JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasma metabolomic profiles of breast cancer patients after short-term limonene intervention.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limonene is a lipophilic monoterpene found in high levels in citrus peel. Limonene demonstrates anti-cancer properties in preclinical models with effects on multiple cellular targets at varying potency. While of interest as a cancer chemopreventive, the biological activity of limonene in humans is poorly understood. We conducted metabolite profiling in 39 paired (pre/post-intervention) plasma samples from early-stage breast cancer patients receiving limonene treatment (2 g QD) before surgical resection of their tumor. Metabolite profiling was conducted using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) system and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Metabolites were identified by comparison of ion features in samples to a standard reference library. Pathway-based interpretation was conducted using the human metabolome database (HMDB) and the MetaCyc database. Of the 397 named metabolites identified, 72 changed significantly with limonene intervention. Class-based changes included significant decreases in adrenal steroids (P's<0.01), and significant increases in bile acids (P's?0.05) and multiple collagen breakdown products (P's<0.001). The pattern of changes also suggested alterations in glucose metabolism. There were 47 metabolites whose change with intervention was significantly correlated to a decrease in cyclin D1, a cell cycle regulatory protein, in patient tumor tissues (P's?0.05). Here, oral administration of limonene resulted in significant changes in several metabolic pathways. Further, pathway-based changes were related to the change in tissue level cyclin D1 expression. Future controlled clinical trials with limonene are necessary to determine the potential role and mechanisms of limonene in the breast cancer prevention setting.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary polyamine intake and polyamines measured in urine.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary polyamines have recently been associated with increased risk of pre-malignant colorectal lesions. Because polyamines are synthesized in cells and taken up from dietary sources, development of a biomarker of exposure is challenging. Excess polyamines are primarily excreted in the urine. This pilot study seeks to identify dietary correlates of excreted urinary polyamines as putative biomarkers of exposure. Dietary polyamines/other nutrients were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and correlated with urinary levels of acetylated polyamines in 36 men using 24-h urine samples. Polyamines, abundant in cheese and citrus, were highly positively correlated with urinary N(8)-acetylspermidine (correlation coefficient; r = 0.37, P = 0.03), but this correlation was attenuated after adjustment for total energy intake (r = 0.07, P = 0.68). Dietary energy intake itself was positively correlated with urinary total acetylated polyamine output (r = .40, P = 0.02). In energy-adjusted analyses, folic acid and folate from food were associated with urinary N(1),N(12)-diacetylspermine (r = 0.34, P = 0.05 and r = -0.39, P = 0.02, respectively). Red meat negatively correlated with total urinary acetylated polyamines (r = -0.42, P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that energy, folate, folic acid, saturated fat, and red meat intake, as opposed to FFQ-estimated dietary polyamines, are correlated with urinary polyamines.
Related JoVE Video
Association between germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, obesity, and breast cancer disease-free survival.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity-related hormones and cytokines alter PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway activation in breast tumors contributing to poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and decreased responsiveness to tamoxifen and trastuzumab. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes in the PI3 K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway may act as genetic modifiers of breast cancer DFS. We analyzed the association of 106 tagging SNPs in 13 genes (ADIPOQ, IGF1, INS, IRS1, LEP, LEPR, LEPROT, PIK3CA, PIK3R5, PTEN, TSC1, TSC2, and AKT1) in the P13K-AKT-mTOR pathway with DFS in a sample of 1,019 women with stage I-II breast cancer. SNPs significantly associated with DFS in any genetic model (additive, dominant, or recessive) after correcting for false discovery rate (FDR = 0.10) were included in Cox proportional hazards multivariable analyses. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, tumor stage, and treatment, rs1063539 in ADIPOQ, rs11585329 in LEPR, and rs2519757 in TSC1 were associated with improved DFS, and rs1520220 in IGF1 and rs2677760 in PIK3CA were associated with worse DFS. The associations were not significantly modified by the type of systemic treatment received or body mass index. The SNPs were not associated with tumor characteristics such as tumor size, lymph node status, nuclear grade, or hormone receptor status. In this study, germline SNPs in the PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway were associated with breast cancer DFS and may be potential prognostic markers. Future studies are needed to replicate our results and to evaluate the relationship between these polymorphisms and activation of the PI3 K-AKT-mTOR pathway in breast tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Navigating the maize between red meat and oncomirs.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including mutagenesis, alterations of the gut microbiome, and effects on local immunity and inflammation. This lack of well-defined mechanistic explanations for diet and cancer associations coupled with our inability to derive causal inferences from population-based studies allows us to rationalize that burger we ate at lunch or that steak we ate at dinner. The preparation and consumption of red meat is a major social and dining pleasure in the Western culture, so there is resistance to concern ourselves with the cancer risk associated with red meat. In fact, advertisements do not add a rapid-fire statement that consumption of more than half a portion of red meat per day has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and even death, because these data are not from randomized controlled trials? Would we heed a warning if there was evidence that burgers and steaks induced the expression of small noncoding RNAs that inhibit the expression of tumor-suppressor genes in our enterocytes? What level of evidence is necessary to convince ourselves that a dietary exposure is sufficiently causal to put a warning label on it? How do we experimentally obtain such evidence? If we knew the mechanism, perhaps we could modify the risk sufficiently such that we can have our steak and eat it too-without the warnings.
Related JoVE Video
Sedentary behavior is associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in men.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between physical activity and colorectal adenoma is equivocal. This study was designed to assess the relationship between physical activity and colorectal adenoma recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of LRIG1 locus increases risk of early and late relapse of stage I/II breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gains and losses at chromosome 3p12-21 are common in breast tumors and associated with patient outcomes. We hypothesized that the LRIG1 gene at 3p14.1, whose product functions in ErbB-family member degradation, is a critical tumor modifier at this locus. We analyzed 971 stage I/II breast tumors using Affymetrix Oncoscan molecular inversion probe arrays that include 12 probes located within LRIG1. Copy number results were validated against gene expression data available in the public database. By partitioning the LRIG1 probes nearest exon 12/13, we confirm a breakpoint in the gene and show that gains and losses in the subregions differ by tumor and patient characteristics including race/ethnicity. In analyses adjusted for known prognostic factors, loss of LRIG1 was independently associated with risk of any relapse (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.32-2.73), relapse?5 years (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.31-4.36), and death (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.11-2.16). Analyses of copy number across chromosome 3, as well as expression data from pooled, publicly available datasets, corroborated the hypothesis of an elevated and persistent risk among cases with loss of or low LRIG1. We concluded that loss/low expression of LRIG1 is an independent risk factor for breast cancer metastasis and death in stage I/II patients. Increased hazard in patients with loss/low LRIG1 persists years after diagnosis, suggesting that LRIG1 is acting as a critical suppressor of tumor metastasis and is an early clinical indicator of risk for late recurrences in otherwise low-risk patients.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of recurrence free survival for patients with stage II and III colon cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinico-pathologic specific predictors of recurrence for stage II/III disease. Improving recurrence prediction for resected stage II/III colon cancer patients could alter surveillance strategies, providing opportunities for more informed use of chemotherapy for high risk individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Differential expression of microRNA-320a, -145, and -192 along the continuum of normal mucosa to high-grade dysplastic adenomas of the colorectum.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNA (miR)-320a, miR-145, and miR-192 have been shown to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis and metastasis. We examined if there is a difference in expression during the histologic progression from normal mucosa (NM) to high-grade dysplastic adenomas (HG).
Related JoVE Video
Reproductive and hormonal risk profile according to language acculturation and country of residence in the Ella Binational Breast Cancer Study.
J Womens Health (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the distribution of breast cancer reproductive and hormonal risk factors by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent.
Related JoVE Video
Investigating the association of lactation history and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Womens Health Initiative.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prolonged lactation (?24 mo) has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. This research examined this association in postmenopausal women in the Womens Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trial (HT) and Observational Study (OS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 69,358 predominantly overweight (65.4%), white (83.2%) postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Women in the HT were randomized to 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), 0.625 CEE + 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA), or placebo. OS participants had no restrictions on hormone use. Lactation history was assessed via WHI Reproductive History Questionnaire. Most women breastfed at least 1 mo (58.0%); 35.4% breastfed 1-2 children; and 6.5% stated having breastfed ?24mo. Women in the HT-CEE who breastfed their first child between 20-24 yr of age demonstrated a nonsignificant decreased risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.01). OS participants who reported CEE/MPA hormone use and age of first breastfeeding ?30 yr showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.41). Risk was increased if age of last breastfeeding was ?35yr (HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.14). This research did not demonstrate a significantly decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in women who breastfed for ?24 mo during their lifetime.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic copy number imbalances associated with bone and non-bone metastasis of early-stage breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3-22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2-3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios. For bone metastasis, the hazard (95 % confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11-0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74-5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17-0.66) and 2.33 (1.59-3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk.
Related JoVE Video
Colorectal adenoma stem-like cell populations: associations with adenoma characteristics and metachronous colorectal neoplasia.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer stem cells have tumor-initiation and tumor-maintenance capabilities. Stem-like cells are present in colorectal adenomas, but their relationship to adenoma pathology and patient characteristics, including metachronous development of an additional adenoma ("recurrence"), has not been studied extensively. We evaluated the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a putative stem cell marker, in baseline adenomas from the placebo arm of chemoprevention trial participants with colonoscopic follow-up. An exploratory set of 20 baseline adenomas was analyzed by ALDH1A1 immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and a replication set of 89 adenomas from 76 high-risk participants was evaluated by computerized image analysis. ALDH1A1-labeling indices (ALI) were similar across patient characteristics and in advanced and nonadvanced adenomas. There was a trend toward higher ALIs in adenomas occurring in the right than left colon (P = 0.09). ALIs of synchronous adenomas were correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.67). Participants in both sample sets who developed a metachronous adenoma had significantly higher ALIs in their baseline adenoma than participants who remained adenoma free. In the replication set, the adjusted odds for metachronous adenoma increased 1.46 for each 10% increase in ALIs (P = 0.03). A best-fit algorithm-based cutoff point of 22.4% had specificity of 75.0% and positive predictive value of 70.0% for metachronous adenoma development. A larger population of ALDH1A1-expressing cells in an adenoma is associated with a higher risk for metachronous adenoma, independent of adenoma size or histopathology. If confirmed, ALDH1A1 has potential as a novel biomarker in risk assessment and as a potential stem cell target for chemoprevention.
Related JoVE Video
Association between parity and obesity in Mexican and Mexican-American women: findings from the ella binational breast cancer study.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity at diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with higher all-cause mortality and treatment-associated toxicities. We evaluated the association between parity and obesity in the Ella study, a population of Mexican and Mexican-American breast cancer patients with high parity. Obesity outcomes included body mass index (BMI) ?30 kg/m(2), waist circumference (WC) ?35 in (88 cm), and waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) ?0.85. Prevalence of obesity ([BMI] ? 30 kg/m(2)) was 38.9 %. For WC, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval [CI]) for having WC ? 35 inches in women with ?4 pregnancies relative to those with 1-2 pregnancies was 1.59 (1.01-2.47). Higher parity (?4 pregnancies) was non-significantly associated with high BMI (OR = 1.10; 95 % CI 0.73-1.67). No positive association was observed for WHR. Our results suggest WC is independently associated with high parity in Hispanic women and may be an optimal target for post-partum weight loss interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Reproductive factors, heterogeneity, and breast tumor subtypes in women of mexican descent.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Published data support the presence of etiologic heterogeneity by breast tumor subtype, but few studies have assessed this in Hispanic populations.
Related JoVE Video
Planning, conducting, and interpreting prevalence and incidence for the wound practitioner.
Adv Skin Wound Care
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prevalence is a 1-time "snapshot" of cases present on a specific date, and incidence measures the new cases of a disease or condition in a given period. This article discusses prevalence and incidence and gives practical tips for wound care practitioners who plan and conduct prevalence/incidence audits.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between eight GWAS-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms and primary breast cancer outcomes.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We investigated whether eight risk SNPs identified in GWAS were associated with breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates.
Related JoVE Video
The Global Summit on Nurse Faculty Migration.
Nurs Outlook
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As global demand for health care workers burgeons, information is scant regarding the migration of faculty who will train new nurses. With dual roles as clinicians and educators, and corresponding dual sets of professional and legal obligations, nurse faculty may confront unique circumstances in migration that can impact nations ability to secure an adequate, stable nursing workforce. In a seminal effort to address these concerns, the Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International, and the International Council of Nurses invited a diverse group of international experts to a summit designed to elucidate forces that drive nurse faculty migration. The primary areas of consideration were the impact on nurse faculty migration of rapid health care workforce scale-up, international trade agreements, and workforce aging. Long-term summit goals included initiating action affecting national, regional, and global supplies of nurse educators and helping to avert catastrophic failure of health care delivery systems caused by an inadequate ability to educate next-generation nurses.
Related JoVE Video
Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early-stage breast cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limonene is a bioactive food component found in citrus peel oil that has shown chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities in preclinical studies. We conducted an open-label pilot clinical study to determine the human breast tissue disposition of limonene and its associated bioactivity. We recruited 43 women with newly diagnosed operable breast cancer electing to undergo surgical excision to take 2 grams of limonene daily for two to six weeks before surgery. Blood and breast tissue were collected to determine drug/metabolite concentrations and limonene-induced changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers of breast cancer risk or carcinogenesis. Limonene was found to preferentially concentrate in the breast tissue, reaching high tissue concentration (mean = 41.3 ?g/g tissue), whereas the major active circulating metabolite, perillic acid, did not concentrate in the breast tissue. Limonene intervention resulted in a 22% reduction in cyclin D1 expression (P = 0.002) in tumor tissue but minimal changes in tissue Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. No significant changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, TGF-?1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed following limonene intervention. There was a small but statistically significant postintervention increase in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. We conclude that limonene distributed extensively to human breast tissue and reduced breast tumor cyclin D1 expression that may lead to cell-cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, placebo-controlled clinical trials and translational research are warranted to establish limonenes role for breast cancer prevention or treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-?1 and adiponectin in nipple aspirate fluid and plasma of pre and post-menopausal women.
Biomark Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) contains large amounts of protein thought to reflect the microenvironment of the breast, and is of interest in breast cancer prevention research. The correlation between specific NAF proteins to plasma concentrations have not been well studied in healthy women. We collected matched NAF and plasma from 43 healthy pre and postmenopausal women participating in an early phase clinical study to compare the levels of putative cancer protein biomarkers. We compared baseline NAF and plasma levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1), and adiponectin and evaluated menopausal status and body mass index (BMI) as potential modifying factors.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic value of single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with inflammation in early stage breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the role of germline genetic variations in inflammatory pathways as modifiers of time to recurrence (TTR) in patients with early stage breast cancer (BC), DNA from 997 early stage BC patients was genotyped for 53 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 genes involved in inflammation. SNPs were analyzed separately for Caucasians versus African-Americans and Hispanics. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between SNPs in the inflammatory genes and TTR, adjusted for clinical and pathologic covariates. In univariable analyses of Caucasian women, the homozygous genotype of 12 SNPs, including 6 NFKB1 SNPs, 4 IL4 SNPs, and 2 IL13 SNPs, were significantly associated with a decrease in TTR compared with the heterozygous and/or corresponding homozygous genotype (P < 0.05). The significant NFKB1 and IL4 SNPs were in an area of high linkage disequilibrium (D > 0.8). After adjusting for stage, age, and treatment, carriage of the homozygous genotypes for NFKB1 rs230532 and IL13rs1800925 were independently associated with a shorter TTR (P = 0.001 and P = 0.034, respectively). In African-American and Hispanic patients, expression of NFKB1 rs3774932, TNFrs1799964, and IL4rs3024543 SNPs were associated with a shorter TTR in univariable model. Only NFKB1 rs3774932 (P = 0.02) and IL4Rrs3024543 (P = 0.03) had independent prognostic value in the multivariable model These data support the existence of host genetic susceptibility as a component in recurrence risk mediated by pro-inflammatory and immune factors, and suggest the potential for drugs which modify immune responses and inflammatory genes to improve prognosis in early stage BC.
Related JoVE Video
The cycle of comorbidities: potential risks with delayed joint replacement.
Orthop Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Joint replacement is an option that has demonstrated significant improvement in the quality of life for individuals with severe arthritis. However, it is often delayed either in an attempt to avoid future revision surgeries or for other personal reasons. Increasing disability leads to inactivity, chronic pain, and sleep disruption, each of which cycles into significant comorbid risks, many of which are life-threatening. A beginning conceptual framework identified as the cycle of comorbidities is presented to identify these risks and help guide both the patient and the provider in the decision-making process associated with joint replacement surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Observations of periwound skin protection in venous ulcers: a comparison of treatments.
Adv Skin Wound Care
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 2 products on venous ulcer periwound skin.
Related JoVE Video
Risk modification of colorectal adenoma by CYP7A1 polymorphisms and the role of bile acid metabolism in carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, is a postulated gene modifier of colorectal cancer risk and target for the therapeutic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We investigated associations between CYP7A1 polymorphisms and fecal bile acids, colorectal adenoma (CRA), and UDCA efficacy for CRA prevention. Seven tagging, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CYP7A1 were measured in 703 (355 UDCA, 348 placebo) participants of a phase III chemoprevention trial, of which 495 had known baseline fecal bile acid concentrations. In the placebo arm, participants with two minor G(rs8192871) alleles (tag for a low activity promoter polymorphism at -204) had lower odds of high secondary bile acids (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.10-0.69), and CRA at 3 years follow-up (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.89), than AA carriers. Haplotype construction from the six polymorphic SNPs showed participants with the third most common haplotype (C(rs10957057)C(rs8192879)G(rs8192877)T(rs11786580)A(rs8192871)G(rs13251096)) had higher odds of high primary bile acids (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.12-4.89) and CRA (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00-3.57) than those with the most common CTACAG haplotype. Furthermore, three SNPs (rs8192877, rs8192871, and rs13251096) each modified UDCA efficacy for CRA prevention, and CCGTAG-haplotype carriers experienced 71% lower odds of CRA recurrence with UDCA treatment, an effect not present for other haplotypes (test for UDCA-haplotype interaction, P = 0.020). Our findings support CYP7A1 polymorphisms as determinants of fecal bile acids and risk factors for CRA. Furthermore, UDCA efficacy for CRA prevention may be modified by genetic variation in CYP7A1, limiting treatment benefit to a subgroup of the population.
Related JoVE Video
Primary care physician compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess self-reported compliance to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines among primary care physicians (PCPs) and to assess physician and practice characteristics associated with reported compliance.
Related JoVE Video
Factors that influence mammography use and breast cancer detection among Mexican-American and African-American women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined factors that influence mammography use and breast cancer detection, including education, health insurance, and acculturation, among Mexican-American (MA) and African-American (AA) women.
Related JoVE Video
Of timing and surrogates: a way forward for cancer chemoprevention.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer chemoprevention strategies are not widely implemented in clinical practice. Targeting biomarkers in patients with elevated risk of developing cancer by means of short-term administration of certain agents may be a strategy to minimize toxicities while maintaining efficacy in clinical trials that can be completed in years rather than decades.
Related JoVE Video
Performance evaluation of a multiplex assay for future use in biomarker discovery efforts to predict body composition.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interest in biomarker patterns and disease has led to the development of immunoassays that evaluate multiple analytes in parallel while using little sample. However, there are no current standards for multiplex configuration, validation, and quality. Thus, validation by platform, population, and question of interest is recommended. We sought to determine the best blood fraction for multiplex evaluation of circulating biomarkers in post-menopausal women, and to explore body composition phenotype discrimination by biomarkers.
Related JoVE Video
Recruitment of lactating women into a randomized dietary intervention: successful strategies and factors promoting enrollment and retention.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recruitment and retention of lactating women require unique strategies to prevent high attrition. The purpose of this report is to identify successful recruitment strategies and evaluate demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with study completion.
Related JoVE Video
Incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis.
Adv Skin Wound Care
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incontinence is a prevalent problem and can lead to many complications. Both urinary and fecal incontinence can result in tissue breakdown, now commonly referred to as incontinence-associated dermatitis. This article addresses the types of incontinence, its etiology and pathophysiology, assessment, prevention and treatment, and the latest research.
Related JoVE Video
Policy implications of early onset breast cancer among Mexican-origin women.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overall, Latinas are more likely to be diagnosed with a more advanced stage of breast cancer and are 20% more likely to die of breast cancer than non-Hispanic white women. It is estimated that from 2003 to 2006, $82.0 billion in direct medical care expenditures, in addition to 100,000 lives annually, could be saved by eliminating health disparities experienced by Latinos and increasing the use of up to 5 preventive services in the United States. An additional 3700 lives could be saved if 90% of women aged ?40 years were recently screened for breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Selective genomic copy number imbalances and probability of recurrence in early-stage breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of studies of copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors support associations between individual CNIs and patient outcomes. However, no pattern or signature of CNIs has emerged for clinical use. We determined copy number (CN) gains and losses using high-density molecular inversion probe (MIP) arrays for 971 stage I/II breast tumors and applied a boosting strategy to fit hazards models for CN and recurrence, treating chromosomal segments in a dose-specific fashion (-1 [loss], 0 [no change] and +1 [gain]). The concordance index (C-Index) was used to compare prognostic accuracy between a training (n?=?728) and test (n?=?243) set and across models. Twelve novel prognostic CNIs were identified: losses at 1p12, 12q13.13, 13q12.3, 22q11, and Xp21, and gains at 2p11.1, 3q13.12, 10p11.21, 10q23.1, 11p15, 14q13.2-q13.3, and 17q21.33. In addition, seven CNIs previously implicated as prognostic markers were selected: losses at 8p22 and 16p11.2 and gains at 10p13, 11q13.5, 12p13, 20q13, and Xq28. For all breast cancers combined, the final full model including 19 CNIs, clinical covariates, and tumor marker-approximated subtypes (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor, ERBB2 amplification, and Ki67) significantly outperformed a model containing only clinical covariates and tumor subtypes (C-Index(full model), train[test] ?=? 0.72[0.71] ± 0.02 vs. C-Index(clinical + subtype model), train[test] ?=? 0.62[0.62] ± 0.02; p<10(-6)). In addition, the full model containing 19 CNIs significantly improved prognostication separately for ER-, HER2+, luminal B, and triple negative tumors over clinical variables alone. In summary, we show that a set of 19 CNIs discriminates risk of recurrence among early-stage breast tumors, independent of ER status. Further, our data suggest the presence of specific CNIs that promote and, in some cases, limit tumor spread.
Related JoVE Video
Genes in the insulin and insulin-like growth factor pathway and odds of metachronous colorectal neoplasia.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) genes are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Gene-by-gene interactions that influence the insulin/IGF pathways were hypothesized as modifiers of colorectal neoplasia risk. We built a classification tree to detect interactions in 18 IGF and insulin pathway-related genes and metachronous colorectal neoplasia among 1,439 subjects pooled from two chemoprevention trials. The probability of colorectal neoplasia was greatest (71.8%) among carriers of any A allele for rs7166348 (IGF1R) and AA genotype for rs1823023 (PIK3R1). In contrast, carriers of any A at rs7166348 (IGF1R), any G for the PIK3R1 variant, and AA for rs10426094 (INSR) had the lowest probability (14.3%). Logistic regression modeling showed that any A at rs7166348 (IGF1R) with the AA genotype at rs1823023 (PIK3R1) conferred the highest odds of colorectal neoplasia (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.2-6.5), compared with carriage of GG at rs7166348 (IGF1R). Conversely, any A at rs7166348 (IGFR1), any G allele at rs1823023 (PIK3R1), and the AA genotype at rs10426094 (INSR) conferred the lowest odds (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07-0.66). Stratifying the analysis by parent study and intervention arm showed highly consistent trends in direction and magnitude of associations, with preliminary evidence of genotype effects on measured IGF-1 levels in a subgroup of subjects. These results were compared to those from multifactor dimensionality reduction, which identified different single nucleotide polymorphisms in the same genes (INSR and IGF1R) as effect modifiers for colorectal neoplasia. These results support a role for genetic interactions in the insulin/IGF pathway genes in colorectal neoplasia risk.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in body weight and metabolic indexes in overweight breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized trial of low-fat vs. reduced carbohydrate diets.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overweight status is common among women breast cancer survivors and places them at greater risk for metabolic disorders, cardiovascular morbidity, and breast cancer recurrence than nonoverweight survivors. Efforts to promote weight control in this population are needed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet counseling on weight loss, body composition, and changes in metabolic indexes in overweight postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Survivors (n = 40) were randomized to receive dietitian counseling for a low-fat or a reduced carbohydrate diet for 6 mo. Weight and metabolic measures, including glucose, insulin, HbA1c, HOMA, lipids, hsCRP, as well as blood pressure were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 wk. Dietary intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 24 and 76 g/day, respectively. Weight loss averaged 6.1 (± 4.8 kg) at 24 wk and was not significantly different by diet group; loss of lean mass was also demonstrated. All subjects demonstrated improvements in total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and significant reductions in HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA. Triglycerides levels were significantly reduced only in the low-carbohydrate diet group (-31.1 ± 36.6; P = 0.01). Significant improvements in weight and metabolic indexes can be demonstrated among overweight breast cancer survivors adherent to either a carbohydrate- or fat-restricted diet.
Related JoVE Video
Ornithine decarboxylase-1 polymorphism, chemoprevention with eflornithine and sulindac, and outcomes among colorectal adenoma patients.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ornithine decarboxylase-1 (ODC1) polymorphism at position +316 affects binding by transcriptional activators and repressors and modulates the risk of metachronous colorectal adenomas, particularly in association with aspirin use. We investigated the effects of ODC1 after treatment with difluoromethylornithine (eflornithine)/sulindac or placebo. Two hundred twenty-eight colorectal adenoma patients in a randomized phase III trial were genotyped for ODC1. We used Wilcoxon rank sums tests on non-normally distributed continuous variables across two genotype groups, ?(2) or Fisher exact test to assess the association between baseline categorical variables and genotype group, and log binomial regression for the primary (adenoma recurrence) and secondary outcomes (tissue polyamine response, cardiovascular toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and ototoxicity). All statistical tests were two-sided. In binomial regression models with variables age, sex, race, aspirin use, treatment, and ODC1 genotype, treatment was the only statistically significant factor associated with differences in adenoma recurrence or tissue polyamine response. A statistically significant interaction was detected between ODC1 genotype and treatment with respect to adenoma recurrence (placebo group: GG, 50%, AA/GA: 34%; treatment group: GG, 11%, AA/GA, 21%; P(interaction) = .038). Excess ototoxicity was observed among ODC1 AA patients receiving treatment, but the interaction of genotype and treatment on ototoxicity was not statistically significant (P = .45).
Related JoVE Video
Adipose tissue accumulation of d-limonene with the consumption of a lemonade preparation rich in d-limonene content.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
d-limonene is a bioactive food component found in high concentration in citrus peel oil with anticancer effects in preclinical studies of mammary carcinogenesis. Extrapolation of preclinical data to human cancer is limited, in part, by inadequate information on the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of d-limonene in humans. As a fat-soluble compound, d-limonene is more likely to deposit in fatty tissues such as the breast. To assess disposition of d-limonene in humans, we conducted a pilot study of oral d-limonene-rich lemonade. Following a 1-wk washout period devoid of citrus, healthy adults consumed 40 oz. of freshly prepared lemonade containing 500 to 600 mg d-limonene daily for 4 wk. On the first and last consumption days, blood and buttock fat biopsy were collected. Matched preintervention and postintervention fat biopsies (n = 7), and matched preintervention and postintervention plasma samples (n = 6), were analyzed for d-limonene levels using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. There was a significant increase in d-limonene levels in the fat biopsies after 4 wk (P = 0.009); initial levels ranged from nondetectable to 7.79 micromol/kg tissue, and postintervention levels ranged from 53.6 to 294 micromol/kg tissue. Plasma d-limonene levels increased from 0.35 to 0.72 micromol/l initially to postintervention levels of 0.54 to 1.65 micromol/l (P = 0.016). Postintervention adipose d-limonene levels were 51.0 to 195 times higher than plasma levels (P = 0.009). Our results demonstrate accumulation of d-limonene in adipose tissue after oral dosing and support additional studies of d-limonene for chemoprevention in tissues such as the breast that are comprised of a significant fat fraction.
Related JoVE Video
Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial showed a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized nonmetastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n = 46), 200 microg/d (n = 47), or 800 microg/d (n = 47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed-effects regression. Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score, PSA velocities for the 200 microg/d and 800 microg/d treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (P = 0.32 and P = 0.61, respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 microg selenium showed statistically significantly higher PSA velocity as compared with placebo (P = 0.018). Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high-dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Pilot study on the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on tumorigenesis and gene expression in PyMT transgenic mice.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a class of commercially available fatty acids that have been associated with anticancer properties in rodent models of chemical carcinogenesis. We conducted a pilot study to examine the antitumor effect of dietary CLA in a polyoma virus-middle T antigen (PyMT) mouse model of invasive breast cancer. Virgin 4-week-old PyMT mice were administered a mixed-isomer CLA diet (1% wt/wt) or control AIN-93G diet for 4 weeks (N = 6 and 5, respectively) and tumor burden was assessed at 8 weeks of age. Thoracic mammary glands were prepared as whole mounts with other glands being formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Total RNA was prepared for microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Western blots were performed for protein expression analysis. Tumor incidence was significantly increased in CLA-treated animals compared with controls (P = 0.009) and occurred with extensive lobular-alveolar expansion and loss of mammary adipose tissue. More than 100 genes were downregulated > or = 2-fold in the CLA-treated group compared with controls, including adipose-specific markers, as wells as cytoskeletal and adhesion-related genes. This was supported by dramatic decreases in the epithelial adherens E-cadherin and beta-catenin as demonstrated by IHC. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary CLA affects the mammary stromal environment, leading to tumor progression and cellular expansion in the PyMT mouse model. Further studies of the potential for cancer promotion are needed, especially because mixed-isomer CLA formulations are sold commercially as a nutritional supplement.
Related JoVE Video
Race and ethnicity and breast cancer outcomes in an underinsured population.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The disparity in breast cancer mortality between African American women and non-Hispanic white women has been the subject of increased scrutiny. Few studies have addressed these differences in the setting of equal access to health care. We compared the breast cancer outcomes of underinsured African American and non-Hispanic white patients who were treated at a single institution.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variation in the retinoid X receptor and calcium-sensing receptor and risk of colorectal cancer in the Colon Cancer Family Registry.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic variants in the calcium/vitamin D metabolic pathway may be related to risk for colorectal cancer. While several investigations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and colorectal cancer have been conducted, no studies to date have evaluated the association of genetic variation in the heterodimer partner for VDR, the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Another important gene in this pathway is the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Employing a discordant-sibship case-control design, we examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RXRA and CASR and risk for colorectal cancer overall and by colorectal subsite and microsatellite instability (MSI) status using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. No gene-level relationships between RXRA or CASR and colorectal cancer overall were observed. However, for RXRA SNP rs7861779, a high-interest SNP selected for study a priori, there was a statistically significantly increased risk for proximal colorectal cancer among those with at least one A allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.97]. Another selected RXRA SNP, rs12004589, was significantly associated with risk of MSI-high cancers (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.13-4.56). Additionally, CASR SNP rs1801726 was significantly associated with a reduced risk for rectal cancer (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.29-0.96). These results provide support that RXRA SNPs rs7861779 and rs12004589 and CASR SNP rs1801726 may be important markers for colorectal neoplasia. Further work is needed to elucidate their role in the carcinogenic pathway.
Related JoVE Video
ABCA1 promotes the efflux of bacterial LPS from macrophages and accelerates recovery from LPS-induced tolerance.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macrophages play important roles in both lipid metabolism and innate immunity. We show here that macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transporter known for its ability to promote apolipoprotein-dependent cholesterol efflux, also participates in the removal of an immunostimulatory bacterial lipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas monocytes require an exogenous lipoprotein acceptor to remove cell-associated LPS, macrophages released LPS in the absence of an exogenous acceptor by a mechanism that was driven, in part, by endogenous apolipoprotein E (apoE). Agents that increased ABCA1 expression increased LPS efflux from wild-type but not ABCA1-deficient macrophages. Preexposure of peritoneal macrophages to LPS for 24 h increased the expression of ABCA1 and increased LPS efflux with a requirement for exogenous apolipoproteins due to suppression of endogenous apoE production. In contrast, LPS preconditioning of ABCA1-deficient macrophages significantly decreased LPS efflux and led to prolonged retention of cell-surface LPS. Although the initial response to LPS was similar in wild-type and ABCA1-deficient macrophages, LPS-induced tolerance was greater and more prolonged in macrophages that lacked ABCA1. Our results define a new role for macrophage ABCA1 in removing cell-associated LPS and restoring normal macrophage responsiveness.
Related JoVE Video
A historical overview of the United States-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project.
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes is a serious public health problem in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, reflecting and by some measures surpassing the extent of national diabetes burden of each country. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a two-phase prevalence study on type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, was conceived and developed by culturally diverse groups of people representing more than 100 government agencies and nongovernmental organizations; health care providers; and residents of 10 U.S. and Mexican border states, using a participatory approach, to address this disproportionate incidence of diabetes. This report describes the projects history, conceptualization, participatory approach, implementation, accomplishments, and challenges, and recommends a series of steps for carrying out other binational participatory projects based on lessons learned.
Related JoVE Video
Lifestyle modifies the relationship between body composition and adrenergic receptor genetic polymorphisms, ADRB2, ADRB3 and ADRA2B: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of physical activity among postmenopausal women.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic variations in the adrenergic receptor (ADR) have been associated with body composition in cross-sectional studies. Recent findings suggest that ADR variants may also modify body composition response to lifestyle. We assessed the role of ADR variants in body composition response to 12 months of resistance training versus control in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. Randomized trial completers were genotyped for A2B (Glu9/12) by fragment length analysis, and B2 (Gln27Glu) and B3 (Trp64Arg) by TaqMan (n = 148, 54% hormone therapy users). Associations between genotypes and body composition, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, were analyzed using univariate models. There was no main effect of individual genes on change in body composition, however, gene x exercise interactions were observed for A2B (Glu9/12) and B2 (Gln27Glu) on change in lean soft tissue (LST, p = 0.02); exercisers on the A2B (Glu9-) background gained LST compared to a loss among controls over 12 months (p < 0.05), with no significant intervention effect on the A2B (Glu9+) background. Similarly, there was a significant LST gain with exercise on the B2 (Glu27+) background compared to loss among controls and no intervention effect on the B2 (Glu27-) background. A non-significant association between total body fat (TBF) and B3 (Trp64Arg) persisted among sedentary controls only when intervention groups were separated (%TBF gain with B3 (Arg64+) carriage, p = 0.03); exercisers lost TBF regardless of genotype. In summary, effect modification by lifestyle was demonstrated on ADRA2B, B2, and B3 genetic backgrounds. Individuals with certain ADR genotypes may be more vulnerable to adverse changes in body composition with sedentary behavior, thus these candidate genes warrant further study.
Related JoVE Video
Vegetable intake is associated with reduced breast cancer recurrence in tamoxifen users: a secondary analysis from the Womens Healthy Eating and Living Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The protective effect of vegetables on the risk of breast cancer recurrence is uncertain. We sought to evaluate the association between breast cancer recurrence and vegetable intake including analyses stratified on tamoxifen use. Experimental evidence of anti-carcinogenic activity of phytochemicals in cruciferous vegetables in combination with tamoxifen led to specific evaluation of this class of vegetables as well. To assess the association between vegetable intake and breast cancer recurrence, vegetable intake from repeat 24-h dietary recalls were examined as a secondary analysis of 3,080 breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Womens Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. At the time of enrollment women were, on average, 23.5 months post-diagnosis. The hazard of recurrence, controlling for relevant and significant clinical and demographic variables, with vegetable intake was assessed overall and separately for women taking tamoxifen. WHEL participants reported mean baseline intakes (?x, SE) of 3.1 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.02 servings/day of total and cruciferous vegetables, respectively. Baseline vegetable intake in the highest as compared to lowest tertiles was associated with an overall lower adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence of 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.87. Among women taking tamoxifen, the HRs were 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77 for total vegetables and 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.89 for cruciferous vegetable intake. The hazard in women using tamoxifen who reported cruciferous vegetable intake above the median and who were within the highest tertile of total vegetable intake was HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.70. This secondary analysis in over 3,000 breast cancer survivors suggests that baseline vegetable intake may be associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer recurrent or new events particularly for those using tamoxifen. Such associations should be explored further as the possibility that vegetable intake is simply a surrogate for other health-promoting behaviors cannot be ruled out.
Related JoVE Video
Levels of rectal mucosal polyamines and prostaglandin E2 predict ability of DFMO and sulindac to prevent colorectal adenoma.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combination of polyamine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-synthesis inhibitors reduced the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA) by 70% in patients who received polypectomies. We studied effects of the combination of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and sulindac on biomarkers and investigated factors that modify their efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for chronic wounds.
Adv Skin Wound Care
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy continues to be discussed as another adjunctive therapy in the continuum of wound care. There is a dearth of evidence from randomized clinical trials on HBO therapy. For evidence-based practice, more randomized, controlled studies need to be conducted with HBO therapy to determine its efficacy in treating other chronic wounds besides those of patients with diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor VDR/RXRA influence the likelihood of colon adenoma recurrence.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low circulating levels of vitamin D affect colorectal cancer risk. The biological actions of the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptors (RXR). Using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) tagging approach, we assessed the association between genetic variations in RXRA and VDR and odds of recurrent (metachronous) colorectal neoplasia in a pooled population of two studies. A total of 32 tag SNPs in RXRA and 42 in VDR were analyzed in 1,439 participants. A gene-level association was observed for RXRA and any (P = 0.04) or proximal (P = 0.03) metachronous neoplasia. No gene-level associations were observed for VDR, nor was any single SNP in VDR related to any metachronous adenoma after correction for multiple comparisons. In contrast, the association between RXRA SNP rs7861779 and proximal metachronous neoplasia was of borderline statistical significance [odds ratio (OR), 0.68; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-0.86; unadjusted P = 0.001; adjusted P = 0.06], including when observed independently in each individual study. Haplotypes within linkage blocks of RXRA support an approximately 30% reduction in odds of metachronous neoplasia arising in the proximal colon among carriers of specific haplotypes, which was strongest (OR(proximal), 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.86) for carriers of a CGGGCA haplotype (rs1805352, rs3132297, rs3132296, rs3118529, rs3118536, and rs7861779). Our results indicate that allelic variation in RXRA affects metachronous colorectal neoplasia, perhaps of particular importance in the development of proximal lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of aspirin, other NSAIDs, and statins on PSA and PSA velocity.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aspirin, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and statins have been associated with lower risk of prostate cancer and its progression, though results have been inconsistent.
Related JoVE Video
Sulindac and sulindac metabolites in nipple aspirate fluid and effect on drug targets in a phase I trial.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Sulindac, a nonselective NSAID with both cyclooxygenase-2-dependent and -independent activities, is a candidate for breast chemoprevention. We conducted a phase Ib trial in 30 women at increased risk for breast cancer to evaluate the breast tissue distribution of sulindac at two dose levels (150 mg daily and 150 mg twice daily for 6 weeks), using nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) as a surrogate of breast tissue drug exposure. We also explored the effect of sulindac on drug-induced biomarkers in NAF. We show that sulindac and its metabolites partition to human breast as measured by NAF levels. Sulindac intervention did not decrease 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin A(2), a stable derivative of prostaglandin E(2), in NAF, but exposure was associated with a significant trend towards higher levels of growth differentiation factor 15 in NAF in women receiving 150 mg twice daily (P = 0.038). These results are the first to show partitioning of sulindac and metabolites to human breast tissue and the first evidence for a potential dose-dependent effect of sulindac on growth differentiation factor 15 levels in NAF.
Related JoVE Video
Gender modifies the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in a randomized controlled trial in colorectal adenoma patients.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was one of the earliest agents investigated as a drug for colorectal cancer prevention. However, UDCA failed to show efficacy to prevent the development of colorectal adenomas in a large, phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We re-evaluated the effect of UDCA in men and women separately, based on sex-specific differences in bile acid metabolism and suspected variation in etiologic factors contributing to colorectal cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary patterns, risk and prognosis of breast cancer.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Survival in women diagnosed with early-stage, invasive breast cancer has improved dramatically in the past 10-15 years. This is largely due to the use of pharmacological therapies targeting a reduction in estrogen action and exposure. Women diagnosed with breast cancer often alter their eating behavior towards healthier food choices in an attempt to improve their survival and their overall health and well being. Mounting interest in the role of diet to modify breast cancer survival and/or comorbidity and mortality has led researchers to evaluate the effects of differential dietary patterns on this disease. Current findings suggest a possible, but inconsistent, benefit of a prudent, vegetable-rich, low-fat/high-vegetable eating pattern on disease-free survival, but the results to date are limited by strong treatment effectiveness and low overall recurrence rates. It is more likely this prudent eating pattern will improve non-breast cancer mortality (e.g., cardiovascular disease) compared with a Western dietary pattern. Efforts to educate women diagnosed with breast cancer to consume a diet lower in total and saturated fat, higher in vegetables and fiber, and which results in mild to modest weight loss among overweight/obese women is sensible in light of the high survivability of breast cancer and need to direct attention to comorbidities that likely increase as a consequence of treatment and treatment-related weight gain and sedentary behavior. Additional research is needed to address the importance of diet in the breast cancer patient, particularly in relation to the effect of select dietary patterns on factors that influence individual recurrence risk (e.g., hormone levels, drug metabolism and oxidative stress), as well as factors that influence non-breast cancer morbidity risk and causes of death in the survivor population.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of gastric pyloric mucin, MUC6, in colorectal serrated polyps.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serrated polyps of the colorectal mucosa represent a heterogeneous and controversial taxonomic category with variation in histopathological, molecular, and immunohistochemical characteristics and with an incomplete understanding of pathogenesis. A previous study reported that the expression of gastric pyloric-type mucin, MUC6, characterized sessile serrated adenomas. We therefore evaluated the expression of MUC6 in serrated polyps identified among 2502 participants in a Phase III chemoprevention trial within the Arizona Cancer Center Colorectal Cancer Prevention Trials Program and characterized the associated histopathological features and location. We carried out immunohistochemistry for MUC6 on 146 serrated lesions and 87 conventional tubular adenomas, and assessed the percentage of cells with expression and the grade of staining intensity. In all 92 hyperplastic polyps, 43 sessile serrated adenomas, and 11 traditional serrated adenomas were included. Polyps ranged in size from 1-150 mm. The association of MUC6 staining with serrated polyp category was evaluated using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and two-sided Fishers exact test. A total of 53% of sessile serrated adenomas (n=23), 17% of hyperplastic polyps (n=16), and 18% of traditional serrated adenomas (n=2), but none of 87 tubular adenomas, expressed MUC6. Expression was limited to the lower crypts in all serrated polyps. The extent of positive staining ranged from 2-100% of crypt cells and was independent of the histopathological type. MUC6 expression had relatively high specificity for sessile serrated adenoma (82%) but low sensitivity (54%). In CART analysis, proximal location was found to be the best partitioning factor for MUC6, followed by classification as sessile serrated adenoma. We conclude that MUC6 expression is strongly associated with proximal location of serrated polyps, but only has modest utility as a tissue biomarker for sessile serrated adenoma.
Related JoVE Video
Current concepts in colorectal cancer prevention.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer chemoprevention, or chemoprophylaxis, is a drug-based approach to prevent colorectal cancer. Preventing colorectal adenomas with currently available agents demonstrates the promise of pharmacologic strategies directed at critical regulatory pathways. However, agent toxicity, lesion breakthrough and competing efficacy from endoscopy procedures challenge population-based implementation. This article reviews the role of colorectal cancer chemoprevention in the context of existing screening and surveillance guidelines and practice. Emphasis is placed on the role of the colorectal adenoma as a cancer precursor and its surrogacy in assessing individual risk and for evaluating chemoprevention efficacy. We discuss the importance of risk stratification for identifying subjects at moderate-to-high risk for colorectal cancer who are most likely to benefit from chemoprevention at an acceptable level of risk.
Related JoVE Video
Engaging and mobilizing community members to prevent obesity among adolescents.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community-based public health interventions are designed on the premise that the community is an asset in transforming the health system for health protection. One such intervention is Diabetes Today, a training program for health professionals and lay community leaders that has been successful in building awareness of diabetes as a public health problem. We advocate the use of this program to prevent obesity among adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Physical activity as a determinant of fecal bile acid levels.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physical activity is protective against colon cancer, whereas colonic bile acid exposure is a suspected risk factor. Although likely related, the association between physical activity and bile acid levels has not been well-studied. Furthermore, the effect of triglycerides, which are known to modify bile acid levels, on this relationship has not been investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline fecal bile acid levels for 735 colorectal adenoma formers obtained from participants in a phase III ursodeoxycholic acid chemoprevention trial. Compared with the lowest quartile of recreational physical activity duration, the highest quartile was associated with a 17% lower fecal bile acid concentration, adjusted for age, sex, dietary fiber intake, and body mass index (P = 0.042). Furthermore, consistent with a previously established relationship between serum triglyceride levels and bile acid metabolism, we stratified by triglyceride level and observed a 34% lower fecal bile acid concentration (highest versus lowest quartiles of physical activity) in individuals with low triglycerides (<136 mg/dL; P = 0.002). In contrast, no association between physical activity and fecal bile acid concentration was observed for subjects with high triglycerides (> or =136 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the biological mechanism responsible for the protective effect of physical activity on the incidence of colon cancer may be partially mediated by decreasing colonic bile acid exposure. However, this effect may be limited to individuals with lower triglyceride levels.
Related JoVE Video
Components of metabolic syndrome and metachronous colorectal neoplasia.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The consistent association between obesity and colorectal cancer is thought to be explained by metabolic disturbances common, but not exclusive, to the obese.
Related JoVE Video
High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) microarrays.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN) studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE). DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small (approximately 40 bp) target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue.
Related JoVE Video
t10c12 conjugated linoleic acid suppresses HER2 protein and enhances apoptosis in SKBr3 breast cancer cells: possible role of COX2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HER2-targeted therapy with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) has improved disease-free survival for women diagnosed with HER2-positive breast cancers; however, treatment resistance and disease progression are not uncommon. Current data suggest that resistance to treatment in HER2 cancers may be a consequence of NF-kappaB overexpression and increased COX2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to have anti-tumor properties and to inhibit NF-kappaB activity and COX2.
Related JoVE Video
Association between body mass index and colorectal neoplasia at follow-up colonoscopy: a pooling study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A direct relation between body mass index (BMI) and risk of colorectal adenomas and cancer has been reported, but few studies have had adequate sample size for conducting stratified analyses by sex, family history, colorectal subsite, or features of metachronous lesions. Data from 8,213 participants in 7 prospective studies of metachronous colorectal adenomas were pooled to assess whether the association between BMI and metachronous neoplasia varied by these factors. A statistically significant direct association between BMI and the odds of nonadvanced adenomas (P(trend) < 0.001) was observed, while the relation for advanced adenomas was of marginal significance (P(trend) < 0.07). In sex-stratified analyses, obesity was statistically significantly associated with the odds of any metachronous lesion among men (odds ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.58) but not among women (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37). The associations with BMI appeared to be limited to proximal neoplasia, with statistically significant results for BMI and proximal (P(trend) < 0.001), but not distal (P(trend) < 0.85), neoplasia. Exploratory analyses indicated that BMI was significantly related to most histologic characteristics of metachronous adenomas among men but not among women. Our results provide further support for the association between BMI and metachronous colorectal adenomas, particularly among men, thereby indicating that body size may affect colorectal carcinogenesis at comparatively early stages.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and Feasibility of Topical Application of Limonene as a Massage Oil to the Breast.
J Cancer Ther
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limonene, a major component in citrus oil, has demonstrated anti-cancer effects in preclinical mammary cancer models. However, the effective oral dose translates to a human dose that may not be feasible for chronic dosing. We proposed to evaluate topical application of limonene to the breast as an alternative dosing strategy.
Related JoVE Video
One-year risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia: U.S. versus U.K. risk-stratification guidelines.
Ann. Intern. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guidelines from the United Kingdom and the United States on risk stratification after polypectomy differ, as do recommended surveillance intervals.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variants in the vitamin D pathway and breast cancer disease-free survival.
Carcinogenesis
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin D pathway genes and breast cancer risk; however, little is known about the association between vitamin D pathway genes and breast cancer prognosis. In a retrospective cohort of 1029 patients with early-stage breast cancer, we analyzed the association between 106 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight vitamin D pathway genes and breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) using Cox regression analysis adjusted for known prognostic variables. Using a false discovery rate of 10%, six intronic SNPs were significantly associated with poorer DFS: retinoid-X receptor alpha (RXRA) SNPs (rs881658, rs11185659, rs10881583, rs881657 and rs7864987) and plasminogen activator and urokinase receptor (PLAUR) SNP (rs4251864). Treatment received (no systemic therapy, hormone therapy alone or chemotherapy) was an effect modifier of the RXRA SNPs association with DFS (P < 0.05); therefore, we stratified further analysis by treatment group. Among patients who did not receive systemic therapy, RXRA SNP [rs10881583 (P = 0.02)] was associated with poorer DFS, and among patients who received chemotherapy, RXRA SNPs (rs881658, rs11185659, rs10881583, rs881657 and rs7864987) were associated with poorer DFS (P < 0.001 for all SNPs). However, RXRA SNPs: rs10881583 (P < 0.001) and rs881657 (P = 0.02) were associated with improved DFS in patients treated with hormone therapy alone. Our results suggest that SNPs in the RXRA and PLAUR genes in the vitamin D pathway may contribute to breast cancer DFS. In particular, SNPs in RXRA may predict for poorer or improved DFS in patients, according to type of systemic treatment received. If validated, these markers could be used for risk stratification of breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Hypothesized role of pregnancy hormones on HER2+ breast tumor development.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer incidence rates have declined among older but not younger women; the latter are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancers carrying a poor prognosis. Epidemiological evidence supports an increase in breast cancer incidence following pregnancy with risk elevated as much as 10 years post-partum. We investigated the association between years since last full-term pregnancy at the time of diagnosis (?10 or >10 years) and breast tumor subtype in a case series of premenopausal Hispanic women (n = 627). Participants were recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Spain. Cases with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status, with one or more full-term pregnancies ?1 year prior to diagnosis were eligible for this analysis. Cases were classified into three tumor subtypes according to hormone receptor (HR+ = ER+ and/or PR+; HR- = ER- and PR-) expression and HER2 status: HR+/HER2-, HER2+ (regardless of HR), and triple negative breast cancer. Case-only odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for HER2+ tumors in reference to HR+/HER2- tumors. Participants were pooled in a mixed-effects logistic regression model with years since pregnancy as a fixed effect and study site as a random effect. When compared to HR+/HER2- cases, women with HER2+ tumors were more likely be diagnosed in the post-partum period of ?10 years (OR = 1.68; 95 % CI, 1.12-2.52). The effect was present across all source populations and independent of the HR status of the HER2+ tumor. Adjusting for age at diagnosis (?45 or >45 years) did not materially alter our results (OR = 1.78; 95 % CI, 1.08-2.93). These findings support the novel hypothesis that factors associated with the post-partum breast, possibly hormonal, are involved in the development of HER2+ tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Design and baseline characteristics of participants in a phase III randomized trial of celecoxib and selenium for colorectal adenoma prevention.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
COX inhibitors reduce colorectal adenoma recurrence by up to 45% and selenium supplementation may prevent colorectal cancer. Following colonoscopic adenoma resection, 1,600 men and women, ages 40 to 80 years, were randomized to celecoxib (400 mg daily), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and/or selenium (200 ?g daily as selenized yeast), or double placebo. The trial was initiated in November 2001. The primary trial endpoint is adenoma recurrence in each intervention group compared with placebo, as determined by surveillance colonoscopy conducted three to five years after baseline. Randomization was stratified by use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) and clinic site. Following reports of cardiovascular toxicity associated with COX-2 inhibitors, the celecoxib arm was discontinued in December 2004 when 824 participants had been randomized. Accrual continued with randomization to selenium alone or placebo. Randomization of the originally planned cohort (n = 1,621) was completed in November 2008. A further 200 patients with one or more advanced adenomas (denoting increased risk for colorectal cancer) were accrued to enhance statistical power for determining intervention efficacy in this higher-risk subgroup. Accrual of the total cohort (n = 1,824) was completed in January 2011. Baseline cohort characteristics include: mean age 62.9 years; 65% male; body mass index (BMI) 29.1 ± 5.1; 47% taking low-dose aspirin while on trial; 20% with three or more adenomas; and 38% with advanced adenomas. Intervention effects on adenoma recurrence will be determined, and their modification by genetic background and baseline selenium level. The effect of selenium supplementation on risk for type II diabetes will also be reported.
Related JoVE Video
Diet and nutrient factors in colorectal cancer risk.
Nutr Clin Pract
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diet and nutrition are estimated to explain as much as 30%-50% of the worldwide incidence of colorectal cancer. In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), in conjunction with the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), released the second expert report that summarizes the current scientific evidence linking diet to the prevention of cancer. This text provides an expert summary and level of evidence of the research relating diet/nutrients to factors that influence cancers of multiple organs, including colon and rectum, with an important emphasis on global patterns. Specific examples include dietary fat, red and processed meat, and dairy, as well effects of nutrients such as calcium, folate, and vitamin D. Evidence is obtained from ongoing systematic literature reviews conducted by experts in both the United States and Europe. The expert panel applies standard practices to evaluate the strength and quality of individual studies to draw summary conclusions. In 2011, the report was updated to include findings from a series of meta-analyses published in 2010. To complement the WCRF/AICR report, the authors review the evidence favoring the role for diet and nutrition in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Specifically, they have integrated information gained from more recent meta-analyses and high-quality, prospective study findings, some of which have been included in the 2011 updated WCRF/AICR summary.
Related JoVE Video
Frequency of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor gene (MET) and the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PIK3CA) copy number elevation and correlation with outcome in patients with early stage breast cancer.
Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The current study was conducted to determine the frequency and association between recurrence-free survival (RFS) and MET and catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PIK3CA) copy number elevations in patients with early stage breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Insight in glioma susceptibility through an analysis of 6p22.3, 12p13.33-12.1, 17q22-23.2 and 18q23 SNP genotypes in familial and non-familial glioma.
Hum. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk of glioma has consistently been shown to be increased twofold in relatives of patients with primary brain tumors (PBT). A recent genome-wide linkage study of glioma families provided evidence for a disease locus on 17q12-21.32, with the possibility of four additional risk loci at 6p22.3, 12p13.33-12.1, 17q22-23.2, and 18q23. To identify the underlying genetic variants responsible for the linkage signals, we compared the genotype frequencies of 5,122 SNPs mapping to these five regions in 88 glioma cases with and 1,100 cases without a family history of PBT (discovery study). An additional series of 84 familial and 903 non-familial cases were used to replicate associations. In the discovery study, 12 SNPs showed significant associations with family history of PBT (P < 0.001). In the replication study, two of the 12 SNPs were confirmed: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.031) and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs650461 (P = 0.025). In the combined analysis of discovery and replication studies, the strongest associations were attained at four SNPs: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.0001), SOX5 rs7305773 (P = 0.0001) and STKY1 rs2418087 (P = 0.0003), and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs6504618 (P = 0.0006). Further, a significant gene-dosage effect was found for increased risk of family history of PBT with these four SNPs in the combined data set (P(trend) <1.0 × 10(-8)). The results support the linkage finding that some loci in the 12p13.33-12.1 and 17q12-q21.32 may contribute to gliomagenesis and suggest potential target genes underscoring linkage signals.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary polyamine intake and risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are the polyamines required for human cell growth. The inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, decreases tumor growth and the development of colorectal adenomas. A database was developed to estimate dietary polyamine exposure and relate exposure to health outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
A review of cancer in U.S. Hispanic populations.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are compelling reasons to conduct studies of cancer in Hispanics, the fastest growing major demographic group in the United States (from 15% to 30% of the U.S. population by 2050). The genetically admixed Hispanic population coupled with secular trends in environmental exposures and lifestyle/behavioral practices that are associated with immigration and acculturation offer opportunities for elucidating the effects of genetics, environment, and lifestyle on cancer risk and identifying novel risk factors. For example, traditional breast cancer risk factors explain less of the breast cancer risk in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic whites (NHW), and there is a substantially greater proportion of never-smokers with lung cancer in Hispanics than in NHW. Hispanics have higher incidence rates for cancers of the cervix, stomach, liver, and gall bladder than NHW. With respect to these cancers, there are intriguing patterns that warrant study (e.g., depending on country of origin, the five-fold difference in gastric cancer rates for Hispanic men but not Hispanic women). Also, despite a substantially higher incidence rate and increasing secular trend for liver cancer in Hispanics, there have been no studies of Hispanics reported to date. We review the literature and discuss study design options and features that should be considered in future studies.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.