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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Interclonal gradient of virulence in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pangenome from disease and environment.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The population genomics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analysed by genome sequencing of representative strains of the 15 most frequent clonal complexes in the P.?aeruginosa population and of the five most common clones from the environment of which so far no isolate from a human infection has been detected. Gene annotation identified 5892-7187 open reading frame (ORFs; median 6381 ORFs) in the 20 6.4-7.4?Mbp large genomes. The P.?aeruginosa pangenome consists of a conserved core of at least 4000 genes, a combinatorial accessory genome of a further 10?000 genes and 30?000 or more rare genes that are present in only a few strains or clonal complexes. Whole genome comparisons of single nucleotide polymorphism synteny indicated unrestricted gene flow between clonal complexes by recombination. Using standardized acute lettuce, Galleria mellonella and murine airway infection models the full spectrum of possible host responses to P.?aeruginosa was observed with the 20 strains ranging from unimpaired health following infection to 100% lethality. Genome comparisons indicate that the differential genetic repertoire of clones maintains a habitat-independent gradient of virulence in the P.?aeruginosa population.
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Problem parental care and teenage deliberate self-harm in young community adults.
Bull Menninger Clin
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Deliberate self-harm (DSH) in young people is a clinical and social problem related to early maltreatment but with little specificity in type of care or abuse determined. A community sample of 160 high-risk young people (aged 16-30) were the offspring of mothers' previously interviewed as vulnerable to major depression. The youth were interviewed to determine DSH (both suicidal and nonsuicidal), childhood maltreatment (using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview) and major depression (using SCID for DSMIV) before age 17. Around one fifth reported DSH; equal proportions were suicidal and nonsuicidal with a fourth of these with both. DSH was highly related to family context (single mother upbringing and family discord) and poor parental care (including antipathy, neglect, inadequate supervision, and role reversal). Highest odds ratios were for role reversal (OR = 17) and neglect (OR = 11). DSH was unrelated to any type of abuse. Logistic regression showed that role reversal, inadequate supervision, and teenage depression all modeled DSH. There was some specificity, with single mother upbringing, role reversal, and inadequate supervision predicting nonsuicidal DSH, and neglect and role reversal alone predicting suicidal DSH. Role reversal remained a key predictor for both types of DSH when controls were applied. Poor childhood care, which has implications for problematic emotion regulation and empoverished social development, needs to be understood to improve interventions and treatment for DSH in young people.
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Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar Calreticulin: inhibition of classical complement pathway and differences in the level of expression in amoebic liver abscess.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The role of calreticulin (CRT) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. Information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of Entamoeba parasites is limited. The present work demonstrates that CRT of both pathogenic E. histolytica and nonpathogenic E. dispar species specifically interacted with human C1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. Using recombinant EhCRT protein, we demonstrate that CRT interaction site and human C1q is located at the N-terminal region of EhCRT. The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy experiments show that CRT and human C1q colocalize in the cytoplasmic vesicles and near to the surface membrane of previously permeabilized trophozoites or are incubated with normal human serum which is known to destroy trophozoites. In the presence of peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the distribution of EhCRT and C1q is clearly over the surface membrane of trophozoites. Nevertheless, the level of expression of CRT in situ in lesions of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in the hamster model is different in both Entamoeba species; this molecule is expressed in higher levels in E. histolytica than in E. dispar. This result suggests that EhCRT may modulate some functions during the early moments of the host-parasite relationship.
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A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%). We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n?=?18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n?=?16). We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p?=?0.04). Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p?=?0.03); 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p?=?0.05). The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p?=?0.09). Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.
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THOC5, a member of the mRNA export complex, contributes to processing of a subset of wingless/integrated (Wnt) target mRNAs and integrity of the gut epithelial barrier.
BMC Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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THO (Suppressors of the transcriptional defects of hpr1 delta by overexpression) complex 5 (THOC5), an mRNA export protein, is involved in the expression of only 1% of all genes. Using an interferon inducible knockout mouse system, we have previously shown that THOC5 is an essential element in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and cytokine-mediated hematopoiesis in adult mice. Here we interrogate THOC5 function in cell differentiation beyond the hematopoietic system and study pathological changes caused by THOC5 deficiency.
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Worldwide genealogy of Entamoeba histolytica: an overview to understand haplotype distribution and infection outcome.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Although Entamoeba histolytica is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites, how the different strains of this species are distributed all over the world and how different genotypes are associated with the infection outcome are yet to be fully understood. Recently, the use of a number of molecular markers has made the characterization of several genotypes in those regions with high incidence of amoebiasis possible. This work proposes the first genealogy of E. histolytica, with an haplotype network based on two tRNA gene-linked array of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) reported until today, and 47 sequences from 39 new isolates of Mexican Amoebic Liver Abscesses (ALA) samples. One hundred and three sequences were obtained from D-A locus, their information about the geographic region of isolation as well as clinical diagnosis were also collected. One hundred and five sequences from N-K2 locus were also obtained as well as the region of isolation, but the information about clinical diagnosis was not available in all cases. The most abundant and widely distributed haplotype in the world is the one of E. histolytica HM1:IMSS strain. This was found in Mexico, Bangladesh, Japan, China and USA and is associated to symptomatic patients as well as asymptomatic cyst passers. Many other haplotypes were found only in a single country. Both genealogies suggest that there are no lineages within the networks that may be related to a particular geographic region or infection outcome. A concatenated analysis of the two molecular markers revealed 12 different combinations, which suggests the possibility of genetic recombination events. The present study is the first to propose a global genealogy of this species and suggests that there are still many genotypes to be discovered. The genotyping of new isolates will help to understand the great diversity and genetic structure of this parasite.
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Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease in a Female Gardener.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a subgroup of pulmonary arterial hypertension with a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is usually delayed and treatment options other than lung transplantation are unfortunately limited. We report the case of 51-year-old female gardener diagnosed with PVOD by open lung biopsy before her death. Although there are many reported cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease due to toxic agents present in nature, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure, to date this has not been linked to PVOD.
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Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.
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Novelties on amoebiasis: a neglected tropical disease.
J Glob Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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In accordance with the 1997 documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), amoebiasis is defined as the infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica with or without clinical manifestations. The only known natural host of E. histolytica is the human with the large intestine as major target organ. This parasite has a very simple life cycle in which the infective form is the cyst, considered a resistant form of parasite: The asymptomatic cyst passers and the intestinal amoebiasis patients are the transmitters; they excrete cysts in their feces, which can contaminate food and water sources. E. histolytica sensu stricto is the potentially pathogenic species and E. dispar is a commensal non-pathogenic Entamoeba. Both species are biochemical, immunological and genetically distinct. The knowledge of both species with different pathogenic phenotypes comes from a large scientific debate during the second half of the 20(th) century, which gave place to the rapid development of diagnostics technology based on molecular and immunological strategies. During the last ten years, knowledge of the new epidemiology of amoebiasis in different geographic endemic and non-endemic areas has been obtained by applying mostly molecular techniques. In the present work we highlight novelties on human infection and the disease that can help the general physician from both endemic and non-endemic countries in their medical practice, particularly, now that emigration is undoubtedly a global phenomenon that is modifying the previous geography of infectious diseases worldwide.
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Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin: an endoplasmic reticulum protein expressed by trophozoites into experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.
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Human amebiasis: breaking the paradigm?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery) and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess), whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica.
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Depression, distress and positive mood in late-stage cancer: a longitudinal study.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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To determine whether new-onset clinical depression emerges over time, and whether positive and negative mood levels change among patients with terminal cancer.
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Problem partners and parenting: exploring linkages with maternal insecure attachment style and adolescent offspring internalizing disorder.
Attach Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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An intergenerational study examined mothers insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers insecure attachment and their partners problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mothers lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.
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Reassessment of the epidemiology of amebiasis: state of the art.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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The epidemiology of amebiasis has dramatically changed since the separation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar species, and the worldwide prevalence of these species has not been estimated until recently. The most cited data regarding prevalence, morbidity, or mortality due to amebiasis is the 1986 Walsh report, in which 100,000 deaths are reported to occur worldwide each year due to medical complications of invasive amebiasis. However, the prevalence values of Entamoeba histolytica infection could be completely erroneous since the estimations were performed prior to the molecular characterization of E. histolytica and E. dispar species. Moreover, Entamoeba moshkovskii, another morphologically indistinguishable human parasitic Entamoeba, was not mentioned or considered as a contributor to the prevalence figures in endemic areas. However, recent available prevalence and morbidity data obtained through molecular techniques allow the construction of a more reliable map of endemic regions of amebiasis all over the world [the Asian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh), Africa, Asian Pacific Countries (Thailand, Japan), South and Central America (Mexico, Colombia)]. The epidemiology of infectious diseases focuses on identification of factors that determine disease distribution in time and space, transmission factors responsible for the disease, clinical manifestations, and progression in the host, with the goal being the design of realistic intervention and prevention strategies in a reasonable period of time. In the present review, we will describe how molecular tools have made actual knowledge regarding the epidemiology of amebiasis possible. We will also analyze the most relevant available data on prevalence, morbidity, geographic distribution, patterns of transmission, exposure, and risk factors for infection in the human host. Our intention is to emphasize the recent molecular typing methods applied in genotyping Entamoeba species and strains, and to assess their value and limitations. Finally, we will discuss those areas of the host-parasite relationship that are still not fully understood, and the scientific challenges to approach this important public health problem in the future.
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Two different chitinase genotypes in a patient with an amebic liver abscess: a case report.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The present work deals with the identification of a patient with two liver abscesses containing two different strains of Entamoeba histolytica, as defined by chitinase gene plymorphisms.
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Case report: Cutaneous amebiasis: the importance of molecular diagnosis of an emerging parasitic disease.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis.
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Compulsive hoarding: overview and implications for community health nurses.
J Community Health Nurs
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Hoarding is a serious public health hazard that poses significant health and safety risks for individuals, families, and communities. Research indicates that compulsive hoarding is a growing social and environmental problem across the United States, affecting as many as 2-5% of the population. Hoarders often live chaotically in their own private clutter until it spreads so far that it evolves into medical emergencies or can only be contained by the law. Visiting clients in their homes provides community health nurses with the unique opportunity to identify cases of hoarding and connect individuals and their families with appropriate resources, potentially preventing catastrophic outcomes. Interventions such as case-finding, outreach, case management, community education, and advocacy may be implemented by the community health nurse to improve the health of this very vulnerable population. The aim of this article is to inform community health nurses of the complexity of this emerging phenomenon, its symptoms, treatments, and impacts on individuals, their families, and their communities.
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[Meckels diverticulum and enteroliths complicating Crohns disease].
Gastroenterol Hepatol
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We describe the case of a 43-year-old man recently diagnosed with ileal Crohns disease complicated by a free peritoneal perforation of a Meckels diverticulum and the presence of enteroliths in the intestinal lumen. The coexistence of Crohn?s disease, Meckels diverticulum and enteroliths has rarely been reported. Meckels diverticulum can hamper the management of Crohns disease.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.