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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relation between national-level tobacco control policies and individual-level voluntary home smoking bans in Europe.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Little is known about the relationship between national tobacco control policies and implementation of private home smoking bans.
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Adherence to a healthy diet according to the world health organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from europe and the United States.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States.
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TGF? Receptor 1: An Immune Susceptibility Gene in HPV-Associated Cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Only a minority of those exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV) develop HPV-related cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. Because host immunity affects infection and progression to cancer, we tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in immune-related genes is a determinant of susceptibility to oropharyngeal cancer and other HPV-associated cancers by performing a multitier integrative computational analysis with oropharyngeal cancer data from a head and neck cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). Independent analyses, including single-gene, gene-interconnectivity, protein-protein interaction, gene expression, and pathway analysis, identified immune genes and pathways significantly associated with oropharyngeal cancer. TGF?R1, which intersected all tiers of analysis and thus selected for validation, replicated significantly in the head and neck cancer GWAS limited to HPV-seropositive cases and an independent cervical cancer GWAS. The TGF?R1 containing p38-MAPK pathway was significantly associated with oropharyngeal cancer and cervical cancer, and TGF?R1 was overexpressed in oropharyngeal cancer, cervical cancer, and HPV(+) head and neck cancer tumors. These concordant analyses implicate TGF?R1 signaling as a process dysregulated across HPV-related cancers. This study demonstrates that genetic variation in immune-related genes is associated with susceptibility to oropharyngeal cancer and implicates TGF?R1/TGF? signaling in the development of both oropharyngeal cancer and cervical cancer. Better understanding of the immunogenetic basis of susceptibility to HPV-associated cancers may provide insight into host/virus interactions and immune processes dysregulated in the minority of HPV-exposed individuals who progress to cancer. Cancer Res; 74(23); 1-12. ©2014 AACR.
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Oats and bowel disease: a systematic literature review.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Whole-grain foods such as oats may protect against colorectal cancer and have benefits on inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on risk factors for bowel disease. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Thirty-eight articles describing twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies carried out in participants with a history of colorectal adenomas found no effects of increased oat-bran intake on indirect risk makers for colorectal cancer. One of two interventions with oat bran in patients with ulcerative colitis showed small improvements in the patients' conditions. Most of the eleven studies carried out in adults with coeliac disease showed no negative effects of uncontaminated oat consumption. The fourteen studies carried out in volunteers with no history of bowel disease suggest that oats or oat bran can significantly increase stool weight and decrease constipation, but there is a lack of evidence to support a specific effect of oats on bowel function compared with other cereals. A long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran could benefit inflammatory bowel disorders, but this remains to be proven. A protective effect on colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence has not yet been convincingly shown. The majority of patients with coeliac disease could consume up to 100 g/d of uncontaminated oats, which would increase the acceptability of, and adherence to, a gluten-free diet.
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Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.
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Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.
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DataSHIELD: taking the analysis to the data, not the data to the analysis.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Research in modern biomedicine and social science requires sample sizes so large that they can often only be achieved through a pooled co-analysis of data from several studies. But the pooling of information from individuals in a central database that may be queried by researchers raises important ethico-legal questions and can be controversial. In the UK this has been highlighted by recent debate and controversy relating to the UK's proposed 'care.data' initiative, and these issues reflect important societal and professional concerns about privacy, confidentiality and intellectual property. DataSHIELD provides a novel technological solution that can circumvent some of the most basic challenges in facilitating the access of researchers and other healthcare professionals to individual-level data.
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Adult cancer clinical trials that fail to complete: an epidemic?
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The number and diversity of cancer therapeutics in the pipeline has increased over the past decade due to an enhanced understanding of cancer biology and the identification of novel therapeutic targets. At the same time, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and the regulatory burdens associated with clinical drug development have progressively increased. The finite number of eligible patients and limited financial resources available to evaluate promising new therapeutics represent rate-limiting factors in the effort to translate preclinical discoveries into the next generation of standard therapeutic approaches. Optimal use of resources requires understanding and ultimately addressing inefficiencies in the cancer clinical trials system. Prior analyses have demonstrated that a large proportion of trials initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Group system are never completed. While NCI Cooperative Group trials are important, they represent only a small proportion of all cancer clinical trials performed. Herein, we explore the problem of cancer clinical trials that fail to complete within the broader cancer clinical trials enterprise. Among 7776 phase II-III adult cancer clinical trials initiated between 2005-2011, we found a seven-year cumulative incidence of failure to complete of approximately 20% (95% confidence interval = 18% to 22%). Nearly 48000 patients were enrolled in trials that failed to complete. These trials likely contribute little to the scientific knowledge base, divert resources and patients from answering other critical questions, and represent a barrier to progress.
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Etiologic heterogeneity among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises biologically and clinically heterogeneous subtypes. Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes.
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Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for peripheral T-cell lymphomas: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Accounting for 10%-15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Western populations, peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are the most common T-cell lymphoma but little is known about their etiology. Our aim was to identify etiologic risk factors for PTCL overall, and for specific PTCL subtypes, by analyzing data from 15 epidemiologic studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium.
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Rationale and Design of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the most common hematologic malignancy, consists of numerous subtypes. The etiology of NHL is incompletely understood, and increasing evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by NHL subtype. However, small numbers of cases have made investigation of subtype-specific risks challenging. The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium therefore undertook the NHL Subtypes Project, an international collaborative effort to investigate the etiologies of NHL subtypes. This article describes in detail the project rationale and design.
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The impact of the regimen of screening on lung cancer cure: a comparison of I-ELCAP and NLST.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the regimen of screening on the frequency of early diagnosis and resection in two computed tomography screening programs. The stage and size distribution of all screen-diagnosed lung cancers was compared. A total of 775 patients in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) and 664 patients in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were screen-diagnosed; that is, resulting from a positive result requiring further diagnostic workup. The frequency of stage I diagnoses, resections, tumor size, and lung cancer-specific survival were determined. Cox regression was used to identify the key determinants of lung cancer cure. The frequency of clinical stage I lung cancer in I-ELCAP was 82%, and in the NLST it was 67% (P<0.0001). The frequency of stage I (pathologic and clinical if not resected) was 78% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Surgical resection was performed in 86% (664/755) in I-ELCAP and 76% (492/644, P<0.0001) in the NLST. The average tumor size was 17?mm in I-ELCAP and 23?mm in the NLST (P<0.0001). The 5-year survival rate was 83% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Cox regression showed that I-ELCAP provided a 50% better survival benefit than the NLST and that stage I and resection were key determinants of survival, independent of age, smoking history, and tumor size. The higher frequency of stage I disease and resection and smaller tumor size resulted in a significantly higher survival rate in I-ELCAP than in the NLST. These differences strongly support the importance of a specified regimen of screening, as alternative explanations have been addressed.
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Processed meat consumption and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in a large case-control study in Uruguay.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The role of processed meat in the aetiology of squamous cell oesophageal cancer has been explored in detail.
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Meat consumption, animal products, and the risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguayan men.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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In the time period 1996-2004, all incident cases of bladder cancer were included in a case-control study in order to study the role of meat consumption and product animals in the etiology of urothelial cancer. The study included 225 cases and 1,510 hospitalized controls with non-neoplastic conditions, not related to smoking and alcohol drinking. Relative risks, approximated by the odds ratios, were calculated in order to clarify the effect of meat consumption in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Total meat consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), total processed meat (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.27), frankfurters (hot dogs) (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21), ham (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.67) and salted meat (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78-4.18) were positively associated with risk of bladder cancer. Animal products, like cheese, whole milk, and total eggs were also associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for eggs 4.05, 95% CI 2.68-6.12). In conclusion, total meat, processed meat, and eggs could play an important role in the etiology of bladder cancer in Uruguay.
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Oxidative Stress Markers and All-Cause Mortality at Older Age: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The free radical/oxidative stress theory of aging has recently received much attention but the association of oxidative stress markers with all-cause mortality was not yet assessed in humans.
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Overweight and obesity in 16 European countries.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In Europe, only a few population-based studies have been conducted on obesity in different countries at the same time using homogeneous methodologies. We provide updated information on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe, using data from a pan-European survey.
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Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for follicular lymphoma outside the HLA region.
Christine F Skibola, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Lucia Conde, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Paul I W de Bakker, Brenda M Birmann, Claire M Vajdic, Jia-Nee Foo, Paige M Bracci, Roel C H Vermeulen, Susan L Slager, Silvia de Sanjosé, Sophia S Wang, Martha S Linet, Gilles Salles, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Henrik Hjalgrim, Tracy Lightfoot, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Hervé Ghesquières, Brian K Link, Lindsay M Morton, Elizabeth A Holly, Alex Smith, Lesley F Tinker, Lauren R Teras, Anne Kricker, Nikolaus Becker, Mark P Purdue, John J Spinelli, Yawei Zhang, Graham G Giles, Paolo Vineis, Alain Monnereau, Kimberly A Bertrand, Demetrius Albanes, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Attilio Gabbas, Charles C Chung, Laurie Burdett, Amy Hutchinson, Charles Lawrence, Rebecca Montalvan, Liming Liang, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Jianjun Liu, Hans-Olov Adami, Bengt Glimelius, Yuanqing Ye, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Ahmet Dogan, Carrie A Thompson, Thomas M Habermann, Anne J Novak, Mark Liebow, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Maryjean Schenk, Patricia Hartge, Anneclaire J De Roos, Wendy Cozen, Degui Zhi, Nicholas K Akers, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Mortimer Lacher, Danylo J Villano, Ann Maria, Eve Roman, Eleanor Kane, Rebecca D Jackson, Kari E North, W Ryan Diver, Jenny Turner, Bruce K Armstrong, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, James McKay, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Tongzhang Zheng, Theodore R Holford, Saioa Chamosa, Rudolph Kaaks, Rachel S Kelly, Bodil Ohlsson, Ruth C Travis, Elisabete Weiderpass, Jacqueline Clavel, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jarmo Virtamo, Patrizio Mazza, Pierluigi Cocco, Maria Grazia Ennas, Brian C H Chiu, Joseph F Fraumeni, Alexandra Nieters, Kenneth Offit, Xifeng Wu, James R Cerhan, Karin E Smedby, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DR?1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [OR(per-allele)] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (OR(per-allele) = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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Indoor air pollution from solid fuels and peripheral Blood DNA methylation: Findings from a population study in Warsaw, Poland.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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DNA methylation is a potential mechanism linking indoor air pollution to adverse health effects. Fetal and early-life environmental exposures have been associated with altered DNA methylation and play a critical role in progress of diseases in adulthood. We investigated whether exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels at different lifetime periods was associated with global DNA methylation and methylation at the IFG2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR) in a population-based sample of non-smoking women from Warsaw, Poland. Global methylation and IFG2/H19 ICR methylation were assessed in peripheral blood DNA from 42 non-smoking women with Luminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) and quantitative pyrosequencing, respectively. Linear regression models were applied to estimate associations between indoor air pollution and DNA methylation in the blood. Compared to women without exposure, the levels of LUMA methylation for women who had ever exposed to both coal and wood were reduced 6.70% (95% CI: -13.36, -0.04). Using both coal and wood before age 20 was associated with 6.95% decreased LUMA methylation (95% CI: -13.79, -0.11). Further, the negative correlations were more significant with exposure to solid fuels for cooking before age 20. There were no clear associations between indoor solid fuels exposure before age 20 and through the lifetime and IFG2/H19 ICR methylation. Our study of non-smoking women supports the hypothesis that exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels, even early-life exposure, has the capacity to modify DNA methylation that can be detected in peripheral blood.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
James R Cerhan, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Hervé Ghesquières, James McKay, Sophia S Wang, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Lucia Conde, Paul I W de Bakker, Alexandra Nieters, David Cox, Laurie Burdett, Alain Monnereau, Christopher R Flowers, Anneclaire J De Roos, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Rebecca D Jackson, Eleanor Kane, Lauren R Teras, Mark P Purdue, Claire M Vajdic, John J Spinelli, Graham G Giles, Demetrius Albanes, Rachel S Kelly, Mariagrazia Zucca, Kimberly A Bertrand, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Charles Lawrence, Amy Hutchinson, Degui Zhi, Thomas M Habermann, Brian K Link, Anne J Novak, Ahmet Dogan, Yan W Asmann, Mark Liebow, Carrie A Thompson, Stephen M Ansell, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Amelie S Veron, Diana Zelenika, Hervé Tilly, Corinne Haioun, Thierry Jo Molina, Henrik Hjalgrim, Bengt Glimelius, Hans-Olov Adami, Paige M Bracci, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Elizabeth A Holly, Wendy Cozen, Patricia Hartge, Lindsay M Morton, Richard K Severson, Lesley F Tinker, Kari E North, Nikolaus Becker, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, Tracy Lightfoot, Simon Crouch, Alex Smith, Eve Roman, W Ryan Diver, Kenneth Offit, Andrew Zelenetz, Robert J Klein, Danylo J Villano, Tongzhang Zheng, Yawei Zhang, Theodore R Holford, Anne Kricker, Jenny Turner, Melissa C Southey, Jacqueline Clavel, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Elio Riboli, Paolo Vineis, Rudolph Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Roel C H Vermeulen, Heiner Boeing, Anne Tjonneland, Emanuele Angelucci, Simonetta Di Lollo, Marco Rais, Brenda M Birmann, Francine Laden, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Yuanqing Ye, Brian C H Chiu, Joshua Sampson, Liming Liang, Ju-Hyun Park, Charles C Chung, Dennis D Weisenburger, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Joseph F Fraumeni, Susan L Slager, Xifeng Wu, Silvia de Sanjosé, Karin E Smedby, Gilles Salles, Christine F Skibola, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 × 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 × 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 × 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 × 10(-13) and 3.63 × 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
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A review of the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic cancer research.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Inflammation is a facilitating process for multiple cancer types. It is believed to affect cancer development and progression through several etiologic pathways, including increased levels of DNA adduct formation, increased angiogenesis, and altered antiapoptotic signaling. This review highlights the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic studies and discusses the various cellular mediators of inflammation characterizing the innate immune system response to infection and chronic insult from environmental factors. Included is a review of six classes of inflammation-related biomarkers: cytokines/chemokines, immune-related effectors, acute-phase proteins, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase-related factors, and mediators such as transcription factors and growth factors. For each of these biomarkers, we provide a brief overview of the etiologic role in the inflammation response and how they have been related to cancer etiology and progression within the literature. We provide a discussion of the common techniques available for quantification of each marker, including strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls. Subsequently, we highlight a few under-studied measures to characterize the inflammatory response and their potential utility in epidemiologic studies of cancer. Finally, we suggest integrative methods for future studies to apply multifaceted approaches to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and their roles in cancer development.
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A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Tobacco Use and Prostate Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Prospective Cohort Studies.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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An association between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality was suggested in an earlier meta-analysis of 24 prospective studies in which dose-response associations and risks per unit of tobacco use were not examined.
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Attributable fraction of alcohol consumption on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in the Republic of Korea.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population.
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Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population.
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Salt tea consumption and esophageal cancer: A possible role of alkaline beverages in esophageal carcinogenesis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Salt tea is the most commonly used beverage in Kashmir, India, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common cancer. Salt tea is brewed in a unique way in Kashmir, usually with addition of sodium bicarbonate, which makes salt tea alkaline. As little information about the association between salt tea drinking and ESCC was available, we conducted a large-scale case-control study to investigate this association in Kashmir. We recruited 703 histologically confirmed cases of ESCC and 1664 controls individually matched to cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who consumed >1,250 ml day(-1) showed an increased risk of ESCC (OR?=?2.60, 95% CIs?=?1.68-4.02). Samovar (a special vessel for the beverage preparation) users (OR?=?1.77, 95% CIs 1.25-2.50) and those who ate cereal paste with salt tea (OR?=?2.14, 95% CIs?=?1.55-2.94) or added bicarbonate sodium to salt tea (OR?=?2.12, 95% CIs?=?1.33-3.39) were at higher risk of ESCC than others. When analysis was limited to alkaline tea drinkers only, those who both consumed cereal paste with salt tea and used samovar vessel were at the highest risk (OR?=?4.58, 95% CIs?=?2.04-10.28). This study shows significant associations of salt tea drinking and some related habits with ESCC risk.
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A critical review of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate exposure and cancer risk in humans.
Crit. Rev. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are ubiquitous synthetic chemicals with no known effect on human cancer development. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association between PFOA and PFOS exposure and cancer risk in humans. Eighteen epidemiologic studies - eight of PFOA, four of PFOS, and six of both PFOA and PFOS - have estimated associations of exposure to these chemicals with cancer incidence or mortality, with studies equally divided between occupational and nonoccupational settings. Although some statistically significant positive associations have been reported, for example, with cancers of the prostate, kidney, testis, and thyroid, the majority of relative risk estimates for both PFOA and PFOS have been between 0.5 and 2.0 (with 95% confidence intervals including 1.0), inconsistently detected across studies, counterbalanced by negative associations, not indicative of a monotonic exposure-response relationship, and not coherent with toxicological evidence in animals, in which the primary target organs are the liver, testis (Leydig cells), and pancreas (acinar cells). Many positive associations with PFOA exposure were detected in community settings without occupational exposure and were not supported by results in exposed workers. Given that occupational exposure to PFOA and PFOS is one to two orders of magnitude higher than environmental exposure, the discrepant positive findings are likely due to chance, confounding, and/or bias. Taken together, the epidemiologic evidence does not support the hypothesis of a causal association between PFOA or PFOS exposure and cancer in humans.
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Validity of geographically modeled environmental exposure estimates.
Crit. Rev. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Geographic modeling is increasingly being used to estimate long-term environmental exposures in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease outcomes. However, without validation against measured environmental concentrations, personal exposure levels, or biologic doses, these models cannot be assumed a priori to be accurate. This article discusses three examples of epidemiologic associations involving exposures estimated using geographic modeling, and identifies important issues that affect geographically modeled exposure assessment in these areas. In air pollution epidemiology, geographic models of fine particulate matter levels have frequently been validated against measured environmental levels, but comparisons between ambient and personal exposure levels have shown only moderate correlations. Estimating exposure to magnetic fields by using geographically modeled distances is problematic because the error is larger at short distances, where field levels can vary substantially. Geographic models of environmental exposure to pesticides, including paraquat, have seldom been validated against environmental or personal levels, and validation studies have yielded inconsistent and typically modest results. In general, the exposure misclassification resulting from geographic models of environmental exposures can be differential and can result in bias away from the null even if non-differential. Therefore, geographic exposure models must be rigorously constructed and validated if they are to be relied upon to produce credible scientific results to inform epidemiologic research. To our knowledge, such models have not yet successfully predicted an association between an environmental exposure and a chronic disease outcome that has eventually been established as causal, and may not be capable of doing so in the absence of thorough validation.
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A systematic review of occupational exposure to synthetic vitreous fibers and mesothelioma.
Crit. Rev. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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We investigated whether available epidemiological and toxicological data suggest an increased risk of mesothelioma among workers exposed to synthetic vitreous fibers (SVF).
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Diet patterns and risk of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma: a case-control study in Uruguay.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Oesophageal cancer presents high incidence rates in the so-called Brazilian-Uruguayan belt.
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Alcohol drinking and risk of leukemia-a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relation.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The association between alcohol and leukemia risk has been addressed in several studies in the past two decades, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the dose-risk relation. Through the literature search up to August 2013, we identified 18 studies, 10 case-control and 8 cohorts, carried out in a total of 7142 leukemia cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we performed a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. Stratified analyses were carried out on leukemia subtypes and groups, in order to identify possible etiologic differences. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risks (RRs) for all leukemia were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.03], 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.02) for any, light (? 1 drink/day) and moderate to heavy (>1 drink/day) alcohol drinking, respectively. The summary RRs for any alcohol drinking were 1.47 (95% CI, 0.47-4.62) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0.94 (95% CI 0.77-1.15) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86-1.21) for acute myeloid leukemia and 0.93 (95% CI 0.75-1.14) for chronic myeloid leukemia. The subgroup analysis on geographical area for all leukemia combined showed RRs of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-1.01) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02-1.70) for studies conducted in America, Europe and Asia, respectively. We did not find an increased risk of leukemia among alcohol drinkers. If any, a modest favorable effect emerged for light alcohol drinking, with a model-based risk reduction of approximately 10% in regular drinkers.
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Features of breast cancer in developing countries, examples from North-Africa.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Epidemiological features of breast cancer appear to be different in developing countries compared to Western countries, with notably large proportions of young patients, male patients and aggressive forms of the disease. Using North-Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) as an example, we document the magnitude and explore possible explanations for such patterns. Articles and reports published since the seventies were reviewed. Results show that breast cancer incidence in females is 2-4 times lower in North-Africa than in Western countries while incidence in males is similar. Consequently, the relative proportion of male breast cancer is high (?2% of all breast cancers). Similarly, the incidence of aggressive forms of the disease, like inflammatory or triple negative breast cancer (in females), is not higher in North Africa than in Western countries, but their relative proportion in case series (up to 10% for inflammatory and 15-25% for triple negative) is significantly higher because of low incidence of other forms of the disease. In North Africa, the incidence among women aged 15-49 is lower than in Western countries, but the very low incidence among women aged more than 50, combined to the young age pyramid of North-Africa, makes the relative proportions of young patients substantially higher (50-60% versus 20% in France). Such epidemiological features result mainly from peculiar risk factor profiles, which are typical for many developing countries and include notably rapid changes in reproductive behaviours. These features have important implications for breast cancer control and treatment.
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Contact with ruminants is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the high risk area of northern Iran is only partially known. We aimed to investigate prolonged animal contact as a risk factor for ESCC in this population. From 2003 to 2007, we administered a validated questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 randomly selected controls matched for neighborhood of residence, age (±2 years) and sex. Questions on lifelong exposure to equines, ruminants, canines, and poultry, including duration and level of contact, were asked in a face-to-face interviews. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 94.7% of cases and 68.7% of controls reported lifelong history of contact with ruminants. After controlling for potential confounders, contact with ruminants was associated with an eightfold increase (95% CI: 3.92-14.86) in risk of ESCC, and increments in duration of contact raised the risk estimates in a dose-dependent manner. Contact with equines and poultry did not significantly change associated OR for ESCC risk and contact with ruminants. OR (95% CI) for contact with canines was 1.99 (1.35-2.93) which after exclusion of contact with ruminants was not significant (OR for contact only with canine: 3.18, 95% CI: 0.73-13.17). These results add to the evidence that contact with ruminants may increase the risk of ESCC.
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Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case-control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21 cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1R? (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon ?2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis.
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Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels.
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A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively.
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Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with an excess risk of respiratory tract and bladder cancers in several industries, but the issue requires further quantification. We updated a previous systematic review by reviewing in details cohort studies on workers employed in selected industries with potential PAH exposure published between 2006 and 2014, and we summarized through a meta-analytic approach the main results of all available cohort studies published between 1958 and 2014 investigating cancers of the respiratory and urinary tracts. Thirteen papers on cohort studies investigating cancer risk in workers exposed to PAHs were retrieved through the literature search. These included workers from aluminum production industries (seven studies), iron and steel foundries (two studies), asphalt workers (two studies), and carbon black production (two studies). In the meta-analysis, an excess risk of respiratory tract cancers (mainly lung cancer) was found in iron and steel foundries [pooled relative risk (RR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.59 from 14 studies], while a weak excess risk (pooled RR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.95-1.23 from 11 studies) emerged for aluminum production. A borderline increase risk was also observed for cancer of the bladder in the aluminum production (pooled RR 1.28, 95 % CI 0.98-1.68 from 10 studies) and in iron and steel foundries (pooled RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.00-1.91 from 9 studies). This updated review and meta-analysis confirm the increased risk from respiratory tract and bladder cancers in selected PAH-related occupations. It cannot be ruled out whether such excesses are due, at least in part, to possible bias or residual confounding.
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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and overall and Cause-specific Mortality: A Prospective Study of 50000 Individuals.
Middle East J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality.
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Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: A pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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There are suggestions of an inverse association between folate intake and serum folate levels and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OPCs), but most studies are limited in sample size, with only few reporting information on the source of dietary folate. Our study aims to investigate the association between folate intake and the risk of OPC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from ten case-control studies participating in the INHANCE consortium, including 5,127 cases and 13,249 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the associations between total folate intake (natural, fortification and supplementation) and natural folate only, and OPC risk. We found an inverse association between total folate intake and overall OPC risk (the adjusted OR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile was 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99), with a stronger association for oral cavity (OR?=?0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.75). A similar inverse association, though somewhat weaker, was observed for folate intake from natural sources only in oral cavity cancer (OR?=?0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.91). The highest OPC risk was observed in heavy alcohol drinkers with low folate intake as compared to never/light drinkers with high folate (OR?=?4.05, 95% CI: 3.43-4.79); the attributable proportion (AP) owing to interaction was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.4-20.8%). Lastly, we reported an OR of 2.73 (95% CI:2.34-3.19) for those ever tobacco users with low folate intake, compared with nevere tobacco users and high folate intake (AP of interaction =10.6%, 95% CI: 0.41-20.8%). Our project of a large pool of case-control studies supports a protective effect of total folate intake on OPC risk.
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Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Bricklayers may be exposed to several lung carcinogens, including crystalline silica and asbestos. Previous studies that analyzed lung cancer risk among these workers had several study design limitations. We examined lung cancer risk among bricklayers within SYNERGY, a large international pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and the joint effects of occupational carcinogens. For men ever employed as bricklayers we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for study center, age, lifetime smoking history and employment in occupations with exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens. Among 15,608 cases and 18,531 controls, there were 695 cases and 469 controls who had ever worked as bricklayers (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.68). In studies using population controls the OR was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.32-1.81, 540/349 cases/controls), while it was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.93-1.64, 155/120 cases/controls) in hospital-based studies. There was a clear positive trend with length of employment (p?
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Biomarkers for bladder cancer management: present and future.
Am J Clin Exp Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Accurate and sensitive detection of bladder cancer is critical to diagnose this deadly disease at an early stage, estimate prognosis, predict response to treatment, and monitor recurrence. In past years, laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of urinary bladder cancer have improved significantly. Although urine cytology remains the gold standard test, many new urinary biomarkers have been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in genomic studies of bladder cancer have helped to refine our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the biological basis for outcome disparities, and to inform more efficient treatment and surveillance strategies. In this article, the established diagnostic tests, newly identified biomarkers and genomic landscape of bladder cancer will be reviewed.
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Effect Modification of the Association of Cumulative Exposure and Cancer Risk by Intensity of Exposure and Time Since Exposure Cessation: A Flexible Method Applied to Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer in the SYNERGY Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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The indiscriminate use of the cumulative exposure metric (the product of intensity and duration of exposure) might bias reported associations between exposure to hazardous agents and cancer risk. To assess the independent effects of duration and intensity of exposure on cancer risk, we explored effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure. We applied a flexible excess odds ratio model that is linear in cumulative exposure but potentially nonlinear in intensity of exposure to 15 case-control studies of cigarette smoking and lung cancer (1985-2009). Our model accommodated modification of the excess odds ratio per pack-year of cigarette smoking by time since smoking cessation among former smokers. We observed negative effect modification of the association of pack-years of cigarette smoking and lung cancer by intensity of cigarette smoke for persons who smoked more than 20-30 cigarettes per day. Patterns of effect modification were similar across individual studies and across major lung cancer subtypes. We observed strong negative effect modification by time since smoking cessation. Application of our method in this example of cigarette smoking and lung cancer demonstrated that reducing a complex exposure history to a metric such as cumulative exposure is too restrictive.
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[Environment and cancer risk].
Rev Prat
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Several environmental factors, defined as pollutants present in air, water or other media, have been shown to be carcinogenic, including residential exposure to asbestos and radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, diesel engine emissions, and arsenic contamination of drinking water. Other factors, such as outdoor air pollution and water chlorination byproducts, are suspected carcinogens. In the case of pesticides and electromagnetic fields, including the use of cell phones, the available evidence does not suggest an increased risk of cancer. Overall, environmental causes of cancer are responsible for a limited proportion of the total burden of cancer in France and other high-income countries. Because of the involuntary nature of the exposure and the possibility to implement preventive measures, research into environmental cancer remains an important priority.
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Aberrant Methylation of Hypermethylated-in-Cancer-1 and Exocyclic DNA Adducts in Tobacco Smokers.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Tobacco smoke has been shown to produce both DNA damage and epigenetic alterations. However, the potential role of DNA damage in generating epigenetic changes is largely underinvestigated in human studies. We examined the effects of smoking on the levels of DNA methylation in genes for tumor protein p53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor2A, hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 (HIC1), interleukin-6, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element type1, and Alu retrotransposons in blood of 177 residents in Thailand using bisulfite-PCR andpyrosequencing. Then, we analyzed the relationship of this methylation with the oxidative DNA adduct, M1dG (a malondialdehyde adduct), measured by (32)P-postlabeling. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that HIC1 methylation levels were significantly increased in smokers compared with nonsmokers (p ? .05). A dose response was observed, with the highest HIC1 methylation levels in smokers of ? 10 cigarettes/day relative to nonsmokers and intermediate values in smokers of 1-9 cigarettes/day (p for trend ? .001). No additional relationships were observed. We also evaluated correlations between M1dG and the methylation changes at each HIC1 CpG site individually. The levels of this adduct in smokers showed a significant linear correlation with methylation at one of the 3 CpGs evaluated in HIC1: hypermethylation at position 1904864340 was significantly correlated with the adduct M1dG (covariate-adjusted regression coefficient (?) = .224 ± .101 [SE], p ? .05). No other correlations were detected. Our study extends prior work by others associating hypermethylation of HIC1 with smoking; shows that a very specific hypermethylation event can arise from smoking; and encourages future studies that explore a possible role for M1dG in connecting smoking to this latter hypermethylation.
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Mate Drinking and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in South America: Pooled Results from Two Large Multicenter Case-Control Studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Maté tea is a nonalcoholic infusion widely consumed in southern South America, and may increase risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and other cancers due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and/or thermal injury.
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Lung cancer risk among hairdressers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers were observed in large registry-based cohort studies from Scandinavia, but these studies could not adjust for smoking. Our objective was to evaluate the lung cancer risk among hairdressers while adjusting for smoking and other confounders in a pooled database of 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand between 1985 and 2010 (the Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies on the Joint Effects of Occupational Carcinogens in the Development of Lung Cancer). Lifetime occupational and smoking information was collected through interviews with 19,369 cases of lung cancer and 23,674 matched population or hospital controls. Overall, 170 cases and 167 controls had ever worked as hairdresser or barber. The odds ratios for lung cancer in women were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.35) without adjustment for smoking and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.68) with adjustment for smoking; however, women employed before 1954 also experienced an increased lung cancer risk after adjustment for smoking (odds ratio = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.47). The odds ratios in male hairdressers/barbers were generally not elevated, except for an increased odds ratio for adenocarcinoma in long-term barbers (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.77). Our results suggest that the increased lung cancer risks among hairdressers are due to their smoking behavior; single elevated risk estimates should be interpreted with caution and need replication in other studies.
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Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.
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Cooking Methods and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in High-Risk Areas of Iran.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Cooking methods have been implicated in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancers, reflecting exposure to potential carcinogens as results of cooking. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire and a pretested cooking method questionnaire in 3 groups: 40 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases from a high-risk area in northeast of Iran, 40 healthy subjects from the same high-risk area, and 40 healthy subjects from a low-risk area in Southern Iran. We compared the frequency of boiling, grilling, and frying, and the frying score among these 3 groups. We also calculated "frying index" by multiplying the frequency of each fried food item by its frying score. Mean frying to boiling ratios were 18.2:1, 12.8:1, and 2.6:1 for cases, high-risk controls, and low-risk controls, respectively (P < 0.01). Reuse of cooking oil for frying was reported in 37.5% of the ESCC cases, 25% of high-risk controls, and 7.5% of low-risk controls (P < 0.001). Frying index was higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk controls (P < 0.001) and in cases than in the high-risk controls (P < 0.05) after adjusting for smoking, opium use, rural residence, education, and ethnicity. High-temperature cooking and frying may be associated with increased risk of ESCC in high-risk areas.
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Exposure to UV radiation and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure has been inversely associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk, but only inconsistently, only in a few studies, and without attention to HL heterogeneity. We conducted a pooled analysis of HL risk focusing on type and timing of UVR exposure and on disease subtypes by age, histology, and tumor-cell Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. Four case-control studies contributed 1320 HL cases and 6381 controls. We estimated lifetime, adulthood, and childhood UVR exposure and history of sunburn and sunlamp use. We used 2-stage estimation with mixed-effects models and weighted pooled effect estimates by inverse marginal variances. We observed statistically significant inverse associations with HL risk for UVR exposures during childhood and adulthood, sunburn history, and sunlamp use, but we found no significant dose-response relationships. Risks were significant only for EBV-positive HL (pooled odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.91 for the highest overall UVR exposure category), with a significant linear trend for overall exposure (P = .03). Pooled relative risk estimates were not heterogeneous across studies. Increased UVR exposure may protect against HL, particularly EBV-positive HL. Plausible mechanisms involving UVR induction of regulatory T cells or the cellular DNA damage response suggest opportunities for new prevention targets.
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Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The current study was conducted to analyze the association between cigarette smoking and metastasis (the primary outcome) as well as time to biochemical disease recurrence (BCR), metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and prostate cancer-specific and overall mortality (secondary outcomes) after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital cohort.
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Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features.
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Promotion of Cardiovascular Health in Preschool Children: 36-Month Cohort Follow-up.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Educational interventions in preschool children could improve dietary behavior and physical activity, and prevent unhealthy body weights in low- and middle-income countries. Previously, we have reported the beneficial impact of an educational intervention in preschoolers in a 6-month trial. We now report extended results after 36 months.
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Opium use and risk of mortality from digestive diseases: a prospective cohort study.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract.
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Adult height and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between adult height and cancer incidence. The only study conducted among women on mouth and pharynx cancer risk, however, reported an inverse association. This study aims to investigate the association between height and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) within a large international consortium of HNC. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 24 case-control studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for men and women for associations between height and HNC risk. Educational level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were included in all regression models. Stratified analyses by HNC subsites were performed. This project included 17,666 cases and 28,198 controls. We found an inverse association between height and HNC (adjusted OR per 10 cm height = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.86-0.95 for men; adjusted OR = 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79-0.93 for women). In men, the estimated OR did vary by educational level, smoking status, geographic area, and control source. No differences by subsites were detected. Adult height is inversely associated with HNC risk. As height can be considered a marker of childhood illness and low energy intake, the inverse association is consistent with prior studies showing that HNC occur more frequently among deprived individuals. Further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism of such association would be warranted.
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Asthma and lung cancer risk: a systematic investigation by the International Lung Cancer Consortium.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Asthma has been hypothesized to be associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) to quantitatively assess this association and compared the results with 36 previously published studies. In total, information from 585?444 individuals was used. Study-specific measures were combined using random effects models. A meta-regression and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. The overall LC relative risk (RR) associated with asthma was 1.28 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 1.16-1.41] but with large heterogeneity (I(2) = 73%, P < 0.001) between studies. Among ILCCO studies, an increased risk was found for squamous cell (RR = 1.69, 95%, CI = 1.26-2.26) and for small-cell carcinoma (RR = 1.71, 95% CI = 0.99-2.95) but was weaker for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.88-1.36). The increased LC risk was strongest in the 2 years after asthma diagnosis (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.09-4.17) but subjects diagnosed with asthma over 10 years prior had no or little increased LC risk (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.94-1.30). Because the increased incidence of LC was chiefly observed in small cell and squamous cell lung carcinomas, primarily within 2 years of asthma diagnosis and because the association was weak among never smokers, we conclude that the association may not reflect a causal effect of asthma on the risk of LC.
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Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity in China.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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The objective was to provide an evidence-based, systematic assessment of the burden of cancer due to overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in China. This study evaluated the proportion of cancers of colon, rectum, pancreas, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, and kidney attributable to overweight [30 kg/m(2) > body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m(2))/obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) and physical inactivity in China in 2005. Data of prevalence of overweight/obesity and lack of physical activity were derived from cross-sectional surveys among representative samples of Chinese population, and data of relative risks on cancers were derived from meta-analyses or large-scale studies from China and East Asian populations. The attributable fractions were calculated by combining both data of prevalence and relative risks. In China in 2005, 0.32% of cancer deaths and 0.65% of cancer cases were attributable to overweight and obesity combined. Lack of physical activity was responsible for 0.27% of cancer deaths and 0.39% of cancer cases. Future projections indicate that the contribution of overweight and obesity to the overall cancer burden will increase in the next decades. The largest increased attributable fractions will be for endometrial cancer. The increase in attributable fractions would be greater in men and in rural populations. Although the current burden of cancer associated with overweight/obesity and physical inactivity is still relatively small in China, it is expected to increase in the future.
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Dietary benzo[a]pyrene, alcohol drinking, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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In order to determine to the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study in the time period 1996-2004. The study included 1,098 participants (460 cases and 638 controls). All the patients were drawn from the four major hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Statistical analysis was performed using unconditional multiple logistic regression and the models included age, residence, urban/rural status, education, monthly income, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy, total vegetables and fruits, and BaP intake. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of BaP intake (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Alcohol drinking was also directly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) and the joint effect of BaP and alcohol drinking showed an elevated risk of the disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.17-5.06). The present study suggests that elevated consumption of BaP could play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. This effect is enhanced by the intake of alcohol.
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Fruit and vegetable and fried food consumption and 3-(2-deoxy-?-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-?] purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine adduct formation.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Diet has been shown to modulate M(1)dG adduct, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Thus, we analysed the association between diet and M(1)dG in 120 controls and 67 Map Ta Phut industrial estate workers in Rayong, Thailand, to evaluate the influence of fruit and vegetables, and fried and charcoal-grilled/barbecued food consumption on M(1)dG. M(1)dG was decreased in controls reporting to consume 14-17 servings/week of fruit and vegetables (mean ratio [MR]= 0.35, CI 0.18-0.69, p< 0.05). Conversely, a non-statistically significant M(1)dG increment was detected in controls consuming 9-18 servings/week of fried food (MR = 1.33, CI 0.88-2.00, p = 0.168). No effect of charcoal-grilled/barbecued food was found. No effect of diet was observed in workers. An association with smoking was observed in controls (MR = 1.88, CI 1.14-3.10, p < 0.05), but not in workers. M(1)dG can induce mutations and/or methylation changes within the promoter regions of cancer-related genes, thus promotion of healthy eating practices should be recommended.
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A cross-sectional study of cardiovascular disease and associated factors.
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Poland. Data on risk factors of CVD in this country are limited. The presented study investigated risk factors of self-reported CVD within the Polish- Norwegian Study (PONS).
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The chromosome 2p21 region harbors a complex genetic architecture for association with risk for renal cell carcinoma.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10(-8), per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290 using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10(-14)) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10(-12)), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r(2) > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r(2) < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10(-9), per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture for common RCC risk variants.
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A framework for causal inference in occupational epidemiology.
G Ital Med Lav Ergon
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2011
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The observational nature of occupational epidemiology research is a reason for potentially divergent interpretation of the causal nature of the results of studies addressing the association between an exposure and a disease. There is a need for frameworks that explicitly define the steps involved in this process of deriving causal inference from occupational epidemiology. A recent proposal consisted of the following steps: (i) study identification, (ii) quality assessment and categorization, (iii) evaluation of the weight of the evidence, and (iv) assignment of a scalable conclusion. While other approaches can be proposed, efforts to improve the quality and transparency of the process are helpful and represent a contribution to this essential component of occupational epidemiology research.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.