in Europe, 1970-2008.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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In recent decades, there have been substantial changes in mortality from urologic cancers in Europe.
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Childhood cancer mortality in America, Asia, and Oceania, 1970 through 2007.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Over the last 4 decades, childhood cancer mortality declined in most developed areas of the world. However, scant information is available from middle-income and developing countries. The authors analyzed and compared patterns in childhood cancer mortality in 24 developed and middle-income countries in America, Asia, and Oceania between 1970 and 2007.
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Intracellular accumulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and nucleolin re-localization are associated with pre-lethal ultrastructural lesions in circulating T lymphocytes: the HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation revisited.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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The HIV-induced demise of CD4-T cells is thought to be a result of the execution of genetically programmed cell death that occurs in lymphoid tissue, where many resident T cells are chronically hyperactivated. Since HIV-induced alterations of cell cycle control has been often indicated as prominent mechanism of immune hyper activation and cause of apoptotic death, the signal pathway involved in cell cycle dysregulation of T lymphocytes from HIV infected patients was extensively studied. Here, we also demonstrate that circulating T lymphocytes leave lymphoid tissues with diffused regressive lesions (vacuolization, blebbing, nuclear evanescence and organelle swelling). Equally diffused are biochemical anomalies that accompany the overall disarrangement of cell structure, particularly the fragmentation and diffusion into the cytoplasm of C23/nucleolin, the intracellular accumulation of short lived regulatory proteins and the decrease in expression of membrane proteins. All this is something more than a cell cycle-related remodelling of cell morphology and biochemical mechanisms, and rather recalls a necrotic/oncotic cell damage. Since these changes are associated with adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, we give evidence for alteration of cell cycle control developing in conditions of scarce energy supply.
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Recent trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Colorectal cancer mortality has been declining over the last two decades in Europe, particularly in women, the trends being, however, different across countries and age groups. We updated to 2007 colorectal cancer mortality trends in Europe using data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Rates were analyzed for the overall population and separately in young, middle-age and elderly populations. In the European Union (EU), between 1997 and 2007 mortality from colorectal cancer declined by around 2% per year, from 19.7 to 17.4/100,000 men (world standardized rates) and from 12.5 to 10.5/100,000 women. Persisting favorable trends were observed in countries of western and northern Europe, while there were more recent declines in several countries of eastern Europe, including the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia particularly in women (but not Romania and the Russian Federation). In 2007, a substantial excess in colorectal cancer mortality was still observed in Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia in men (rates over 25/100,000), and in Hungary, Norway, Denmark and Slovakia in women (rates over 14/100,000). Colorectal mortality trends were more favorable in the young (30-49 years) from most European countries, with a decline of ?2% per year since the early 1990s in both men and women from the EU. The recent decreases in colorectal mortality rates in several European countries are likely due to improvements in (early) diagnosis and treatment, with a consequent higher survival from the disease. Interventions to further reduce colorectal cancer burden are, however, still warranted, particularly in eastern European countries.
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Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and the risk of stomach cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Flavonoids have been suggested to be responsible for the potential beneficial properties of fruit and vegetables on stomach cancer risk. To provide further information on flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and gastric cancer risk, we analyzed data from a case-control study conducted in Italy. Subjects were 230 cases with incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 547 frequency-matched controls, admitted to the same hospitals of cases for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Subjects were interviewed using a reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models including terms for major recognized gastric cancer risk factors. The ORs of the highest quintile of intake compared to the lowest were below unity for all classes of flavonoids, in the absence, however, of significant associations. Strong inverse relations were found for proanthocyanidins. The OR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.76) for monomers and dimers combined and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.21-0.63) for polymers with three or more mers. Further adjustment for fruit and vegetables, or vitamin C, did not materially change these associations. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest that dietary proanthocyanidins have a favorable role on gastric cancer risk.
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An age-period-cohort analysis of gastric cancer mortality from 1950 to 2007 in Europe.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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To analyze the components of the favorable trends in gastric cancer in Europe.
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Cancer mortality in Italy, 2003.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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This report provides data and statistics for cancer mortality in Italy in 2003, updating previous work on the issue.
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Nutrient dietary patterns and gastric cancer risk in Italy.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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There have been several studies on diet and gastric cancer, but only a few investigations have considered the role of dietary patterns.
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Childhood cancer mortality in Europe, 1970-2007.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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To update trends in childhood cancer mortality in Europe, we analysed mortality data derived from the World Health Organization for all childhood neoplasms, bone and kidney cancers, non-Hodgkins lymphomas (NHL) and leukaemias, in 30 European countries up to 2007. Between 1990-1994 and 2005-2007, mortality from all neoplasms steadily declined in most European countries (from 5.2 to 3.5/100,000 boys and from 4.3 to 2.8/100,000 girls in the European Union, EU). In 2005-2007, however, mortality rates from childhood cancers were still higher in countries from Eastern (4.9/100,000 boys and 3.9/100,000 girls) and Southern (4.0/100,000 boys and 3.1/100,000 girls) Europe than in those from Western (3.1/100,000 boys and 2.5/100,000 girls) and Northern (3.2/100,000 boys and 2.5/100,000 girls) Europe. Similar temporal trends and geographic patterns were observed for leukaemias, with declines from 1.7 to 0.9/100,000 boys and from 1.3 to 0.7/100,000 girls between 1990-1994 and 2005-2007 in the EU. For kidney cancer and NHL mortality rates were low and have been declining in larger European countries over the last 15 years. The pattern of trends was less clear for bone cancer, with no systematic downward trends at age 0-14, though some fall was evident at age 15-19. Thus, mortality from childhood cancer continued to decline over more recent years in most European countries. However, the mortality rates in Eastern - but also Southern - European countries in the mid 2000s were similar to those in the Western and Northern European ones in the early 1990s. Some further improvement in childhood cancer mortality is therefore achievable through more widespread and better adoption of currently available treatments.
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Recent patterns in gastric cancer: a global overview.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Until the mid-1990s, gastric cancer has been the first cause of cancer death worldwide, although rates had been declining for several decades and gastric cancer has become a relatively rare cancer in North America and in most Northern and Western Europe, but not in Eastern Europe, Russia and selected areas of Central and South America or East Asia. We analyzed gastric cancer mortality in Europe and other areas of the world from 1980 to 2005 using joinpoint regression analysis, and provided updated site-specific incidence rates from 51 selected registries. Over the last decade, the annual percent change (APC) in mortality rate was around -3, -4% for the major European countries. The APC were similar for the Republic of Korea (APC = -4.3%), Australia (-3.7%), the USA (-3.6%), Japan (-3.5%), Ukraine (-3%) and the Russian Federation (-2.8%). In Latin America, the decline was less marked, but constant with APC around -1.6% in Chile and Brazil, -2.3% in Argentina and Mexico and -2.6% in Colombia. Cancers in the fundus and pylorus are more common in high incidence and mortality areas and have been declining more than cardia gastric cancer. Steady downward trends persist in gastric cancer mortality worldwide even in middle aged population, and hence further appreciable declines are likely in the near future.
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Mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Europe and other areas of the world: an update.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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To update trends in mortality from coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) over the period 1981-2004 in Europe, the USA, Latin America, Japan and other selected areas of the world.
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Dietary fiber and stomach cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Fiber intake has been inversely related to stomach cancer risk, although this issue is still controversial.
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Coffee, black tea and risk of gastric cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To provide information about the association of coffee, black tea with gastric cancer risk.
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Cancer mortality in Italy, 2008, and predictions for 2012.
Tumori
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This report provides up-to-date data and statistics for cancer mortality in Italy in 2008, and predicts the figures and rates for selected cancer sites for 2012.
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Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions.
Lung Cancer
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Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates.
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Trends in mortality from leukemia in Europe: an update to 2009 and a projection to 2012.
Int. J. Cancer
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We considered trends in mortality from leukemia in Europe over the period 1970-2009 using data from the World Health Organization. We computed age-standardized (world population) mortality rates, at all ages and in selected age groups, in 11 selected European countries, the European Union (EU) and, for comparative purposes, in the USA and Japan. For the EU, we also provided projections of the mortality to 2012. Over the period considered, mortality from leukemia steadily declined in most European countries in children and young adults, as well as in western and southern Europe at middle-age (45-69 years); in central/eastern Europe, reductions at ages 45-69 started since the mid-late 1990s. In the EU, annual percent changes were -3.7% in males and -3.8% in females at age 0-14, -2% in both sexes at age 15-44, and -0.6% in males and -1% in females at middle-age and overall. No decline was observed at age 70 or more. Between 1997 and 2007, overall EU rates decreased from 5.4 to 4.8/100,000 males and from 3.4 to 2.9/100,000 females. Declines were from 6.2 to 5.5/100,000 males and from 3.7 to 3.2/100,000 females in the USA and from 3.9 to 3.5/100,000 males and from 2.5 to 2.0/100,000 females in Japan. Projected overall rates in the EU at 2012 are 4.3/100,000 males (-11% compared to 2007) and 2.6/100,000 females (-12%).
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Prevalence of Self-reported Skin Complaints and Avoidance of Common Daily Life Consumer Products in Selected European Regions.
JAMA Dermatol
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IMPORTANCE Skin disorders are common in the general population, and they may be associated with significant disability. The use of daily skin products may affect the appearance and severity of skin conditions. OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of reported itchy rash lasting longer than 3 days among the general population and to evaluate lifetime avoidance of different types of consumer products because of skin problems. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study comprised a large descriptive epidemiological survey of the general population conducted in 6 European regions from August 20, 2008, to October 10, 2011. Participants were a random sample of individuals aged 18 to 74 years, based on electoral precincts. The participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. EXPOSURES Lifetime exposure to products of common use was considered, including toiletry items that remained on the skin or were rinsed off and household and functional items. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The 1-month, 1-year, and lifetime age-standardized prevalence rates of itchy rash that lasted longer than 3 days. RESULTS In total, 12?377 individuals (53.9% female; median age, 43 years) were interviewed. The overall prevalences of itchy rash were 19.3% (95% CI, 18.6%-20.0%) during the month preceding the interview, 31.8% (95% CI, 31.0%-32.6%) during the preceding year, and 51.7% (95% CI, 50.8%-52.6%) over a lifetime. In addition, the percentage of individuals who reported avoidance of any product varied from 37.0% for products intended to be left on the skin to 17.7% for household or functional products. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our findings confirmed the magnitude of skin problems among the general population reported in other surveys. Although itchy rash is a nonspecific manifestation, it may be considered in epidemiological surveys to reflect a constellation of skin conditions and to summarize the burden of these conditions on general health.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.