Abstract A longer lifetime duration of breastfeeding may decrease the risk of breast cancer by reducing breast inflammation and mitigating inflammatory cytokine expression during postlactational involution. However, little is known about how the inflammatory cytokine profile in human breastmilk changes over time. To study temporal trends in breastmilk cytokine expression, we measured 80 human cytokines in the whey fraction of breastmilk samples from 15 mothers at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum. We used mixed models to identify temporal changes in cytokine expression and investigated parity status (multiparous vs. primiparous) as a potential confounder. Nine cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating protein-78, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1, interleukin-16, interleukin-8, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, osteoprotegerin, and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase-2) had significantly decreased expression with increasing breastfeeding duration; all nine have known roles in breast involution, inflammation, and cancer and may serve as biomarkers of changing breast microenvironment. No cytokine significantly increased in level over the study period. Total protein concentration significantly decreased over time (p<0.0001), which may mediate the association between length of breastfeeding and inflammatory cytokine expression. Parity status did not confound temporal trends, but levels of several cytokines were significantly higher among multiparous versus primiparous women. Our results suggest that inflammatory cytokine expression during lactation is dynamic, and expressed milk may provide a noninvasive window into the extensive biological changes that occur in the postpartum breast.
Biological materials exhibit complex nanotopology, i.e., a composite liquid and solid phase structure that is heterogeneous on the nanoscale. The diffusion of nanoparticles in nanotopological environments can elucidate biophysical changes associated with pathogenesis and disease progression. However, there is a lack of methods that characterize nanoprobe diffusion and translate easily to in vivo studies. Here, we demonstrate a method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to depth-resolve diffusion of plasmon-resonant gold nanorods (GNRs) that are weakly constrained by the biological tissue. By using GNRs that are on the size scale of the polymeric mesh, their Brownian motion is minimally hindered by intermittent collisions with local macromolecules. OCT depth-resolves the particle-averaged translational diffusion coefficient (DT) of GNRs within each coherence volume, which is separable from the nonequilibrium motile activities of cells based on the unique polarized light-scattering properties of GNRs. We show how this enables minimally invasive imaging and monitoring of nanotopological changes in a variety of biological models, including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling as relevant to carcinogenesis, and dehydration of pulmonary mucus as relevant to cystic fibrosis. In 3D ECM models, DT of GNRs decreases with both increasing collagen concentration and cell density. Similarly, DT of GNRs is sensitive to human bronchial-epithelial mucus concentration over a physiologically relevant range. This novel method comprises a broad-based platform for studying heterogeneous nanotopology, as distinct from bulk viscoelasticity, in biological milieu.
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa have been reported to be toxic against larvae of the genus Cylas, which are important pests of sweet potato worldwide and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, relatively little is known about the processing and binding interactions of these coleopteran-specific Cry proteins. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa proteins have shared binding sites in Cylas puncticollis to orient the pest resistance strategy by genetic transformation. Interestingly, processing of the 129-kDa Cry7Aa protoxin using commercial trypsin or chymotrypsin rendered two fragments of about 70 kDa and 65 kDa. N-terminal sequencing of the trypsin-activated Cry7Aa fragments revealed that processing occurs at Glu(47) for the 70-kDa form or Ile(88) for the 65-kDa form. Homologous binding assays showed specific binding of the two Cry3 proteins and the 65-kDa Cry7Aa fragment to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from C. puncticollis larvae. The 70-kDa fragment did not bind to BBMV. Heterologous-competition assays showed that Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa (65-kDa fragment) competed for the same binding sites. Hence, our results suggest that pest resistance mediated by the alteration of a shared Cry receptor binding site might render all three Cry toxins ineffective.
The aim of the present study was to describe the use of combination of international standardized anthropometric parameters, along with biochemical parameters (metabolomic indexes) to identify metabolic syndrome (MetS), in persons with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 42 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities (aged 13-30years) who attend special schools in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. The study included anthropometric (using the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry recommendations) and biochemical measures, and their combinations as metabolomic-indexes, that can significantly predict MetS occurrence in this vulnerable population. Waist circumference (WC) and relaxed arm circumference, both adjusted for height, have the highest correlation with MetS (R2=0.23-0.47, p<0.01). Besides body mass index (BMI) and WC we propose other indicators such as, skinfolds, hip circumference and relaxed arm circumference, all of them adjusted by height in order to better define the presence of MetS in persons with intellectual disabilities.
Mass-selected nanoparticles can be conveniently produced using magnetron sputtering and aggregation techniques. However, numerous pitfalls can compromise the quality of the samples, e.g. double or triple mass production, dendritic structure formation or unpredicted particle composition. We stress the importance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) for verifying the morphology, size distribution and chemical composition of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, we correlate the morphology and the composition of the PtxY nanoparticles with their catalytic properties for the oxygen reduction reaction. Finally, we propose a completely general diagnostic method, which allows us to minimize the occurrence of undesired masses.
Patients exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) may develop chronic infection with viremia. The diagnosis of this condition requires the use of several laboratory tests in algorithms tailored to the population and resources available for each laboratory.
Molecular details of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting by nimotuzumab, a therapeutic anti-cancer antibody, have been largely unknown. The current study delineated a functional map of their interface, based on phage display and extensive mutagenesis of both the target antigen and the Fv antibody fragment. Five residues in EGFR domain III (R353, S356, F357, T358, and H359T) and the third hypervariable region of nimotuzumab heavy chain were shown to be major functional contributors to the interaction. Fine specificity differences between nimotuzumab and other anti-EGFR antibodies were revealed. Mapping information guided the generation of a plausible in silico binding model. Knowledge about the epitope/paratope interface opens new avenues for the study of tumor sensitivity/resistance to nimotuzumab and for further engineering of its binding site. The developed mapping platform, also validated with the well-known cetuximab epitope, allows a comprehensive exploration of antigenic regions and could be expanded to map other anti-EGFR antibodies.
The usefulness of the standard chemical oxygen demand (COD) test for water characterization is offset to some extent by its requirement for highly toxic or expensive Cr, Ag, and Hg species. In addition, oxidation of the target samples by chromate requires a 2-3 h heating step. We have downscaled this method to obtain a reduction of up to ca. 80% in the use and generation of toxic residues and a time reduction of up to ca. 67%. This also translates into considerable energy savings by reducing the time required for heating as well as costly labour time. Such reductions can be especially important for analytical laboratories with heavy loads of COD analyses. Numerical results obtained with the standard COD method for laboratory KHP samples (potassium hydrogen phthalate) show an average relative error of 1.41% vs. an average of 2.14% obtained with the downsized or small-scale version. The average % standard deviation when using the former is 2.16% vs. 3.24% obtained with the latter. When analysing municipal wastewater samples, the relative error is smaller for the proposed small-scale method than for the standard method (0.05 vs. 0.58, respectively), and the % std. dev. is 1.25% vs. 1.06%. The results obtained with various industrial wastewaters show good agreement with those obtained using the standard method. Chloride ions do not interfere at concentrations below 2000 mg Nacl/L. This highly encouraging proof-of-concept offers a potentially alternative greener approach to COD analysis.
Binding studies using (125)I-Cry9Ca and biotinylated-Cry1Ba proteins showed the occurrence of independent binding sites for these proteins in Ostrinia nubilalis. Our results, along with previously available binding data, indicate that combinations of Cry1A or Cry1Fa proteins with Cry1Ba and/or Cry9Ca could be a good strategy for the resistance management of O. nubilalis.
This study evaluated the pulpal and periapical responses of dogs' teeth after pulpotomy and pulp capping with a new tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine) when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) by radiographic, histopathologic, and histomicrobiological analyses.
A reservoir with ecological and economic importance and its major tributary, localized in east-central Mexico, were studied. The aim of this work was to know the physicochemical water characteristics of both water bodies and to contrast these by their different uses, and also estimate overall water quality using a Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples from the reservoir and the tributary were obtained in different climatic seasons. In the tributary, anoxic and hypoxic conditions and high levels of organic matter, orthophosphate, and ammonium showed that this is strongly impacted by wastewater discharges and that the water is not suitable for different uses; independently of the season, the WQI showed "poor" quality (34.4-47.2). In contrast, in the reservoir a better water quality was determined; the WQI in the sampling months ranged from 72.1-76.6 ("good" quality), and spatially, this was from 66.5-79.5 ("fair" and "good" quality).
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a prevalence of approximately 2-3% in the general population. The majority of diagnosed patients have plaque psoriasis, and about 20% have moderate-to-severe disease. Itolizumab, a new monoclonal antibody specific for the CD6 molecule mainly expressed on T lymphocytes, has demonstrated to inhibit in vitro ligand-induced proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We assessed the immunological and histopathological effect of the antibody using clinical samples taken from 26 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis included in a clinical trial. The precursor frequency of lymphocytes activated with anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 beads, as well as the number of interferon (IFN)-?-secreting T cells after stimulation, were measured at different time points of the study. Serum cytokine levels and anti-idiotypic antibody response to itolizumab were also evaluated. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration and epidermis hyperplasia were studied in five patients. A significant reduction in T cell proliferation capacity and number of IFN-?-producing T cells was found in treated patients. Serum levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-? showed an overall trend toward reduction. No anti-idiotypic antibody response was detected. A significant reduction in the epidermis hyperplasia was observed in analyzed patients. These results support the relevance of the CD6 molecule as a therapeutic target for the treatment of this disease.
The wastewater used in this study was obtained from a treatment plant where it mixed with wastewater of 142 industries and was treated using electrocoagulation with iron electrode and phytoremediation with Myriophyllum aquaticum, likewise certain biomarkers of oxidative stress of the plant were evaluated to find out its resistance to contaminant exposure. Electrocoagulation was performed under optimum operating conditions at pH 8 and with a current density of 45.45 A m(-2) to reduce the COD by 42%, color 89% and turbidity 95%; the electrochemical method produces partial elimination of contaminants, though this was improved using phytoremediation. Thus the coupled treatment reduced the COD by 94%, color 97% and turbidity 98%. The exposure of M. aquaticum to electrocoagulated wastewater did not have an effect on the ratio of chlorophyll a/b (2.84 + 0.24); on the activity of SOD, CAT and lipoperoxidation. The results show the potential of M. aquaticum to remove contaminants from pretreated wastewater since the enzymatic system of the plants was not significantly affected.
There is scarce and inconsistent information about gender-related differences in the hydration of sports persons, as well as about the effects of hydration on performance, especially during indoor sports.
The indicators proposed by ??can et al. (1984) are said to reflect age changes that occur in the sternal end of the fourth rib. These indicators have been used to estimate age-at-death in adult skeletal samples. However, Isçan et al. developed their methods using a forensic sample from Florida (U.S.A.). In order to test the reproducibility of those methods we evaluate its accuracy for the fourth ribs by applying it to a sample of known age and sex but of different biological affinity: modern males from Mexico City. We found that the method developed by ??can et al. underestimates age-at-death in the Mexican sample.
Low-temperature fuel cells are limited by the oxygen reduction reaction, and their widespread implementation in automotive vehicles is hindered by the cost of platinum, currently the best-known catalyst for reducing oxygen in terms of both activity and stability. One solution is to decrease the amount of platinum required, for example by alloying, but without detrimentally affecting its properties. The alloy PtxY is known to be active and stable, but its synthesis in nanoparticulate form has proved challenging, which limits its further study. Herein we demonstrate the synthesis, characterization and catalyst testing of model PtxY nanoparticles prepared through the gas-aggregation technique. The catalysts reported here are highly active, with a mass activity of up to 3.05 A mgPt(-1) at 0.9 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode. Using a variety of characterization techniques, we show that the enhanced activity of PtxY over elemental platinum results exclusively from a compressive strain exerted on the platinum surface atoms by the alloy core.
Basal-like and luminal breast cancers have distinct stromal-epithelial interactions, which play a role in progression to invasive cancer. However, little is known about how stromal-epithelial interactions evolve in benign and pre-invasive lesions.
Positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) in reproductive-age women generally indicates a pregnancy in healthy women. Nevertheless, this result can also be associated to other different etiologies that every gynecologist must know. A case report of a 41-year-old woman who had an elevated beta-HCG serum level without pregnancy is presented, which turned out to be the first sign of lung cancer.
Tolerance to abiotic stresses by microorganisms require of appropriate signalling and regulatory pathways. Calcineurin phosphatases mediate calcium-dependent signalling pathways which are widely distributed among phylogeny. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcineurin mediates the post-translational modification of downstream effectors, most of them transcription factors, being the best-characterized calcineurin-regulated zinc-finger factor 1, Crz1p. Here we study the signalling process of CrzA, a filamentous fungal Crz orthologue, in response to calcium and ambient-pH alkalinization. In Aspergillus nidulans resting cells CrzA locates in the cytoplasm being excluded from nuclei. CrzA is a phospho-protein and upon calcium, manganese or alkaline-pH stresses, accumulates in nuclei in a calcineurin-dependent manner. Functional analysis of CrzA defined the presence of a nuclear-export and two nuclear-localization signals as well as a PSINVE sequence that constitutes the major calcineurin-docking domain. First 450 amino acids of CrzA contain these functional motifs and in this region is where phosphorylated residues locate. Different phosphorylation steps are identified in CrzA and activities of casein kinase 1 homologue, CkiA, and of glycogen synthase kinase-3?, identified for the first time here as GskA, are involved. The phospho-signalling process and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of CrzA shows similarities to those described in yeast for Crz1p homologues and of NFATs in mammals.
Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50.
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are important markers of aging and small-vessel disease. WMHs are rare in healthy children and, when observed, often occur with comorbid neuroinflammatory or vasculitic processes. Here, we describe a complex 4 kb deletion in 2q36.3 that segregates with early childhood communication disorders and WMH in 15 unrelated families predominantly from Southeast Asia. The premature brain aging phenotype with punctate and multifocal WMHs was observed in ~70% of young carrier parents who underwent brain MRI. The complex deletion removes the penultimate exon 3 of TM4SF20, a gene encoding a transmembrane protein of unknown function. Minigene analysis showed that the resultant net loss of an exon introduces a premature stop codon, which, in turn, leads to the generation of a stable protein that fails to target to the plasma membrane and accumulates in the cytoplasm. Finally, we report this deletion to be enriched in individuals of Vietnamese Kinh descent, with an allele frequency of about 1%, embedded in an ancestral haplotype. Our data point to a constellation of early language delay and WMH phenotypes, driven by a likely toxic mechanism of TM4SF20 truncation, and highlight the importance of understanding and managing population-specific low-frequency pathogenic alleles.
Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda and Agrotis ipsilon. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to the two species. Vip3Ae and Vip3Af were significantly more toxic than Vip3Aa against S. frugiperda, both as protoxins and as toxins. Against A. ipsilon, Vip3Ae protoxin was more toxic than Vip3Aa and Vip3Af protoxins. Purification by metal-chelate affinity chromatography significantly affected Vip3Ae toxicity against the two insect species.
First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn) was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect populations. One of such examples is the combination of Cry1A.105 with Cry1Fa and Cry2Ab to control O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda. Cry1A.105 is a chimeric protein with domains I and II and the C-terminal half of the protein from Cry1Ac, and domain III almost identical to Cry1Fa. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the chimeric Cry1A.105 has shared binding sites either with Cry1A proteins, with Cry1Fa, or with both, in O. nubilalis and in S. frugiperda. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from last instar larval midguts were used in competition binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa, and unlabeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae. The results showed that Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa competed with high affinity for the same binding sites in both insect species. However, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae did not compete for the binding sites of Cry1 proteins. Therefore, according to our results, the development of cross-resistance among Cry1Ab/Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry1Fa proteins is possible in these two insect species if the alteration of shared binding sites occurs. Conversely, cross-resistance between these proteins and Cry2A proteins is very unlikely in such case.
Potassium, a widely accepted macronutrient, is vital for many physiological processes such as regulation of cell volume, maintenance of intracellular pH, synthesis of proteins and activation of enzymes in filamentous fungi. Another cation, calcium, plays an essential role in many signaling processes from lower to higher eukaryotes. Imbalance in the intracellular ionic levels of potassium or calcium causes adverse effects on cell growth, morphology and development, and eventually death. Previous studies on the adaptation of Aspergillus nidulans to salt and osmotic stress conditions have revealed the role of SltA, a C?H? zinc finger transcription factor in cation homeostasis. SltA is highly conserved in the Ascomycota phylum with no identifiable homolog in S. cerevisiae and other yeast-like fungi, and prevents toxicity by the cations Na?, K?, Li?, Cs? and Mg²?, but not by Ca²?. However its role in morphology and biosynthesis of natural products such as mycotoxins remained unknown. This study shows the first characterization of the role of calcium and SltA fungal homologs in morphogenesis using the model system A. nidulans. Addition of potassium to sltA deletion mutants resulted in decreased levels of sterigmatocystin production. A similar phenotype was observed for both types of mutants in veA1 and veA? genetic background. Expression of the sterigmatocystin genes aflR and stcU was strongly reduced in sltA deletion mutant when K? was added. Additionally, increased concentrations of K? drastically reduced sexual and asexual development, as well as radial growth in deletion sltA colonies. This reduction was accompanied by lower expression of the morphology related genes nsdD, steA and brlA. Interestingly, addition of calcium was able to stimulate asexual and sexual development and remediate the deletion sltA phenotype, including defects in morphology and toxin production.
Activation of inflammatory pathways is one plausible mechanism underlying the association between obesity and increased breast cancer risk. However, macrophage infiltration and local biomarkers of inflammation in breast adipose tissue have seldom been studied in association with obesity. Gene expression profiles of normal breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty patients were evaluated by whole genome microarrays to identify patterns associated with obesity status (normal-weight, body mass index (BMI) <25; overweight, BMI 25-29.9; obese, BMI ?30). The presence of macrophage-enriched inflammatory loci with immunopositivity for CD68 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). After adjusting for confounding by age, 760 genes were differentially expressed (203 up and 557 down; FDR = 0.026) between normal-weight and obese women. Gene ontology analysis suggested significant enrichment for pathways involving IL-6, IL-8, CCR5 signaling in macrophages and RXR? and PPAR? activation, consistent with a pro-inflammatory state and suggestive of macrophage infiltration. Gene set enrichment analysis also demonstrated that the genomic signatures of monocytes and macrophages were over-represented in the obese group with FDR of 0.08 and 0.13, respectively. Increased macrophage infiltration was confirmed by IHC, which showed that the breast adipose tissue of obese women had higher average macrophage counts (mean = 8.96 vs. 3.56 in normal-weight women) and inflammatory foci counts (mean = 4.91 vs. 2.67 in normal-weight women). Obesity is associated with local inflammation and macrophage infiltration in normal human breast adipose tissues. Given the role of macrophages in carcinogenesis, these findings have important implications for breast cancer etiology and progression.
Functionalized carbon nanotubes were used as a support for PtCo nanoparticles. Their performance as electrocatalysts for the electrooxidation of methanol was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and in situ FTIR reflectance spectroscopy. The onset potentials for both the electrooxidation of methanol and the production of CO(2) shifted to less positive values for catalysts prepared with more oxygen groups on the support. Furthermore, the production of CO(2) was higher on catalysts prepared with functionalized carbon nanotubes. The functional groups play two different but complementary roles. On the one hand, they help to stabilize smaller PtCo particles of ca. 3 nm. On the other hand, they provide the -OH groups necessary for the total oxidation of methanol to CO(2) at potentials less positive than on nonfunctionalized supports. Remarkably, the consumption of carboxylic acid groups along with the production of water is observed in the infrared spectra of the functionalized supports recorded during the electrooxidation of methanol. This observation suggests that the -OH groups of the support can also react with methanol, forming water and an ester.
The interactions between breast epithelium and stroma are fundamental to normal tissue homeostasis and for tumor initiation and progression. Gene expression studies of in vitro coculture models demonstrate that in vitro models have relevance for tumor progression in vivo. For example, stromal gene expression has been shown to vary in association with tumor subtype in vivo, and analogous in vitro cocultures recapitulate subtype-specific biological interactions. Cocultures can be used to study cancer cell interactions with specific stromal components (e.g., immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelium) and different representative cell lines (e.g., cancer-associated versus normal-associated fibroblasts versus established, immortalized fibroblasts) can help elucidate the role of stromal variation in tumor phenotypes. Gene expression data can also be combined with cell-based assays to identify cellular phenotypes associated with gene expression changes. Coculture systems are manipulable systems that can yield important insights about cell-cell interactions and the cellular phenotypes that occur as tumor and stroma co-evolve.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the tissue compatibility of a silorane-based resin system (Filtek™ Silorane) and a methacrylate-based nanoparticle resin (Filtek™ Supreme XT) after implantation in the subcutaneous connective tissue of isogenic mice. One hundred and thirty five male isogenic BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 12 experimental and 3 control groups, according to the implanted material and the experimental period of 7, 21 and 63 days. At the end of each period, the animals were killed and the tubes with the surrounding tissues were removed and processed for microscopic analysis. Samples were subjected to a descriptive and a semi-quantitative analyses using a 4-point scoring system (0-3) to evaluate the collagen fiber formation and inflammatory infiltrate. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test (?=0.05). The results showed that there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups considering the three evaluation periods (p>0.05). The silorane-based and the methacrylate-based nanoparticle resins presented similar tissue response to that of the empty tube (control group) after subcutaneous implantation in isogenic mice.
Many studies have suggested that obese patients with chronic heart failure have a better prognosis than leaner patients. The main purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure, independently of other poor prognosis parameters.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits and morbidity associated with a novel technique for a hysterectomy designed specifically for a robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedure. Recent studies have compared robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy vs. open hysterectomy. We have developed a surgical technique that has enabled us to efficiently decrease the standard operative time.
We have investigated mechanisms that contribute to reinforce the relationship between inflammation and cancer. Secreted phospholipase A(2) group IIA (sPLA(2)-IIA) is a molecule relevant in inflammatory events and has been proposed as a marker for some of these. Previously, we reported the mitogenic properties of this sPLA(2) in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1. Here, we go deeper into the mechanisms that link this inflammatory protein with proliferation in one of the most aggressive types of tumors. We found that phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) was preceded by the activation of the small GTPase Ras, and both failed to be activated by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC). Fractionation and immunofluorescence studies revealed translocation of PKC alpha, delta, and epsilon to the membrane fraction upon stimulation with sPLA(2)-IIA. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that sPLA(2)-IIA induces phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through a PKC-dependent pathway. We found that phosphorylation of this receptor contributed to Ras and ERK activation and that inhibition of ERK, PKC, and EGFR blocked the mitogenic response induced by sPLA(2)-IIA. This study showed that sPLA(2)-IIA is able to bring into play EGFR to trigger its signaling and that PKC leads the distribution of resources. Interestingly, we found that this is not a cell-specific response, because sPLA(2)-IIA was also able to transactivate EGFR in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Therefore, this mechanism could contribute to worsen the prognosis of a tumor in an inflammatory microenvironment. We also present more links of the tumor chain possibly susceptible to targeting.
Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira, gram negative spirochaetes whose microbiologic identification is difficult due to their low rate of growth and metabolic activity. In Colombia leptospirosis diagnosis is achieved by serological techniques without unified criteria for what positive titers are. In this study we compared polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with microbiological culture and dark field microscopy for the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques were performed on 83 samples of urine taken from bovines in the savannahs surrounding Bogotá in Colombia, with presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis. 117 samples of urine taken from healthy bovines were used as negative controls. 83 samples were MAT positive with titers ? 1:50; 81 with titers ? 1:100; and 66 with titers ? 1:200. 36% of the total samples (73/200) were Leptospira positives by microbiological culture, 32% (63/200) by dark field microscopy and 37% (74/200) by PCR. Amplicons obtained by PCR were 482 base pair long which are Leptospira specific. An amplicon of 262 base pairs typical of pathogenic Leptospira was observed in 71 out of the 74 PCR positive samples. The remaining 3 samples showed a 240 base pair amplicon which is typical of saprophytic Leptospira. PCR as a Leptospira diagnosis technique was 100% sensitive and 99% specific in comparison to microbiological culture. Kappa value of 0.99 indicated an excellent concordance between these techniques. Sensitivity and specificity reported for MAT when compared to microbiological culture was 0.95 and 0.89 with a ? 1:50 cut off. PCR was a reliable method for the rapid and precise diagnosis of leptospirosis when compared to traditional techniques in our study. The research presented here will be helpful to improve diagnosis and control of leptospirosis in Colombia and other endemic countries.
Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes involved in conferring resistance is of paramount importance. A colony of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was selected for 15 years in the laboratory for resistance to Xentari™, a B. thuringiensis-based insecticide, reaching a final resistance level of greater than 1,000-fold. Around 600 midgut ESTs were analyzed by DNA-macroarray in order to find differences in midgut gene expression between susceptible and resistant insects. Among the differentially expressed genes, repat and arylphorin were identified and their increased expression was correlated with B. thuringiensis resistance. We also found overlap among genes that were constitutively over-expressed in resistant insects with genes that were up-regulated in susceptible insects after exposure to Xentari™, suggesting a permanent activation of the response to Xentari™ in resistant insects. Increased aminopeptidase activity in the lumen of resistant insects in the absence of exposure to Xentari™ corroborated the hypothesis of permanent activation of response genes. Increase in midgut proliferation has been proposed as a mechanism of response to pathogens in the adult from several insect species. Analysis of S. exigua larvae revealed that midgut proliferation was neither increased in resistant insects nor induced by exposure of susceptible larvae to Xentari™, suggesting that mechanisms other than midgut proliferation are involved in the response to B. thuringiensis by S. exigua larvae.
The insect immune system is comprised of both humoral and cellular components that are mobilized in response to parasitic or pathogenic infections. Activation of the immune response implies a considerable expenditure of energy and that is why insects rely on inducible pathways that are activated after coming into contact with the pathogenic agent. Known as immune priming, insects can prolong the activation of the immune response and transmit their immune status to the next generation. Starting from a laboratory colony of the lepidopteran Spodoptera exigua and using the lytic zone assay as a measure of the immune status, we selected for a sub-colony with high levels of immune activity in the absence of external challenging with bacteria. Immune-activated insect showed characteristics that are typical reported for immune primed insects, such as increased tolerance to pathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis in our case), fitness-cost associated to the immune status, and maternal transmission of the immune status. However, additional analysis revealed that the selection for the immune-activated insects was based on the selection of insects carrying a higher bacterial load in the midgut. Our results suggest that activation of the immune system in S. exigua may not only occur as consequence of the immune priming but also from an increase in midgut microbiota load.
Piscivory in fishes is often associated with the evolution of highly elongate jaws that achieve a large mouth opening, or gape. Belonesox belizanus, the pike killifish, has independently evolved this morphology, which is derived from short-jawed poeciliids within the Cyprinodontiformes. Using kinematic analysis of high-speed video footage, we observed a novel aspect of the elongate jaws of Belonesox; the premaxilla rotates dorsally during mouth opening, while the lower jaw rotates ventrally. Anatomical study revealed that this unusual motion is facilitated by the architecture of the premaxillomandibular ligament, prominent within cyprinodontiforms. In Belonesox, it allows force to be transferred from the lower jaw directly to the premaxilla, thereby causing it to rotate dorsally. This dorsal rotation of the premaxilla appears to be assisted by a mediolateral twisting of the maxilla during jaw opening. Twisting maxillae are found in members of the group such as Fundulus, but are lost in Gambusia. Models revealed that elongate jaws partially account for the enlarged gape, but enhanced rotation at the quadrato-mandibular joint was equally important. The large gape is therefore created by: (i) the convergent evolution of elongate jaws; (ii) enhanced jaw rotation, facilitated by loss of a characteristic cyprinodontiform trait, the lip membrane; and (iii) premaxilla rotation in a novel direction, facilitated by the retention and co-option of additional cyprinodontiform traits, the premaxillomandibular ligament and a twisting maxilla.
The objective of this study was to determine whether reproductive seasonality of local well-fed female goats from subtropical Mexico (26 degrees N) can be controlled by photoperiod. The control group (n=12) remained in an open pen under natural photoperiod variations. The two experimental groups (n=8 each) were placed in light-proof rooms and exposed for 2 yr to alternations of 3 months of long days and 3 months of short days. One group was first exposed to long days, Group 1, and the other one to short days, Group 2. Blood samples were obtained twice a week to determine ovulation status by progesterone plasma concentrations. Goats from the control group displayed a seasonality of ovulations. The mean (+/-SEM) dates of the onset and end of the ovulations were September 10+/-5 d and February 16+/-4 d, respectively. In contrast, in both experimental groups, ovulations were modified (P<0.05) by the photoperiodic treatments such that ovulations started and ended during short and long days, respectively. In Groups 1 and 2, ovulations started 67+/-2 and 66+/-2 d (P>0.05), respectively, after the transfer from long to short days. In contrast, the timing of the cessation of ovulations after the transfer from short to long days differed (P<0.05) between groups (19+/-3 and 31+/-3 d for Groups 1 and 2, respectively). Local female goats from subtropical Mexico are, therefore, sensitive to photoperiodic changes that they are exposed to at this latitude and this environmental cue may control the timing of the breeding season in natural conditions.
Studies on the evolution of complex biological systems are difficult because the construction of these traits cannot be observed during the course of evolution. Complex traits are defined as consisting of multiple elements, often of differing embryological origins, with multiple linkages integrated to form a single functional unit. An example of a complex system is the cypriniform oral jaw apparatus. Cypriniform fishes possess an upper jaw characterized by premaxillary protrusion during feeding. Cypriniforms effect protrusion via the kinethmoid, a synapomorphy for the order. The kinethmoid is a sesamoid ossification suspended by ligaments attaching to the premaxillae, maxillae, palatines, and neurocranium. Upon mouth opening, the kinethmoid rotates as the premaxillae move anteriorly. Along with bony and ligamentous elements, there are three divisions of the adductor mandibulae that render this system functional. It is unclear how cypriniform jaws evolved because although the evolution of sesamoid elements is common, the incorporation of the kinethmoid into the protrusible jaw results in a function that is atypical for sesamoids. Developmental studies can show how biological systems are assembled within individuals and offer clues about how traits might have been constructed during evolution. We investigated the development of the protrusible upper jaw in zebrafish to generate hypotheses regarding the evolution of this character. Early in development, the adductor mandibulae arises as a single unit. The muscle divides after ossification of the maxillae, on which the A1 division will ultimately insert. A cartilaginous kinethmoid first develops within the intermaxillary ligament; it later ossifies at points of ligamentous attachment. We combine our structural developmental data with published kinematic data at key developmental stages and discuss potential functional advantages in possessing even the earliest stages of a system for protrusion.
This study aimed to assess the response of apical and periapical tissues of dogs teeth after root canal filling with different materials. Forty roots from dogs premolars were prepared biomechanically and assigned to 4 groups filled with: Group I: commercial calcium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol-based paste (Calen) thickened with zinc oxide; Group II: paste composed of iodoform, Rifocort and camphorated paramonochlorophenol; Group III: zinc oxide-eugenol cement; Group IV: sterile saline. After 30 days, the samples were subjected to histological processing. The histopathological findings revealed that in Groups I and IV the apical and periapical regions exhibited normal appearance, with large number of fibers and cells and no resorption of mineralized tissues. In Group II, mild inflammatory infiltrate and mild edema were observed, with discrete fibrogenesis and bone resorption. Group III showed altered periapical region and thickened periodontal ligament with presence of inflammatory cells and edema. It may be concluded that the Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide yielded the best tissue response, being the most indicated material for root canal filling of primary teeth with pulp vitality.
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and prognostic value of elevated cardiac troponin (cTnT) and its association with clinical characteristics according to renal function status in patients with stable heart failure.
A continuous system electrocoagulation--active sludge was designed and built for the treatment of industrial wastewater. The system included an electrochemical reactor with aluminum electrodes, a clarifier and a biological reactor. The electrochemical reactor was tested under different flowrates (50, 100 and 200 mL/min). In the biological reactor, the performance of different cultures of active sludge was assessed: coliform bacterial, ciliate and flagellate protozoa and aquatic fungus. Overall treatment efficiencies of color, turbidity and COD removal were 94%, 92% and 80%, respectively, under optimal conditions of 50 mL/min flowrate and using ciliate and flagellate protozoa. It was concluded that the system was efficient for the treatment of industrial wastewater.
Hyperglycemia has been described as a common event occurring during acute lymphocytic leukemia chemotherapy. It is associated with the synergistic effect of L-asparaginase and glucocorticoids, and related to poor outcome. Our goal was to compare clinical and laboratory findings between hyperglycemic episodes occurring during childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia induction chemotherapy. Here we describe 12 (3.8%) high-risk patients of 311 total patients, 9 (75%) of who are female. The 12 patients presented with 16 hyperglycemic episodes classified into adverse or satisfactory categories. There were no differences in clinical or laboratory variables among groups, although the majority of episodes occurred in pubescents, regardless of the type of glucocorticoid employed. Despite the fact that only 1 patient was overweight, pancreatitis was not diagnosed. Although we could not determine whether hyperglycemia predicts an adverse outcome, glucose evaluation played an important role during induction chemotherapy. To date, recognized risk factors for hyperglycemia no longer explain our findings, thus other mechanisms related to insulin secretion and action should be further studied.
Cyprinodontiforms are a diverse and speciose order that includes topminnows, pupfishes, swordtails, mosquitofishes, guppies, and mollies. Sister group to the Beloniformes and Atheriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes contains approximately twice the number of species of these other two orders combined. Recent studies suggest that this group is well suited to capturing prey by "picking" small items from the water surface, water column, and the substrate. Because picking places unusual performance demands on the feeding apparatus, this mode of prey capture may rely upon novel morphological modifications not found in more widespread ram- or suction-based feeding mechanisms. To assess this evolutionary hypothesis, we describe the trophic anatomy of 16 cyprinodontiform species, selected to broadly represent the order as well as capture intrageneric variation. The group appears to have undergone gradual morphological changes to become increasingly specialized for picking and scraping behaviors. We also identify a suite of functional characters related to the acquisition of a novel and previously undescribed mechanism of premaxillary protrusion and retraction, including: modification of the "premaxillomandibular" ligament (which connects each side of the premaxilla to the ipsilateral mandible, or lower jaw), a novel architecture of the ligaments and bony elements that unite the premaxillae, maxillae and palatine bones, and novel insertions of the adductor muscles onto the jaws. These morphological changes to both the upper and lower jaws suggest an evolutionary trend within this group toward increased reliance on picking individual prey from the water column/substrate or for scraping encrusting material from the substrate. We propose that the suite of morphological characters described here enable a functional innovation, "picking," which leads to novel trophic habits.
The electrochemical reduction of Cr(VI)-Cr(III) in wastewater by iron and copper-iron bimetallic plates was evaluated and optimized. Iron has been used as a reducing agent, but in this work a copper-iron galvanic system in the form of bimetallic plates is applied to reducing hexavalent chromium. The optimal pH (2) and ratio of copper to iron surface areas (3.5:1) were determined in batch studies, achieving a 100% reduction in about 25 min. The Cr(VI) reduction kinetics for the bimetallic system fit a first order mechanism with a correlation of 0.9935. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the Cr(VI) reduction is possible at any pH value. However, at pH values above 3.0 for iron and 5.5 for chromium insoluble species appear, indicating that the reaction will be hindered. Continuous column studies indicate that the bimetallic copper-iron galvanic system has a reduction capacity of 9.5890 mg Cr(VI) cm(-2) iron, whereas iron alone only has a capacity of 0.1269 mg Cr(VI) cm(-2). The bimetallic copper-iron galvanic system is much more effective in reducing hexavalent chromium than iron alone. The exhausted plates were analyzed by SEM, EDS, and XRD to determine the mechanism and the surface effects, especially surface fouling.
In most of the legally protected areas in Mexico local inhabitants use natural resources, such as fire wood or cattle grazing. These frequent but low-intensity disturbances have consequences at various levels of the tropical ecosystems and strongly impact forest structure and its regeneration capacity. Despite their importance, the effects of these perturbations in many aspects of tropical forest ecology and in the forests capacity to recover after disturbance exclusion remain poorly understood. Understanding the impact of these processes on tropical forests is necessary for rehabilitating these forests and enhancing their productivity. In this study, we evaluate the impact of twelve years of exclusion (E) of cattle grazing and fire wood extraction in the composition and dynamics of seed rain, and compare this assessment to a similar analysis in an area where these perturbations continued (without exclusion, WE). We found a strong seasonality in seed rain (96% of seeds fell in the dry season) in both areas. There were no significant differences between E and WE sites in relation to overall seed density, species richness and diversity. However, the distribution along the year of seed species density was significantly different among the E and WE sites. The Jaccards similarity index between E and WE sites was relatively low (0.57). Barochory was the most common dispersal mode observed among the 23 species in terms of seed species density (48%), followed by anemochory (39%) and zoochory (13%). In relation to seed density, anemochory was the most frequent dispersal mode (88%). Most species in the zone were categorized as small seeds (92%), and there were no significant differences in the distribution of seed size between E and WE. The spatial pattern of dispersal of the four species with the highest relative importance value index, in both areas, was aggregated. Twelve years of disturbance exclusion were not enough to fully restore the seed rain of the area; some differences were already perceptible after this lapse. On the other hand, zoochorous species were almost absent from both sites. The re-introduction of climax and animal-dispersed species may be, in addition to perturbation exclusion, a viable strategy to accelerate ecological restoration in this area.
The Weberian apparatus, a complex assemblage of greatly modified vertebral elements, significantly enhances hearing within Otophysi. Ultimately we are interested in investigating the genetic mechanisms responsible for the origin, development and morphological diversification of these vertebral elements in the Weberian apparatus of otophysan fishes. However, a necessary first step involves identifying changes in growth of this region as compared with the vertebrae from which these modified elements purportedly derive. Using an ontogenetic series of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, we collected growth data for specific elements within the Weberian apparatus, including neural arches, ribs, and parapophyses. These data are compared to both serially homologous structures in posterior thoracic vertebrae (which act as internal controls) and vertebral elements from the same axial levels in three other non-otophysan teleosts. Significant differences in growth rate were found among serially homologous structures, as well as at equivalent axial levels in different species. Uniform changes in growth rates (in which all structures derived from a specific somite were equally affected) were not found, suggesting precise targeting of morphological change to specific structures. The variation in growth of anterior vertebrae in and among species was greater than expected. This variation in growth rates created developmental patterns unique to each species. Such patterns of growth may help illuminate the specific heterochronic mechanisms required for the origin and subsequent morphological diversification of the Weberian apparatus. This morphological diversity is exemplified by the multitude of forms seen in the cypriniform Weberian apparatus. Understanding patterns of growth in discrete elements of the Weberian apparatus allows us to hypothesize as to the specific developmental changes, likely constituting differences in gene expression in pathways involved in bone and cartilage differentiation, responsible for this morphological diversity.
The identification and characterization of peptides from MS/MS data represents a critical aspect of proteomics. It has been the subject of extensive research in bioinformatics resulting in the generation of a fair number of identification software tools. Most often, only one program with a specific and unvarying set of parameters is selected for identifying proteins. Hence, a significant proportion of the experimental spectra do not match the peptide sequences in the screened database due to inappropriate parameters or scoring schemes. The Swiss protein identification toolbox (swissPIT) project provides the scientific community with an expandable multitool platform for automated in-depth analysis of MS data also able to handle data from high-throughput experiments. With swissPIT many problems have been solved: The missing standards for input and output formats (A), creation of analysis workflows (B), unified result visualization (C), and simplicity of the user interface (D). Currently, swissPIT supports four different programs implementing two different search strategies to identify MS/MS spectra. Conceived to handle the calculation-intensive needs of each of the programs, swissPIT uses the distributed resources of a Swiss-wide computer Grid (http://www.swing-grid.ch).
Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) has developed resistance to a wide range of chemical insecticides. Products based on Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in integrated pest management as an ecologically friendly alternative for pest control. Since there are few B. thuringiensis Cry proteins highly active against S. exigua, it is desirable to apply appropriate resistance management strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance to these proteins.
We sought to assess the developing of thyroid disorders in forty eight patients with chronic stable heart failure and without thyroid abnormalities during six months follow-up. Thyroid function disorders were observed in 27.1% of the subjects: sick euthyroid syndrome (12.5%), subclinical hypothyroidism (10.4%) and overt hypothyroidism (6.2%). Subjects with higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels at the end of the study had more hospitalizations. The developing of altered thyroid profile was related to lower hemoglobin levels, smaller phase angle with bioelectrical impedance method and more fatigue perception by the patients. This abnormal thyroid function behavior on stable chronic heart failure and was observed as part of the disease progress and was associated to worse prognosis factors as lower phase angle and anemia.
Cancer cells have altered metabolism, with increased glucose uptake, glycolysis, and biomass production. This study conducted genomic and metabolomic analyses to elucidate how tumor and stromal genomic characteristics influence tumor metabolism.
Three vip3 genes were identified in two Bacillus thuringiensis Spanish collections. Sequence analysis revealed a novel Vip3 protein class (Vip3C). Preliminary bioassays of larvae from 10 different lepidopteran species indicated that Vip3Ca3 caused more than 70% mortality in four species after 10 days at 4 ?g/cm(2).
The widely used standard method for chemical oxygen demand (COD) involves hazardous chromium species, and its two-hour heating protocol entails a substantial amount of energy expenditure. In the present work we report a proof of concept for a major modification of this method in the range 10-800 mgCOD/L, whereby H2O2 is proposed as a replacement oxidizer. This modification not only reduces the use of unsafe chromium species but also allows for the use of milder conditions that decrease the total energy outlay. The results are comparable with those obtained either with the standard method or with a commercial Hach® kit.
Previous studies reported "mode 1" Bacillus thuringiensis resistance in a colony of diamondback moths (NO-QA), and recently, this resistance has been mapped to an ABC transporter (ABCC2) locus. We report the lack of binding of Cry1Fa to insects derived from this colony and compare our data with those from other insects with ABCC2-associated resistance.
Our objective was to develop clinical guidelines based on the best clinical evidence to help the staff of medical setting of all levels (first, second and third medical attention levels) to provide evidence based care and diagnosis of hypothyroidism in adults nationwide. The guidelines were built using structured and relevant clinical questions. A strategy was developed to identify the main clinical guidelines for hypothyroidism in adult patient. The working group selected six documents. For aspects not considered in those documents, structured searches using Pubmed, Medical Disability Advisor, and Cochrane Library Plus were done. The results were qualified according its level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism should be done precisely and without delay. Specialized care should be used rationally, using primary care units as the main resource for the treatment of hypothyroidism. This is the reason why the first primary care physicians should understand and apply a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in adulthood.
Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10-26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10-16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia.
Premaxillary protrusion in cypriniform fishes involves rotation of the kinethmoid, an unpaired skeletal element in the dorsal midline of the rostrum. No muscles insert directly onto the kinethmoid, so its rotation must be caused by the movement of other bones. In turn, the kinethmoid is thought to push on the ascending processes of the premaxillae, effecting protrusion. To determine the causes and effects of kinethmoid motion, we used XROMM (x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology) to measure the kinematics of cranial bones in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Mean kinethmoid rotation was 83 deg during premaxillary protrusion (18 events in 3 individuals). The kinethmoid rotates in a coordinated way with ventral translation of the maxillary bridge, and this ventral translation is likely driven primarily by the A1? muscle. Analyses of flexibility (variability between behaviors) and coordination (correlation between bones within a behavior) indicate that motion of the maxillary bridge, not the lower jaw, drives premaxillary protrusion. Thus, upper jaw protrusion is decoupled from lower jaw depression, allowing for two separate modes of protrusion, open mouth and closed mouth. These behaviors serve different functions: to procure food and to sort food, respectively. Variation in starting posture of the maxilla alone dictates which type of protrusion is performed; downstream motions are invariant. For closed mouth protrusion, a ventrally displaced maxillary starting posture causes kinethmoid rotation to produce more ventrally directed premaxillary protrusion. This flexibility, bestowed by the kinethmoid-maxillary bridge-A1? mechanism, one of several evolutionary novelties in the cypriniform feeding mechanism, may have contributed to the impressive trophic diversity that characterizes this speciose lineage.
A protrusible upper jaw has independently evolved multiple times within teleosts and has been implicated in the success of two groups in particular: Acanthomorpha and Cypriniformes. We use digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to compare suction feeding flow dynamics in a representative of each of these clades: goldfish and bluegill. Using DPIV, we contrast the spatial pattern of flow, the temporal relationship between flow and head kinematics, and the contribution of jaw protrusion to the forces exerted on prey. As expected, the spatial patterns of flow were similar in the two species. However, goldfish were slower to reach maximal kinematic excursions, and were more flexible in the relative timing of jaw protrusion, other jaw movements and suction flows. Goldfish were also able to sustain flow speeds for a prolonged period of time as compared with bluegill, in part because goldfish generate lower peak flow speeds. In both species, jaw protrusion increased the force exerted on the prey. However, slower jaw protrusion in goldfish resulted in less augmentation of suction forces. This difference in force exerted on prey corresponds with differences in trophic niches and feeding behavior of the two species. The bluegill uses powerful suction to capture insect larvae whereas the goldfish uses winnowing to sort through detritus and sediment. The kinethmoid of goldfish may permit jaw protrusion that is independent of lower jaw movement, which could explain the ability of goldfish to decouple suction flows (due to buccal expansion) from upper jaw protrusion. Nevertheless, our results show that jaw protrusion allows both species to augment the force exerted on prey, suggesting that this is a fundamental benefit of jaw protrusion to suction feeders.
Cry1Fa insecticidal protein was successfully radiolabeled with (125)I-Na. Specific binding to brush border membrane vesicles was shown for the lepidopteran species Ostrinia nubilalis, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens, and Plutella xylostella. Homologous competition assays were performed to obtain equilibrium binding parameters (K(d) [dissociation constant] and R(t) [concentration of binding sites]) for these six insect species.
A gene expression signature indicative of activated wound responses is common to more than 90% of non-neoplastic tissues adjacent to breast cancer, but these tissues also exhibit substantial heterogeneity. We hypothesized that gene expression subtypes of breast cancer microenvironment can be defined and that these microenvironment subtypes have clinical relevance.
Premaxillary protrusion has evolved multiple times within teleosts, and has been implicated as contributing to the evolutionary success of clades bearing this adaptation. Cypriniform fishes protrude the jaws via the kinethmoid, a median sesamoid bone that is a synapomorphy for the order. Using five cypriniform species, we provide the first comparative kinematic study of jaw protrusion in this speciose order. Our goals were to compare jaw protrusion in cypriniforms to that in other clades that independently evolved upper jaw protrusion, assess the variation in feeding kinematics among members of the order, and test if variation in the shape of the kinethmoid has an effect on either jaw kinematics or the degree of suction or ram used during a feeding event. We also examined the coordination in the relative timings of upper and lower jaw movements to gain insight on the cypriniform protrusile mechanism. Overall, speed of protrusion in cypriniforms is slower than in other teleosts. Protrusion speed differed significantly among cypriniforms but this is likely not due to kinethmoid shape alone; rather, it may be a result of both kinethmoid shape and branching patterns of the A1 division of the adductor mandibulae. In the benthic cypriniforms investigated here, upper jaw protrusion contributed up to 60% of overall ram of the strikes and interestingly, these species also produced the most suction. There is relatively little coordination of upper and lower jaw movements in cypriniforms, suggesting that previous hypotheses of premaxillary protrusion via lower jaw depression are not supported within Cypriniformes. Significant variation in kinematics suggests that cypriniforms may have the ability to modulate feeding, which could be an advantage if presented with the challenge of feeding on different types of prey.
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