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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HIV status and sexual behaviour among gay men in Ottawa: considerations for public health.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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HIV prevention efforts, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM), have not achieved maximum effectiveness. A survey of MSM in Ottawa, Canada was completed to ascertain whether there were differences in how the perceived HIV status of participants and their partners influenced sexual practices.
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Allocentric versus egocentric representation of remembered reach targets in human cortex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The location of a remembered reach target can be encoded in egocentric and/or allocentric reference frames. Cortical mechanisms for egocentric reach are relatively well described, but the corresponding allocentric representations are essentially unknown. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to distinguish human brain areas involved in these two types of representation. Our paradigm consisted of three tasks with identical stimulus display but different instructions: egocentric reach (remember absolute target location), allocentric reach (remember target location relative to a visual landmark), and a nonspatial control, color report (report color of target). During the delay phase (when only target location was specified), the egocentric and allocentric tasks elicited widely overlapping regions of cortical activity (relative to the control), but with higher activation in parietofrontal cortex for egocentric task and higher activation in early visual cortex for allocentric tasks. In addition, egocentric directional selectivity (target relative to gaze) was observed in the superior occipital gyrus and the inferior occipital gyrus, whereas allocentric directional selectivity (target relative to a visual landmark) was observed in the inferior temporal gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. During the response phase (after movement direction had been specified either by reappearance of the visual landmark or a pro-/anti-reach instruction), the parietofrontal network resumed egocentric directional selectivity, showing higher activation for contralateral than ipsilateral reaches. These results show that allocentric and egocentric reach mechanisms use partially overlapping but different cortical substrates and that directional specification is different for target memory versus reach response.
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A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.
Physiol Meas
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9)?neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic ?-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05??g g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4?mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74?ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17??Sv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1?ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans.
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Facial reanimation surgery restores affect display.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Assess the ability of facial reanimation surgery to restore affect display in patients with severe facial paralysis.
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A Comparison of the Rheologic Properties of an Adipose-Derived Extracellular Matrix Biomaterial, Lipoaspirate, Calcium Hydroxylapatite, and Cross-linked Hyaluronic Acid.
JAMA Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Acquired soft-tissue injury with resultant volume loss may cause significant deformity in size, shape, and body or facial contour. Current autologous fat transfer techniques have several limitations, including availability, donor site morbidity, and unpredictable rates of resorption. We present an extracellular matrix (ECM) biomaterial derived from human adipose tissue as an off-the-shelf alternative for soft-tissue volume restoration and compare clinically relevant rheologic properties.
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How IGF-1 activates its receptor.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is involved in growth and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. A ligand-dependent conformational change is thought to regulate IGF1R activity, but the nature of this change is unclear. We point out an underappreciated dimer in the crystal structure of the related Insulin Receptor (IR) with Insulin bound that allows direct comparison with unliganded IR and suggests a mechanism by which ligand regulates IR/IGF1R activity. We test this mechanism in a series of biochemical and biophysical assays and find the IGF1R ectodomain maintains an autoinhibited state in which the TMs are held apart. Ligand binding releases this constraint, allowing TM association and unleashing an intrinsic propensity of the intracellular regions to autophosphorylate. Enzymatic studies of full-length and kinase-containing fragments show phosphorylated IGF1R is fully active independent of ligand and the extracellular-TM regions. The key step triggered by ligand binding is thus autophosphorylation.
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Intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green imaging for objective measurement of the vascular delay technique in locoregional head and neck flaps.
JAMA Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Reconstruction of oncologic or traumatic head and neck defects often requires complex planning of locoregional, pedicled, or interpolated flaps. In cases with a higher risk of flap failure, vascular delay with staged reconstruction can help improve tissue perfusion and increase chances of flap survival. An objective tool is needed to help guide reconstructive surgeons with the intraoperative decision to pursue vascular delay.
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Counselling about HIV serological status disclosure: nursing practice or law enforcement? a Foucauldian reflection.
Nurs Inq
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Recently, focus groups and qualitative interviews with nurses who provide frontline care for persons living with HIV highlighted the contentiousness surrounding the seemingly innocuous activity of counselling clients about HIV-status disclosure, hereafter disclosure counselling. These empirical studies highlighted that while some nurses felt they should instruct clients to disclose their HIV-positive status if HIV transmission were possible, other nurses were equally adamant that such counselling was outside the nursing scope of practice. A review of these opposing perceptions about disclosure counselling, including an examination of the empirical evidence which supports each point, revealed that the dichotomous arguments needed to be nuanced. The empirical evidence about serostatus disclosure neither supported nor refuted either of these assertions; rather, it substantiated parts of each. To create this understanding, both empirical and theoretical works are used. First, the results of empirical studies about serostatus disclosure, or lack thereof and HIV transmission is presented; as part of this, Marks and Crepaz's HIV disclosure and exposure framework is examined. Second, the work of Michel Foucault on disciplinary and pastoral power is drawn from. The outcome is a nuanced understanding about the interrelationships between disclosure counselling and nursing practice and a final interpretation about what this understanding means for public health practice.
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Seeing is believing: Objectively evaluating the impact of facial reanimation surgery on social perception.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Objectively measure the ability of facial reanimation surgery to normalize the appearance of facial paralysis using eye-tracking technology.
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Overviewing a Nurse-Led, Community-Based HIV PEP Program: Applying the Extant Literature in Frontline Practice.
Public Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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This clinical concept paper overviews a program to facilitate access to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. The project, which was a collaborative initiative involving the local School of Nursing, public health unit, AIDS service organization, hospital-based HIV clinic, and an outpatient pharmacy, was implemented to circumvent common barriers to care identified in the literature. In this project, persons who present to one of the two participating clinics after having come, or likely having come, into contact with HIV within the previous 72 hr, are offered rapid HIV testing, also known as point-of-care (POC) testing, to rule out existing HIV infection, and provided with a follow-up appointment booked at the HIV clinic. Clients are also offered comprehensive STI testing, and HIV prevention counseling. The implementation of this collaborative community-based access-to-PEP project demonstrates the application of research to a real-world health care setting, and it is hoped that others will adapt this model to their local setting, enabling ease of access to PEP for members of groups that are disproportionately affected by HIV.
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Temporal trends in head and neck cancer surgery reconstruction.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The purpose of this study was to analyze changing trends in head and neck cancer reconstructive surgery and analyze the effect of surgeon and hospital volume.
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Overview of a gay men's STI/HIV testing clinic in Ottawa: Clinical operations and outcomes.
Can J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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To 1) create a space where men who have sex with men (MSM) feel comfortable accessing sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV) testing, and 2) reduce STI/HIV incidence.
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Genome-wide association mapping of yield and yield components of spring wheat under contrasting moisture regimes.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A stable QTL that may be used in marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs was detected for yield, yield components and drought tolerance-related traits in spring wheat association mapping panel. Genome-wide association mapping has become a widespread method of quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification for many crop plants including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Its benefit over traditional bi-parental mapping approaches depends on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the mapping population. The objectives of this study were to determine linkage disequilibrium decay rate and population structure in a spring wheat association mapping panel (n = 285-294) and to identify markers associated with yield and yield components, morphological, phenological, and drought tolerance-related traits. The study was conducted under fully irrigated and rain-fed conditions at Greeley, CO, USA and Melkassa, Ethiopia in 2010 and 2011 (five total environments). Genotypic data were generated using diversity array technology markers. Linkage disequilibrium decay rate extended over a longer genetic distance for the D genome (6.8 cM) than for the A and B genomes (1.7 and 2.0 cM, respectively). Seven subpopulations were identified with population structure analysis. A stable QTL was detected for grain yield on chromosome 2DS both under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. A multi-trait region significant for yield and yield components was found on chromosome 5B. Grain yield QTL on chromosome 1BS co-localized with harvest index QTL. Vegetation indices shared QTL with harvest index on chromosome 1AL and 5A. After validation in relevant genetic backgrounds and environments, QTL detected in this study for yield, yield components and drought tolerance-related traits may be used in marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.
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The FRET signatures of noninteracting proteins in membranes: simulations and experiments.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments are often used to study interactions between integral membrane proteins in cellular membranes. However, in addition to the FRET of sequence-specific interactions, these experiments invariably record a contribution due to proximity FRET, which occurs when a donor and an acceptor approach each other by chance within distances of ?100 Å. This effect does not reflect specific interactions in the membrane and is frequently unappreciated, despite the fact that its magnitude can be significant. Here we develop a computational description of proximity FRET, simulating the cases of proximity FRET when fluorescent proteins are used to tag monomeric, dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric membrane proteins, as well as membrane proteins existing in monomer-dimer equilibria. We also perform rigorous experimental measurements of this effect, by identifying membrane receptors that do not associate in mammalian membranes. We measure the FRET efficiencies between yellow fluorescent protein and mCherry-tagged versions of these receptors in plasma-membrane-derived vesicles as a function of receptor concentration. Finally, we demonstrate that the experimental measurements are well described by our predictions. The work presented here brings additional rigor to FRET-based studies of membrane protein interactions, and should have broad utility in membrane biophysics research.
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Visual targets aren't irreversibly converted to motor coordinates: eye-centered updating of visuospatial memory in online reach control.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Counter to current and widely accepted hypotheses that sensorimotor transformations involve converting target locations in spatial memory from an eye-fixed reference frame into a more stable motor-based reference frame, we show that this is not strictly the case. Eye-centered representations continue to dominate reach control even during movement execution; the eye-centered target representation persists after conversion to a motor-based frame and is continuously updated as the eyes move during reach, and is used to modify the reach plan accordingly during online control. While reaches are known to be adjusted online when targets physically shift, our results are the first to show that similar adjustments occur in response to changes in representations of remembered target locations. Specifically, we find that shifts in gaze direction, which produce predictable changes in the internal (specifically eye-centered) representation of remembered target locations also produce mid-transport changes in reach kinematics. This indicates that representations of remembered reach targets (and visuospatial memory in general) continue to be updated relative to gaze even after reach onset. Thus, online motor control is influenced dynamically by both the external and internal updating mechanisms.
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Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology.
Physiol Meas
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) ? line at 844 keV to the Mn ? line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23µSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject.
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Surgical management of complex midfacial fractures.
Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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This article presents an overview of surgical management for complex midfacial fractures for the practicing otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon. Discussion includes the important anatomic relationships; pathophysiology; clinical features; pertinent physical examination findings; imaging; surgical approaches; and techniques for repair of zygomaticomaxillary complex, orbital, naso-orbital-ethmoid, and Le Fort fractures.
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HIV criminal prosecutions and public health: an examination of the empirical research.
Med Humanit
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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To review the extant literature on HIV criminal laws, and to determine the impact of these laws on public health practice.
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Facial lesions negatively impact affect display.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To evaluate the impact of facial lesions on affect display in patients as compared with individuals without lesions.
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Changing perception: Facial reanimation surgery improves attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Determine the effect of facial reanimation surgery on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis.
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The subzygomatic triangle: rapid, minimally invasive identification of the masseteric nerve for facial reanimation.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The masseteric nerve is a valuable donor nerve in the management of facial paralysis; however, its location is less familiar to surgeons because this motor nerve is not commonly exposed in other head and neck procedures. Current techniques for masseteric nerve identification rely on physical measurements from surface or bony landmarks that may be unpredictable across patient age, ethnicity, and size. The authors sought to identify a rapid and minimally invasive technique based on surgical anatomy independent of intraoperative physical measurements.
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Algorithmic approach to lower lid blepharoplasty.
Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The debate continues around transconjunctival versus transcutaneous approaches. Despite the perceived safety of the former, many experienced surgeons continue to advocate the latter. This review aims to present a balanced view of each approach. It will first address the anatomic basis of lower lid aging and then organize recent literature and associated discussion into the transconjunctival and transcutaneous approaches. The integrated algorithm employed by the senior author will be presented. Finally this review will describe less mainstream suture techniques for lower lid rejuvenation and lower lid blepharoplasty complications with a focus upon lower lid malposition.
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Stapedial synkinesis causing change in hearing threshold with facial motion.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Synkinetic facial movement after facial nerve regeneration is a well-documented phenomenon. Rarely, patients recovering from facial nerve injury report feelings of auditory ringing, fullness, and a sensation of ear tightness as a result of stapedial muscle involvement. It is exceedingly rare for such synkinesis to produce perceivable changes in hearing threshold. We report a unique case of stapedial synkinesis causing pure-tone changes in hearing threshold with activation of the facial musculature.
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Nondisclosure prosecutions and population health outcomes: examining HIV testing, HIV diagnoses, and the attitudes of men who have sex with men following nondisclosure prosecution media releases in Ottawa, Canada.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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During the past decade, the intersection of HIV and criminal law has become increasingly discussed. The majority of studies to date have approached this topic from a sociological or legal perspective. As a result, the potential effect of nondisclosure prosecutions on population health and HIV prevention work remains mostly unknown.
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Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.
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Hinged forearm split-thickness skin graft for radial artery fasciocutaneous flap donor site repair.
Arch Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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To present a modified technique in the harvest and application of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) from the primary flap donor site in forearm fasciocutaneous free flaps.
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Population health and social governance: analyzing the mainstream incorporation of ethnography.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Recently, health care workers (researchers, academics, policy writers, clinicians) have begun to view ethnography as an acceptable research methodology for informing public health work. This corresponds with a change in public health practice toward population health, wherein identifiable groups are examined to identify the group-level and contextual factors that affect their health statuses. Although population health-based methodological and outcomes-focused examinations have already occurred regarding ethnography, no extant literature scrutinizes the incorporation of ethnography into mainstream public and population health work from a sociopolitical viewpoint. Consequently, such an investigation occurs here using Foucaults concepts of discipline and Luptons advancement of Foucaults ideas about the imperative of health. The outcome of this investigation is the assertion that ethnography is a strategic method for disciplining populations that do not respect the imperative of health. In other words, ethnography helps generate the data that can be used to normalize large groups of people.
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Custom-made, 3D, intraoperative surgical guides for nasal reconstruction.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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This article presents the use of an intraoperative surgical guide created by 3D laser surface scanning and rapid prototyping. The authors present outcomes of 3 patients in whom the nasal surgical guide was used intraoperatively for reconstruction of full-thickness, complex nasal defects. This effort highlights the multidisciplinary approach involving a surgeon and anaplastologist integrated with the latest technology to provide patients with the best possible outcomes.
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Cross-validated models of the relationships between neck muscle electromyography and three-dimensional head kinematics during gaze behavior.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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The object of this study was to model the relationship between neck electromyography (EMG) and three-dimensional (3-D) head kinematics during gaze behavior. In two monkeys, we recorded 3-D gaze, head orientation, and bilateral EMG activity in the sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, complexus, biventer cervicis, rectus capitis posterior major, and occipital capitis inferior muscles. Head-unrestrained animals fixated and made gaze saccades between targets within a 60° × 60° grid. We performed a stepwise regression in which polynomial model terms were retained/rejected based on their tendency to increase/decrease a cross-validation-based measure of model generalizability. This revealed several results that could not have been predicted from knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. During head holding, EMG activity in most muscles was related to horizontal head orientation, whereas fewer muscles correlated to vertical head orientation and none to small random variations in head torsion. A fourth-order polynomial model, with horizontal head orientation as the only independent variable, generalized nearly as well as higher order models. For head movements, we added time-varying linear and nonlinear perturbations in velocity and acceleration to the previously derived static (head holding) models. The static models still explained most of the EMG variance, but the additional motion terms, which included horizontal, vertical, and torsional contributions, significantly improved the results. Several coordinate systems were used for both static and dynamic analyses, with Fick coordinates showing a marginal (nonsignificant) advantage. Thus, during gaze fixations, recruitment within the neck muscles from which we recorded contributed primarily to position-dependent horizontal orientation terms in our data set, with more complex multidimensional contributions emerging during the head movements that accompany gaze shifts. These are crucial components of the late neuromuscular transformations in a complete model of 3-D head-neck system and should help constrain the study of premotor signals for head control during gaze behaviors.
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Nomadic sexualities: an in-depth case study about unsafe sex.
Nurs Inq
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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In an era when researchers are identifying increased rates of unsafe sex among gay and bisexual men, it is important that the practice of unsafe sex be adequately explored. While much literature is already dedicated to this topic, only recently have researchers begun to develop in-depth understandings of the personal meanings that people ascribe to unsafe sex. This study continues such explorations by examining (i) why one self-defined gay man engaged in unsafe sex, and (ii) how he defined unsafe sex. The findings suggest that, for this man, his sexuality is nomadic and that what he feels is unsafe sex is the outcome of his nomadic sexuality conflicting with social imperatives for sexual stratification.
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Benefits of knowledge-based interprofessional communication skills training in medical undergraduate education.
JRSM Short Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Good interprofessional communication is fundamental to effective teamworking in medicine. Finalmed is a private course that teaches the principles and methods of clinical presenting as an iterative technique of reasoning though clinical data. We have tested the efficacy of this technique using a questionnaire-based study.
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Mortality in children and adolescents prescribed antipsychotic medication: a retrospective cohort study using the UK general practice research database.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Antipsychotic prescribing in children has risen in many countries; however, the safety of these agents in the young has not yet been fully established. Potentially fatal antipsychotic-related adverse events include cardiac complications and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate mortality in children and adolescents taking antipsychotic medication.
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Management of facial paralysis in the 21st century.
Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Facial paralysis is a clinical entity associated with significant morbidity, which has a treatment paradigm that is continually evolving. Surgical management of the paralyzed face poses significant challenges to achieve the goal of returning patients to their premorbid states. Here we attempt to review the advances in facial reanimation, in particular with regards to chronic facial paralysis. These include recent developments in static and dynamic rehabilitation including advances like artificial muscles for eyelid reconstruction, dynamic muscle transfer for the eye, and orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer.
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The potential public health effects of a police announcement about HIV nondisclosure: a case scenario analysis.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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In May 2010, a local police force released the details of an HIV-transmission-related criminal investigation. This involved the publication of the name and photograph of, and charges against a man who the police allege did not disclose his HIV status prior to engaging in sexual activities that pose a "significant risk" for HIV transmission. Presently, however, there are no public health analyses of this situation. Consequently, the available literature on Canadian criminal laws, HIV transmission within this jurisdiction, and HIV prevention are presented and discussed herein. The outcome of this analysis is the conclusion that the act of publicizing an HIV-related criminal investigation more likely inhibits than encourages STI/HIV testing among HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men. It is the assertion here that this undertaking thus conflicts with the overall public health goals of HIV prevention, and should likely not occur in the future.
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Drug use as boundary play: a qualitative exploration of gay circuit parties.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Research findings have revealed that gay circuit parties may be locations that are disproportionately responsible for the increasing rates of many STIs/HIV among gay/bisexual men. Theories have been put forth that this may be the case because circuit parties are locales of prevalent drug use and unsafe sex. To explore the relationship between these two phenomena, in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with 17 men who (1) have sex with other men, (2) attended gay circuit parties in Montréal, Canada, in 2007. These revealed that drugs (including alcohol) were used intentionally to engage in unsafe sex, and then to justify this behavior after the fact. This process we called boundary play.
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Exploring sexual networks: a pilot study of swingers sexual behaviour and health-care-seeking practices.
Can J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Very little scientific research exists about swingers. For sexual health nurses, this dearth of information may be problematic, particularly as the rates of many STIs are increasing across Canada. A pilot study was undertaken to explore the subculture of men and women who visit swingers clubs. Data were collected through a survey distributed at 1 swingers club on 2 separate occasions and through direct observation of the clubs on the same 2 occasions. The researchers engaged in 8 hours of direct observation and 72 individuals (32 men and 40 women) completed the survey. The respondents reported engaging in unprotected sex, whether oral (80.3%), vaginal (15.5%), or anal (30.8%), and rarely accessing STI health services (< 40.8%). The authors conclude that further research is needed to investigate the possible design and implementation of STI health services for swingers.
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Desire, drug use and unsafe sex: a qualitative examination of gay men who attend gay circuit parties.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Recently, there has been an increase in research dedicated to the topic of drug/alcohol use and unsafe sex among gay men. Findings of this work suggest that drug/alcohol use is particularly common within gay circuit parties (GCPs). More recently, this work has begun to suggest that further exploration is needed to understand the desires of gay men who use drugs and alcohol and who engage in unsafe sex. Based on the foregoing, an ethnographic study was undertaken with the goal of better understanding the role of desire in the sequence of drugs/alcohol and unsafe sex. This research was guided theoretically by Deleuze and Guattaris work on desire. Using this theoretical orientation, the results revealed that some GCP-goers intentionally use drugs/alcohol to form connections.
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Merkel cell carcinoma: update and review.
Semin Cutan Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, and often fatal cutaneous malignancy that is not usually suspected at the time of biopsy. Because of its increasing incidence and the discovery of a possible viral association, interest in MCC has escalated. Recent effort has broadened our breadth of knowledge regarding MCC and developed instruments to improve data collection and future study. This article provides an update on current thinking about the Merkel cell and MCC.
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Determination of the new anthelmintic monepantel and its sulfone metabolite in milk and muscle using a UHPLC-MS/MS and QuEChERS method.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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This is the first paper to report a method for the detection of the new anthelmintic monepantel and its sulfone metabolite in goats milk and ovine muscle. Samples were extracted and purified using a modified QuEChERS method. A concentration step was included when analyzing in the low ?g kg(-1) range. Analysis was carried out by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in a 13min run time using atmospheric pressure electrospray ionisation in the negative mode (ESI(-)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Monepantel (m/z 472) and monepantel-sulfone (m/z 504) both had product ions at m/z 186 and m/z 166. The method has been single-laboratory validated according to the 2002/657/EC guidelines. The mean recovery in milk was 108 and 106% for monepantel and monepantel-sulfone, respectively. The mean recovery in muscle was 109 and 108% for monepantel and monepantel-sulfone, respectively. The coefficients of variation for the within laboratory repeatability and reproducibility were ?6.4% in milk and ?14.2% in muscle. The decision limits (CC?) in milk were 2.20 and 2.08 ?g kg(-1) for monepantel and monepantel-sulfone, respectively. The decision limits (CC?) in muscle were 771 and 746 ?g kg(-1) for monepantel and monepantel-sulfone, respectively.
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The straight truth: measuring observer attention to the crooked nose.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Quantify attentional distraction to crooked noses pre- and postoperatively as compared with normal noses by using an established metric of attention in a pilot study.
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How facial lesions impact attractiveness and perception: differential effects of size and location.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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To determine the effect of facial lesion size and location on perceptions of attractiveness and importance for repair. We hypothesized that attractiveness scores and importance for repair would be dependent on lesion size and location.
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Survey of phantom limb pain, phantom sensation and stump pain in Cambodian and New Zealand amputees.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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The primary objective of this study is to compare the prevalence of phantom limb pain in New Zealand and Cambodian amputees and to assess the demographics of a sample of amputees from these two countries.
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Xeroderma pigmentosum in an African-American.
ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To describe a case of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) in a middle-aged African-American woman, and to review pertinent literature on this rare clinical scenario.
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An argument for practice-based public health research on sexually transmitted infection management.
Public Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Over the last few years, the rates of certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have again begun to rise in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Paradoxically, these increases are occurring at the same time that greater numbers of researchers are publishing reports about highly successful safer sex interventions. Research that investigates this phenomenon reveals that the majority of new STIs management initiatives never reach day-to-day practice after the research period has terminated. In reaction to this, it is suggested here that researchers should begin developing their STIs management interventions in practice-based settings, with a strong emphasis being placed on ensuring target group input from the outset. While such an approach may not be able to discern precise cause-and-effect relationships, it has the benefit of enhancing use after researchers have withdrawn their support. The benefits that arise from long-term and widespread use of this approach may therefore outweigh the advantages that can occur from developing highly efficacious, but unused, STIs management strategies.
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Expression of genes in cyanobacteria: adaptation of endogenous plasmids as platforms for high-level gene expression in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is an ideal model cyanobacterium for functional genomics and biotechnological applications through metabolic engineering. A gene expression system that takes advantage of its multiple, endogenous plasmids has been constructed in this cyanobacterium. The method involves the integration of foreign DNA cassettes with selectable markers into neutral sites that can be located on any of the several endogenous plasmids of this organism. We have exploited the natural transformability and powerful homologous recombination capacity of this organism by using linear DNA fragments for transformation. This approach overcomes barriers that have made the introduction and expression of foreign genes problematic in the past. Foremost among these is the natural restriction endonuclease barrier that can cleave transforming circular plasmid DNAs before they can be replicated in the cell. We describe herein the general methodology for expressing foreign and homologous genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, a comparison of several commonly used promoters, and provide examples of how this approach has successfully been used in complementation analyses and overproduction of proteins with affinity tags.
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What faces reveal: impaired affect display in facial paralysis.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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To evaluate affect display in patients with facial paralysis as compared with normal subjects. We hypothesized that patients with facial paralysis would have impaired affect display and be perceived as displaying a negative affect as compared with normal subjects.
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Threshold of visual perception of facial asymmetry in a facial paralysis model.
Arch Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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To determine the degree of facial asymmetry required to trigger conscious perception in the observer in a simulated model of facial paralysis.
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Minimally invasive temporalis tendon transposition.
Arch Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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To describe a minimally invasive approach of the temporalis tendon transposition technique for dynamic reanimation in patients with long-standing facial paralysis.
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Faceless sex: glory holes and sexual assemblages.
Nurs Philos
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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According to our previous research, the use of glory holes in public venues such as saunas and bathhouses is very popular. The popularity of glory holes is due in part to the anonymous sex that these architectural elements allow. This post-structuralist theoretical reflection seeks to understand the specific nature of anonymous public sex among bathhouse patrons, focusing on the links between desire-architecture-place-sexual practices. Drawing on interviews with glory hole users gathered during an ethnographic research project in bathhouses, this essay goes beyond traditional public health discourse to offer an original perspective on anonymous public sex. Utilizing the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattaris concepts of assemblages and machines, we re-theorize glory hole sex--what we call faceless sex--and rethink the ways that desire is imbricated with our understanding of architecture, place, and public. Finally, we reflect upon the particular ethical challenges that are posed by these particular sexual practices, and ask whether a post-structuralist ethic might be possible.
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The brain weights body-based cues higher than vision when estimating walked distances.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Optic flow is the stream of retinal information generated when an observers body, head or eyes move relative to their environment, and it plays a defining role in many influential theories of active perception. Traditionally, studies of optic flow have used artificially generated flow in the absence of the body-based cues typically coincident with self-motion (e.g. proprioceptive, efference copy, and vestibular). While optic flow alone can be used to judge the direction, speed and magnitude of self-motion, little is known about the precise extent to which it is used during natural locomotor behaviours such as walking. In this study, walked distances were estimated in an open outdoor environment. This study employed two novel complementary techniques to dissociate the contributions of optic flow from body-based cues when estimating distance travelled in a flat, open, outdoor environment void of distinct proximal visual landmarks. First, lenses were used to magnify or minify the visual environment. Second, two walked distances were presented in succession and were either the same or different in magnitude; vision was either present or absent in each. A computational model was developed based on the results of both experiments. Highly convergent cue-weighting values were observed, indicating that the brain consistently weighted body-based cues about twice as high as optic flow, the combination of the two cues being additive. The current experiments represent some of the first to isolate and quantify the contributions of optic flow during natural human locomotor behaviour.
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Interactions between gaze-centered and allocentric representations of reach target location in the presence of spatial updating.
Vision Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Numerous studies have investigated the phenomenon of egocentric spatial updating in gaze-centered coordinates, and some have studied the use of allocentric cues in visually-guided movement, but it is not known how these two mechanisms interact. Here, we tested whether gaze-centered and allocentric information combine at the time of viewing the target, or if the brain waits until the last possible moment. To do this, we took advantage of the well-known fact that pointing and reaching movements show gaze-centered retinal magnification errors (RME) that update across saccades. During gaze fixation, we found that visual landmarks, and hence allocentric information, reduces RME for targets in the left visual hemifield but not in the right. When a saccade was made between viewing and reaching, this landmark-induced reduction in RME only depended on gaze at reach, not at encoding. Based on this finding, we argue that egocentric-allocentric combination occurs after the intervening saccade. This is consistent with previous findings in healthy and brain damaged subjects suggesting that the brain updates early spatial representations during eye movement and combines them at the time of action.
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Time course of allocentric decay, egocentric decay, and allocentric-to-egocentric conversion in memory-guided reach.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Allocentric cues can be used to encode locations in visuospatial memory, but it is not known how and when these representations are converted into egocentric commands for behaviour. Here, we tested the influence of different memory intervals on reach performance toward targets defined in either egocentric or allocentric coordinates, and then compared this to performance in a task where subjects were implicitly free to choose when to convert from allocentric to egocentric representations. Reach and eye positions were measured using Optotrak and Eyelink Systems, respectively, in fourteen subjects. Our results confirm that egocentric representations degrade over a delay of several seconds, whereas allocentric representations remained relatively stable over the same time scale. Moreover, when subjects were free to choose, they converted allocentric representations into egocentric representations as soon as possible, despite the apparent cost in reach precision in our experimental paradigm. This suggests that humans convert allocentric representations into egocentric commands at the first opportunity, perhaps to optimize motor noise and movement timing in real-world conditions.
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Ethanol upregulates glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper expression and modulates cellular inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Alcohol abuse is associated with immunosuppressive and infectious sequelae. Particularly, alcoholics are more susceptible to pulmonary infections. In this report, gene transcriptional profiles of primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to varying doses of alcohol (0, 50, and 100 mM) were obtained. Comparison of gene transcription levels in 0 mM alcohol treatments with those in 50 mM alcohol treatments resulted in 2 genes being upregulated and 16 genes downregulated by at least 2-fold. Moreover, 0 mM and 100 mM alcohol exposure led to the upregulation of 14 genes and downregulation of 157 genes. Among the upregulated genes, glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) responded to alcohol in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, GILZ protein levels also correlated with this transcriptional pattern. Lentiviral expression of GILZ small interfering RNA in human airway epithelial cells diminished the alcohol-induced upregulation, confirming that GILZ is indeed an alcohol-responsive gene. Gene silencing of GILZ in A549 cells resulted in secretion of significantly higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines in response to IL-1beta stimulation. The GILZ-silenced cells were more resistant to alcohol-mediated suppression of cytokine secretion. Further data demonstrated that the glucocorticoid receptor is involved in the regulation of GILZ by alcohol. Because GILZ is a key glucocorticoid-responsive factor mediating the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions of steroids, we propose that similar signaling pathways may play a role in the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of alcohol.
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Cue reliability and a landmark stability heuristic determine relative weighting between egocentric and allocentric visual information in memory-guided reach.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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It is not known how egocentric visual information (location of a target relative to the self) and allocentric visual information (location of a target relative to external landmarks) are integrated to form reach plans. Based on behavioral data from rodents and humans we hypothesized that the degree of stability in visual landmarks would influence the relative weighting. Furthermore, based on numerous cue-combination studies we hypothesized that the reach system would act like a maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE), where the reliability of both cues determines their relative weighting. To predict how these factors might interact we developed an MLE model that weighs egocentric and allocentric information based on their respective reliabilities, and also on an additional stability heuristic. We tested the predictions of this model in 10 human subjects by manipulating landmark stability and reliability (via variable amplitude vibration of the landmarks and variable amplitude gaze shifts) in three reach-to-touch tasks: an egocentric control (reaching without landmarks), an allocentric control (reaching relative to landmarks), and a cue-conflict task (involving a subtle landmark "shift" during the memory interval). Variability from all three experiments was used to derive parameters for the MLE model, which was then used to simulate egocentric-allocentric weighting in the cue-conflict experiment. As predicted by the model, landmark vibration--despite its lack of influence on pointing variability (and thus allocentric reliability) in the control experiment--had a strong influence on egocentric-allocentric weighting. A reduced model without the stability heuristic was unable to reproduce this effect. These results suggest heuristics for extrinsic cue stability are at least as important as reliability for determining cue weighting in memory-guided reaching.
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Leech therapy in cutaneous surgery and disease.
J Drugs Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Over the ages, the use of leeches in medicine has evolved from haphazard bloodletting to a well-understood physiologic process with defined, rational applications.
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What makes a good flap go bad? A critical analysis of the literature of intraoperative factors related to free flap failure.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The purpose of this article is to discuss the various factors related to poor outcome in free flap reconstructions of the head and neck (H&N). Free tissue transfer has become the standard reconstruction technique for complex H&N defects. With the evolution of free flap use in H&N surgery, numerous factors have been proposed that adversely affect flap outcome, many with the support of only anecdotal experience. We seek to critically review the literature to assess what evidence exists for the relation of various intraoperative factors to free flap complications.
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Lip reconstruction.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The upper and lower lips are prominent facial features of significant importance for esthetic and functional reasons. Both lips, but especially the lower lip, are at risk for cutaneous malignancy because of their prominent location. Treatment of such malignancies creates a spectrum of defects that must be meticulously addressed by the reconstructive surgeon. These defects can be classified as small, medium, and large, and the optimal reconstructive method is typically based on this distinction. Depending on the size of the defect and the patient characteristics, reconstructive options include primary closure, local tissue transfer, and free tissue transfer.
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Local flaps I: bilobed, rhombic, and cervicofacial.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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This article is the first in a series focusing on the reconstruction of defects of the head and neck created by the resection of a skin cancer. This series begins with a detailed description of specific types of local flaps, and is followed by articles emphasizing the options for reconstruction by anatomic site. The surgical technique for three workhorse flaps of the face are described: the bilobed flap, rhombic flap, and cervicofacial flaps.
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Evaluation and initial management of the patient with facial skin cancer.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The incidence of skin cancer is on the rise, and facial plastic surgeons are frequently involved in its initial evaluation and management. This article seeks to delineate the important information to be obtained during the history and physical examination of a patient presenting for facial lesion evaluation. The biologic behavior and treatment options are summarized for the most commonly encountered skin cancers-basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
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The politics of nursing care: correcting deviance in accordance with the social contract.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Despite numerous theories, models, and philosophies describing what nurses are and what they do, nursing care is often presented as an apolitical process which primarily focuses on patient needs and priorities. However, it is our position that nursing practice-in all regards-is political. To support this argument, we have drawn on works describing of soft/hard power, pastoral power, stigma, deviance, and governmentality, in addition to explaining our institutional social contract conceptualization of politics. In using these concepts, our political perspective reframes nursing practice as a means by which an individuals potential or actual deviance (meaning a deviation from social norms) can be identified and then corrected.
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Paediatric atypical antipsychotic monitoring safety (PAMS) study: pilot study in children and adolescents in secondary- and tertiary-care settings.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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In the UK, treatment with antipsychotic medications for children is usually initiated by specialists in secondary care. Recent studies have shown an increase in the prescribing of atypical antipsychotics in children. The severity of possible adverse effects to antipsychotics in adults has lead to awareness of the importance of investigating the potential adverse effects of these agents in children. Additionally, there have been many reports proposing that the newer atypical antipsychotics are associated with many of the same adverse effects seen with the older generation drugs in children. The aim of the Paediatric Atypical Antipsychotic Monitoring Safety (PAMS) study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a prospective targeted pharmacovigilance study to monitor adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with atypical antipsychotic therapy in children seen in secondary- and tertiary-care settings.
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Plastic bag asphyxia--a case report.
J Forensic Leg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Suicides due to plastic bag asphyxia have been reported in the literature but remain unusual. The circumstances of such deaths are reviewed and illustrated by the case of a 32-year-old male who was found dead in a lorry cab. The remarkable point is that the victim followed instructions from an American movie he had watched. This case emphasizes the importance of the investigation to determine the manner of death.
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Differential molecular changes in patients with asymptomatic long-segment Barretts esophagus treated by antireflux surgery or medical therapy.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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The Barretts to adenocarcinoma sequence is characterized by molecular changes including activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and related cytokines. In this observational nonrandomized study this molecular environment was compared in matched asymptomatic cohorts who had undergone either fundoplication or therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
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Measuring attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Introduce a novel method for objectively evaluating attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities using an established metric of attention.
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Image-guided titanium implantation for craniofacial prosthetics.
Arch Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Osseointegration implants have revolutionized craniofacial prosthetic reconstruction. Implant placement relies on adequate thickness and quality of bone to permit osseointegration. Positioning the implant is critical in craniofacial reconstruction because surface contours of the prosthesis must be preserved while housing attachment components securely and discretely. Also, the position of the final prosthesis must transition to native tissue smoothly. We report on the use of intraoperative stereotactic image guidance in the placement of implants for orbital, nasal, and auricular prosthetic reconstruction. Clinical data, intraoperative images, and postoperative rehabilitated results are presented to demonstrate the utility of the application of stereotactic image guidance for implant placement. In our experience, stereotactic image guidance facilitates optimal implant site selection if there is abnormal bone quantity or quality.
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Use of customized polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants in the reconstruction of complex maxillofacial defects.
Arch Facial Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Extensive maxillofacial defects resulting from trauma or oncologic resection present reconstructive challenges. Various autografts and alloplastic materials in conjunction with standard soft-tissue techniques have been used in the reconstruction of these types of defects. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a semicrystalline polyaromatic linear polymer exhibiting an excellent combination of strength, stiffness, durability, and environmental resistance. Recent investigations of PEEK as a biomaterial resulted in the successful treatment of cervical disk disease. We describe a series of 4 patients whose defects were reconstructed using customized PEEK implants. All had excellent postoperative aesthetic and functional results without complications such as infections or extrusions. Because PEEK implants are customizable, easily workable, inert, and nonporous, they represent an ideal alloplastic material for maxillofacial reconstruction.
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Self-directed sexually transmitted infection testing: providing noninvasive sexual health services.
Appl Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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A literature review that addressed the possible reasons sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates are increasing indicated that self-directed STI testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia should be trialed. As such, a self-directed STI testing kit was developed and piloted for 6 months, during which 182 bathhouse patrons accessed services from both an on-site nurse and through the self-directed kits. In total, 127 of these individuals presented for testing from the nurse, with the remaining using the self-directed testing kits. Community/Participant feedback indicated that this testing method was a welcome adjunct to traditional services, thus suggesting that self-directed testing should be further explored.
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Include, differentiate and manage: gay male youth, stigma and healthcare utilization.
Nurs Inq
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OBYRNE P and WATTS J. Nursing Inquiry 2012 [Epub ahead of print] Include, differentiate and manage: gay male youth, stigma and healthcare utilization In Canada, there has been a recent increase in HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men. However, gay male youth (GMY) may forego HIV testing due to fear of stigmatization. Therefore, the aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of stigma in health care within this population. The research was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews with eight GMY aged 20-29, who frequented a gay-friendly clinic in downtown Ottawa, Canada. In a sub-analysis of the interviews utilizing the work of Hardt and Negris three-part sequence - inclusion, differentiation and management - we found that homosexuality-related stigmatization affects the interaction between GMY and health professionals. Interview participants perceived HIV-related risk counselling as a manifestation of stigma. These findings reveal that the experience of stigma and stigmatization is not necessarily based on health professionals intentions, but rather, on patients perceptions of the interactions they have with health professionals. Specific modifications to the delivery of health care may help to overcome stigmatization.
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Adjunctive fat grafting to the upper lid and brow.
Clin Plast Surg
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This discussion focuses primarily on lipoatrophy and periorbital deflation in relation to adjunctive fat grafting of the brow and upper eyelid. Like with all clinical information for cosmetic and reconstructive surgeons in this multidisciplinary review of rejuvenation of the brow and upper lid, the authors present anatomy, evaluation, patient expectations, technique, and complications - here, specifically in terms of fat grafting and its associated aspects of fat transfer and relocation and autologous fat, along with hyaluronic acid fillers. Fat harvest and preparation are also described in detail.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.