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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genome sequencing of 15 clinical Vibrio isolates, including 13 non-o1/non-o139 serogroup strains.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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We present draft genome sequences of 15 clinical Vibrio isolates of various serogroups. These are valuable data for use in studying Vibrio cholerae genetic diversity, epidemic potential, and strain attribution.
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Improved assemblies using a source-agnostic pipeline for MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge) of contigs.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Assembly of metagenomic samples is a very complex process, with algorithms designed to address sequencing platform-specific issues, (read length, data volume, and/or community complexity), while also faced with genomes that differ greatly in nucleotide compositional biases and in abundance. To address these issues, we have developed a post-assembly process: MetaGenomic Assembly by Merging (MeGAMerge). We compare this process to the performance of several assemblers, using both real, and in-silico generated samples of different community composition and complexity. MeGAMerge consistently outperforms individual assembly methods, producing larger contigs with an increased number of predicted genes, without replication of data. MeGAMerge contigs are supported by read mapping and contig alignment data, when using synthetically-derived and real metagenomic data, as well as by gene prediction analyses and similarity searches. MeGAMerge is a flexible method that generates improved metagenome assemblies, with the ability to accommodate upcoming sequencing platforms, as well as present and future assembly algorithms.
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Draft Genome Assembly of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and therefore high-quality genome assemblies for this organism are needed to aid in detection, diagnostic, and treatment technologies. Here we present the improved draft assembly of A. baumannii ATCC 19606 in two scaffolds. This 3,953,621-bp genome contains 3,750 coding regions and has a 39.1% G+C content.
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Genomic encyclopedia of bacteria and archaea: sequencing a myriad of type strains.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Microbes hold the key to life. They hold the secrets to our past (as the descendants of the earliest forms of life) and the prospects for our future (as we mine their genes for solutions to some of the planet's most pressing problems, from global warming to antibiotic resistance). However, the piecemeal approach that has defined efforts to study microbial genetic diversity for over 20 years and in over 30,000 genome projects risks squandering that promise. These efforts have covered less than 20% of the diversity of the cultured archaeal and bacterial species, which represent just 15% of the overall known prokaryotic diversity. Here we call for the funding of a systematic effort to produce a comprehensive genomic catalog of all cultured Bacteria and Archaea by sequencing, where available, the type strain of each species with a validly published name (currently?11,000). This effort will provide an unprecedented level of coverage of our planet's genetic diversity, allow for the large-scale discovery of novel genes and functions, and lead to an improved understanding of microbial evolution and function in the environment.
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Rapid evaluation and quality control of next generation sequencing data with FaQCs.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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BackgroundNext generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that parallelize the sequencing process and produce thousands to millions, or even hundreds of millions of sequences in a single sequencing run, have revolutionized genomic and genetic research. Because of the vagaries of any platform¿s sequencing chemistry, the experimental processing, machine failure, and so on, the quality of sequencing reads is never perfect, and often declines as the read is extended. These errors invariably affect downstream analysis/application and should therefore be identified early on to mitigate any unforeseen effects.ResultsHere we present a novel FastQ Quality Control Software (FaQCs) that can rapidly process large volumes of data, and which improves upon previous solutions to monitor the quality and remove poor quality data from sequencing runs. Both the speed of processing and the required memory footprint of storing all required information have been optimized via algorithmic and parallel processing solutions. The trimmed output compared side-by-side with the original data is part of the automated PDF output. We show how this tool can help data analysis by providing a few examples, including an increased percentage of reads recruited to references, improved single nucleotide polymorphism identification as well as de novo sequence assembly metrics.ConclusionFaQCs combines several features of currently available applications into a single, user-friendly process, and includes additional unique capabilities such as filtering the PhiX control sequences, conversion of FASTQ formats, and multi-threading. The original data and trimmed summaries are reported within a variety of graphics and reports, providing a simple way to do data quality control and assurance.
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Genome Sequences of Two Carbapenemase-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 Isolates.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Klebsiella pneumoniae, an ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen, has acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes and is becoming a serious public health threat. Here, we report the genome sequences of two representative strains of K. pneumoniae from the emerging K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) outbreak in northeast Ohio belonging to sequence type 258 (ST258) (isolates Kb140 and Kb677, which were isolated from blood and urine, respectively). Both isolates harbor a blaKPC gene, and strain Kb140 carries blaKPC-2, while Kb677 carries blaKPC-3.
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Standards for sequencing viral genomes in the era of high-throughput sequencing.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Thanks to high-throughput sequencing technologies, genome sequencing has become a common component in nearly all aspects of viral research; thus, we are experiencing an explosion in both the number of available genome sequences and the number of institutions producing such data. However, there are currently no common standards used to convey the quality, and therefore utility, of these various genome sequences. Here, we propose five "standard" categories that encompass all stages of viral genome finishing, and we define them using simple criteria that are agnostic to the technology used for sequencing. We also provide genome finishing recommendations for various downstream applications, keeping in mind the cost-benefit trade-offs associated with different levels of finishing. Our goal is to define a common vocabulary that will allow comparison of genome quality across different research groups, sequencing platforms, and assembly techniques.
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Genome analysis of Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae strain Groll(T) a highly versatile Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacterium.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae is a mesophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum within the family Peptococcaceae. This bacterium was isolated from a freshwater ditch and is of interest because it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, in particular several aromatic compounds, short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate and slowly acetogenically with H2 + CO2, formate or methoxylated aromatic compounds in the absence of sulfate. It does not require any vitamins for growth. Here, we describe the features of D. gibsoniae strain Groll(T) together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 4,855,529 bp organized in one circular contig and is the largest genome of all sequenced Desulfotomaculum spp. to date. A total of 4,666 candidate protein-encoding genes and 96 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth, are present. The genome contains a large set of genes for the anaerobic transformation and degradation of aromatic compounds, which are lacking in the other sequenced Desulfotomaculum genomes.
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Complete Genome sequence of Burkholderia phymatum STM815(T), a broad host range and efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa species.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Burkholderia phymatum is a soil bacterium able to develop a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with species of the legume genus Mimosa, and is frequently found associated specifically with Mimosa pudica. The type strain of the species, STM 815(T), was isolated from a root nodule in French Guiana in 2000. The strain is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, and is a highly competitive strain for nodulation compared to other Mimosa symbionts, as it also nodulates a broad range of other legume genera and species. The 8,676,562 bp genome is composed of two chromosomes (3,479,187 and 2,697,374 bp), a megaplasmid (1,904,893 bp) and a plasmid hosting the symbiotic functions (595,108 bp).
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Genome sequence and emended description of Leisingera nanhaiensis strain DSM 24252(T) isolated from marine sediment.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Leisingera nanhaiensis DSM 24252(T) is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped marine Alphaproteobacterium, isolated from sandy marine sediments. Here we present the non-contiguous genome sequence and annotation together with a summary of the organism's phenotypic features. The 4,948,550 bp long genome with its 4,832 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and six extrachromosomal elements with lengths of 236 kb, 92 kb, 61 kb, 58 kb, 56 kb, and 35 kb, respectively. The analysis of the genome showed that DSM 24252(T) possesses all genes necessary for dissimilatory nitrite reduction, and the strain was shown to be facultatively anaerobic, a deviation from the original description that calls for an emendation of the species. Also present in the genome are genes coding for a putative prophage, for gene-transfer agents and for the utilization of methylated amines. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that L. nanhaiensis might not belong to the genus Leisingera.
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Genome analyses of the carboxydotrophic sulfate-reducers Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and Desulfotomaculum carboxydivorans and reclassification of Desulfotomaculum caboxydivorans as a later synonym of Desulfotomaculum nigrificans.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans are moderately thermophilic members of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae. They are phylogenetically very closely related and belong to 'subgroup a' of the Desulfotomaculum cluster 1. D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans have a similar growth substrate spectrum; they can grow with glucose and fructose as electron donors in the presence of sulfate. Additionally, both species are able to ferment fructose, although fermentation of glucose is only reported for D. carboxydivorans. D. nigrificans is able to grow with 20% carbon monoxide (CO) coupled to sulfate reduction, while D. carboxydivorans can grow at 100% CO with and without sulfate. Hydrogen is produced during growth with CO by D. carboxydivorans. Here we present a summary of the features of D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans together with the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of both strains. Moreover, we compared the genomes of both strains to reveal their differences. This comparison led us to propose a reclassification of D. carboxydivorans as a later heterotypic synonym of D. nigrificans.
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Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1115; an acid-tolerant Medicago-nodulating microsymbiont from Samothraki, Greece.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Ensifer medicae strain WSM1115 forms effective nitrogen fixing symbioses with a range of annual Medicago species and is used in commercial inoculants in Australia. WSM1115 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. It was isolated from a nodule recovered from the root of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha) collected on the Greek Island of Samothraki. WSM1115 has a broad host range for nodulation and N2 fixation capacity within the genus Medicago, although this does not extend to all medic species. WSM1115 is considered saprophytically competent in moderately acid soils (pH(CaCl2) 5.0), but it has failed to persist at field sites where soil salinity exceeded 10 ECe (dS/m). Here we describe the features of E. medicae strain WSM1115, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,861,065 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 28 contigs, contains 6,789 protein-coding genes and 83 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.
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Complete Genome Sequences of Two Escherichia coli O145:H28 Outbreak Strains of Food Origin.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Escherichia coli O145:H28 strain RM12581 was isolated from bagged romaine lettuce during a 2010 U.S. lettuce-associated outbreak. E. coli O145:H28 strain RM12761 was isolated from ice cream during a 2007 ice cream-associated outbreak in Belgium. Here we report the complete genome sequences and annotation of both strains.
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Ecological roles of dominant and rare prokaryotes in acid mine drainage revealed by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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High-throughput sequencing is expanding our knowledge of microbial diversity in the environment. Still, understanding the metabolic potentials and ecological roles of rare and uncultured microbes in natural communities remains a major challenge. To this end, we applied a 'divide and conquer' strategy that partitioned a massive metagenomic data set (>100?Gbp) into subsets based on K-mer frequency in sequence assembly to a low-diversity acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial community and, by integrating with an additional metatranscriptomic assembly, successfully obtained 11 draft genomes most of which represent yet uncultured and/or rare taxa (relative abundance <1%). We report the first genome of a naturally occurring Ferrovum population (relative abundance >90%) and its metabolic potentials and gene expression profile, providing initial molecular insights into the ecological role of these lesser known, but potentially important, microorganisms in the AMD environment. Gene transcriptional analysis of the active taxa revealed major metabolic capabilities executed in situ, including carbon- and nitrogen-related metabolisms associated with syntrophic interactions, iron and sulfur oxidation, which are key in energy conservation and AMD generation, and the mechanisms of adaptation and response to the environmental stresses (heavy metals, low pH and oxidative stress). Remarkably, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation were performed by the rare taxa, indicating their critical roles in the overall functioning and assembly of the AMD community. Our study demonstrates the potential of the 'divide and conquer' strategy in high-throughput sequencing data assembly for genome reconstruction and functional partitioning analysis of both dominant and rare species in natural microbial assemblages.
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Comparative genomics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145:H28 demonstrates a common evolutionary lineage with Escherichia coli O157:H7.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Although serotype O157:H7 is the predominant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC that cause severe foodborne illness, including hemolytic uremic syndrome have increased worldwide. In fact, non-O157 serotypes are now estimated to cause over half of all the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cases, and outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC infections are frequently associated with serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Currently, there are no complete genomes for O145 in public databases.
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Genomic and metabolic diversity of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota in the mesopelagic of two subtropical gyres.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota are one of the most abundant and cosmopolitan chemoautotrophs within the global dark ocean. To date, no representatives of this archaeal group retrieved from the dark ocean have been successfully cultured. We used single cell genomics to investigate the genomic and metabolic diversity of thaumarchaea within the mesopelagic of the subtropical North Pacific and South Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic and metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that MGI single amplified genomes (SAGs) are genetically and biogeographically distinct from existing thaumarchaea cultures obtained from surface waters. Confirming prior studies, we found genes encoding proteins for aerobic ammonia oxidation and the hydrolysis of urea, which may be used for energy production, as well as genes involved in 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate and oxidative tricarboxylic acid pathways. A large proportion of protein sequences identified in MGI SAGs were absent in the marine cultures Cenarchaeum symbiosum and Nitrosopumilus maritimus, thus expanding the predicted protein space for this archaeal group. Identifiable genes located on genomic islands with low metagenome recruitment capacity were enriched in cellular defense functions, likely in response to viral infections or grazing. We show that MGI Thaumarchaeota in the dark ocean may have more flexibility in potential energy sources and adaptations to biotic interactions than the existing, surface-ocean cultures.
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Recruiting human microbiome shotgun data to site-specific reference genomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The human body consists of innumerable multifaceted environments that predispose colonization by a number of distinct microbial communities, which play fundamental roles in human health and disease. In addition to community surveys and shotgun metagenomes that seek to explore the composition and diversity of these microbiomes, there are significant efforts to sequence reference microbial genomes from many body sites of healthy adults. To illustrate the utility of reference genomes when studying more complex metagenomes, we present a reference-based analysis of sequence reads generated from 55 shotgun metagenomes, selected from 5 major body sites, including 16 sub-sites. Interestingly, between 13% and 92% (62.3% average) of these shotgun reads were aligned to a then-complete list of 2780 reference genomes, including 1583 references for the human microbiome. However, no reference genome was universally found in all body sites. For any given metagenome, the body site-specific reference genomes, derived from the same body site as the sample, accounted for an average of 58.8% of the mapped reads. While different body sites did differ in abundant genera, proximal or symmetrical body sites were found to be most similar to one another. The extent of variation observed, both between individuals sampled within the same microenvironment, or at the same site within the same individual over time, calls into question comparative studies across individuals even if sampled at the same body site. This study illustrates the high utility of reference genomes and the need for further site-specific reference microbial genome sequencing, even within the already well-sampled human microbiome.
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Soil microbial community responses to a decade of warming as revealed by comparative metagenomics.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Soil microbial communities are extremely complex, composed of thousands of low-abundance species (<0.1% of total). How such complex communities respond to natural or human-induced fluctuations, including major perturbations such as global climate change, remains poorly understood, severely limiting our predictive ability of soil ecosystem functioning and resilience. In this study, we compared twelve whole-community shotgun metagenomic datasets from a grassland soil in Midwest USA; half representing soil that was undergoing infrared warming by 2°C for 10 years, which simulated the effects of climate change, and the other half representing the adjacent soil that received no warming and thus, served as control. Our analyses revealed that the heated communities showed significant shifts in composition and predicted metabolism, and these shifts were community-wide as opposed to being attributable to a few taxa. Key metabolic pathways related to carbon turnover, e.g., cellulose degradation (?13%) and CO2 production (?10%), and nitrogen, e.g., denitrification (?12%), were enriched under warming, which was consistent with independent physicochemical measurements. These community shifts were interlinked, in part, with higher primary productivity of the aboveground plant communities stimulated by warming, revealing that most of the additional, plant-derived soil carbon was likely respired by microbial activity. Warming also enriched for a higher abundance of sporulation genes and genomes with higher G+C% content. Collectively, our results indicate that the microbial communities of the temperate grassland soils play important roles in mediating the feedback responses to climate change and advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms of community adaptation to environmental perturbations.
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Draft Genome Sequence and Description of Janthinobacterium sp. Strain CG3, a Psychrotolerant Antarctic Supraglacial Stream Bacterium.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Here we present the draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain CG3, a psychrotolerant non-violacein-producing bacterium that was isolated from the Cotton Glacier supraglacial stream. The genome sequence of this organism will provide insight as to the mechanisms necessary for bacteria to survive in UV-stressed icy environments.
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Polynucleobacter necessarius, a model for genome reduction in both free-living and symbiotic bacteria.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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We present the complete genomic sequence of the essential symbiont Polynucleobacter necessarius (Betaproteobacteria), which is a valuable case study for several reasons. First, it is hosted by a ciliated protist, Euplotes; bacterial symbionts of ciliates are still poorly known because of a lack of extensive molecular data. Second, the single species P. necessarius contains both symbiotic and free-living strains, allowing for a comparison between closely related organisms with different ecologies. Third, free-living P. necessarius strains are exceptional by themselves because of their small genome size, reduced metabolic flexibility, and high worldwide abundance in freshwater systems. We provide a comparative analysis of P. necessarius metabolism and explore the peculiar features of a genome reduction that occurred on an already streamlined genome. We compare this unusual system with current hypotheses for genome erosion in symbionts and free-living bacteria, propose modifications to the presently accepted model, and discuss the potential consequences of translesion DNA polymerase loss.
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Genome sequences for three denitrifying bacterial strains isolated from a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated subsurface environment.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Genome sequences for three strains of denitrifying bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria-Afipia sp. strain 1NLS2 and Hyphomicrobium denitrificans strain 1NES1; Firmicutes-Bacillus sp. strain 1NLA3E) isolated from the nitrate- and uranium-contaminated subsurface of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site, Oak Ridge Reservation, TN, are reported.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Methylomicrobium buryatense Strain 5G, a Haloalkaline-Tolerant Methanotrophic Bacterium.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Robust growth of the gammaproteobacterium Methylomicrobium buryatense strain 5G on methane makes it an attractive system for CH4-based biocatalysis. Here we present a draft genome sequence of the strain that will provide a valuable framework for metabolic engineering of the core pathways for the production of valuable chemicals from methane.
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Genome Sequences of Two Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Different Geographical Regions, Argentina (Strain JHCK1) and the United States (Strain VA360).
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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We report the sequences of two Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, strains JHCK1 and VA360, from a newborn with meningitis in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and from a tertiary care medical center in Cleveland, OH, respectively. Both isolates contain one chromosome and at least five plasmids; isolate VA360 contains the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Producing Pseudomonas putida Strain LS46.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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We describe the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas putida strain LS46, a novel isolate that synthesizes medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates. The draft genome of P. putida LS46 consists of approximately 5.86 million bp, with a G+C content of 61.69%. A total of 5,316 annotated genes and 5,219 coding sequences (CDS) were identified.
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Genome analysis of Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii strain 17(T) reveals a physiological similarity with Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum strain SI(T).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii is a moderately thermophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it originates from deep subsurface thermal mineral water at a depth of about 3,000 m. D. kuznetsovii is a rather versatile bacterium as it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, including short-chain and long-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow methylotrophically with methanol and sulfate and autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate. For growth it does not require any vitamins. Here, we describe the features of D. kuznetsovii together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 3,601,386 bp organized in one contig. A total of 3,567 candidate protein-encoding genes and 58 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth with acetate and methanol, and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth are present. Genomic comparison revealed that D. kuznetsovii shows a high similarity with Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum. Genes involved in propionate metabolism of these two strains show a strong similarity. However, main differences are found in genes involved in the electron acceptor metabolism.
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Single-cell and metagenomic analyses indicate a fermentative and saccharolytic lifestyle for members of the OP9 lineage.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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OP9 is a yet-uncultivated bacterial lineage found in geothermal systems, petroleum reservoirs, anaerobic digesters and wastewater treatment facilities. Here we use single-cell and metagenome sequencing to obtain two distinct, nearly complete OP9 genomes, one constructed from single cells sorted from hot spring sediments and the other derived from binned metagenomic contigs from an in situ-enriched cellulolytic, thermophilic community. Phylogenomic analyses support the designation of OP9 as a candidate phylum for which we propose the name Atribacteria. Although a plurality of predicted proteins is most similar to those from Firmicutes, the presence of key genes suggests a diderm cell envelope. Metabolic reconstruction from the core genome suggests an anaerobic lifestyle based on sugar fermentation by Embden-Meyerhof glycolysis with production of hydrogen, acetate and ethanol. Putative glycohydrolases and an endoglucanase may enable catabolism of (hemi)cellulose in thermal environments. This study lays a foundation for understanding the physiology and ecological role of the Atribacteria.
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Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism.
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Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.
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Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, an atypical, noninfective (Nod-) ineffective (Fix-) isolate from Coriaria nepalensis.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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We report here the genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, which was isolated from Coriaria nepalensis. This genome sequence is the first from the fourth lineage of Frankia, strains of which are unable to reinfect actinorhizal plants. At 10 Mb, it represents the largest Frankia genome sequenced to date.
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Nearly finished genomes produced using gel microdroplet culturing reveal substantial intraspecies genomic diversity within the human microbiome.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The majority of microbial genomic diversity remains unexplored. This is largely due to our inability to culture most microorganisms in isolation, which is a prerequisite for traditional genome sequencing. Single-cell sequencing has allowed researchers to circumvent this limitation. DNA is amplified directly from a single cell using the whole-genome amplification technique of multiple displacement amplification (MDA). However, MDA from a single chromosome copy suffers from amplification bias and a large loss of specificity from even very small amounts of DNA contamination, which makes assembling a genome difficult and completely finishing a genome impossible except in extraordinary circumstances. Gel microdrop cultivation allows culturing of a diverse microbial community and provides hundreds to thousands of genetically identical cells as input for an MDA reaction. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by comparing sequencing results of gel microdroplets and single cells following MDA. Bias is reduced in the MDA reaction and genome sequencing, and assembly is greatly improved when using gel microdroplets. We acquired multiple near-complete genomes for two bacterial species from human oral and stool microbiome samples. A significant amount of genome diversity, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and genome recombination, is discovered. Gel microdroplets offer a powerful and high-throughput technology for assembling whole genomes from complex samples and for probing the pan-genome of naturally occurring populations.
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A novel metatranscriptomic approach to identify gene expression dynamics during extracellular electron transfer.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Microbial respiration via extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a ubiquitous reaction that occurs throughout anoxic environments and is a driving force behind global biogeochemical cycling of metals. Here we identify specific EET-active microbes and genes in a diverse biofilm using an innovative approach to analyse the dynamic community-wide response to changing EET rates. We find that the most significant gene expression responses to applied EET stimuli occur in only two microbial groups, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfuromonadales. Metagenomic analyses reveal high coverage draft genomes of these abundant and active microbes. Our metatranscriptomic results show known and unknown genes that are highly responsive to EET stimuli and associated with our identified draft genomes. This new approach yields a comprehensive image of functional microbes and genes related to EET activity in a diverse community, representing the next step towards unravelling complex microbial roles within a community and how microbes adapt to specific environmental stimuli.
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Microbial community adaptation to quaternary ammonium biocides as revealed by metagenomics.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) represent widely used cationic biocides that persist in natural environments. Although microbial degradation, sensitivity and resistance to QACs have been extensively documented, a quantitative understanding of how whole communities adapt to QAC exposure remain elusive. To gain insights into these issues, we exposed a microbial community from a contaminated river sediment to varied levels of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs, a family of QACs) for 3 years. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that the BAC-fed communities were dramatically decreased in phylogenetic diversity compared with the control (no BAC exposure), resulting presumably from BAC toxicity, and dominated by Pseudomonas species (> 50% of the total). Time-course metagenomics revealed that community adaptation occurred primarily via selective enrichment of BAC-degrading Pseudomonas populations, particularly P. nitroreducens, and secondarily via amino acid substitutions and horizontal transfer of a few selected genes in the Pseudomonas populations, including a gene encoding a PAS/PAC sensor protein and ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes. P. nitroreducens isolates were reproducibly recoverable from communities after prolonged periods of no-BAC exposure, suggesting that they are robust BAC-degraders. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms and tempo of microbial community adaptation to QAC exposure and has implications for treating QACs in biological engineered systems.
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Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.
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Comparative genome analysis of Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reveals a wide spectrum of endophytic lifestyles based on interaction strategies with host plants.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a naturally occurring plant-associated bacterial endophyte that effectively colonizes a wide range of plants and stimulates their growth and vitality. Here we analyze whole genomes, of PsJN and of eight other endophytic bacteria. This study illustrates that a wide spectrum of endophytic life styles exists. Although we postulate the existence of typical endophytic traits, no unique gene cluster could be exclusively linked to the endophytic lifestyle. Furthermore, our study revealed a high genetic diversity among bacterial endophytes as reflected in their genotypic and phenotypic features. B. phytofirmans PsJN is in many aspects outstanding among the selected endophytes. It has the biggest genome consisting of two chromosomes and one plasmid, well-equipped with genes for the degradation of complex organic compounds and detoxification, e.g., 24 glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes. Furthermore, strain PsJN has a high number of cell surface signaling and secretion systems and harbors the 3-OH-PAME quorum-sensing system that coordinates the switch of free-living to the symbiotic lifestyle in the plant-pathogen R. solanacearum. The ability of B. phytofirmans PsJN to successfully colonize such a wide variety of plant species might be based on its large genome harboring a broad range of physiological functions.
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Pathogen comparative genomics in the next-generation sequencing era: genome alignments, pangenomics and metagenomics.
Brief Funct Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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As soon as whole-genome sequencing entered the scene in the mid-1990s and demonstrated its use in revealing the entire genetic potential of any given microbial organism, this technique immediately revolutionized the way pathogen (and many other fields of) research was carried out. The ability to perform whole-genome comparisons further transformed the field and allowed scientists to obtain information linking phenotypic dissimilarities among closely related organisms and their underlying genetic mechanisms. Such comparisons have become commonplace in examining strain-to-strain variability, as well as comparing pathogens to less, or nonpathogenic near neighbors. In recent years, a bloom in novel sequencing technologies along with continuous increases in throughput has occurred, inundating the field with various types of massively parallel sequencing data and further transforming comparative genomics research. Here, we review the evolution of comparative genomics, its impact in understanding pathogen evolution and physiology and the opportunities and challenges presented by next-generation sequencing as applied to pathogen genome comparisons.
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Next generation sequencing and bioinformatic bottlenecks: the current state of metagenomic data analysis.
Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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The recent technological advances in next generation sequencing have brought the field closer to the goal of reconstructing all genomes within a community by presenting high throughput sequencing at much lower costs. While these next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed a massive increase in available raw sequence data, there are a number of new informatics challenges and difficulties that must be addressed to improve the current state, and fulfill the promise of, metagenomics.
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Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no caries-specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were caries associated, that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis.
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Genome of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus FGP-2, a photosynthetic ecosystem engineer of arid land soil biocrusts worldwide.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The filamentous cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatusis found in arid land soils worldwide. The genome of M. vaginatus strain FGP-2 allows exploration of genes involved in photosynthesis, desiccation tolerance, alkane production, and other features contributing to this organisms ability to function as a major component of biological soil crusts in arid lands.
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Genome of Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC 49188 T, a versatile opportunistic pathogen and symbiont of several eukaryotic hosts.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Ochrobactrum anthropi is a common soil alphaproteobacterium that colonizes a wide spectrum of organisms and is being increasingly recognized as an opportunistic human pathogen. Potentially life-threatening infections, such as endocarditis, are included in the list of reported O. anthropi infections. These reports, together with the scant number of studies and the organisms phylogenetic proximity to the highly pathogenic brucellae, make O. anthropi an attractive model of bacterial pathogenicity. Here we report the genome sequence of the type strain O. anthropi ATCC 49188, which revealed the presence of two chromosomes and four plasmids.
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Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications.
Pelin Yilmaz, Renzo Kottmann, Dawn Field, Rob Knight, James R Cole, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Jack A Gilbert, Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi, Anjanette Johnston, Guy Cochrane, Robert Vaughan, Christopher Hunter, Joonhong Park, Norman Morrison, Philippe Rocca-Serra, Peter Sterk, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Mark Bailey, Laura Baumgartner, Bruce W Birren, Martin J Blaser, Vivien Bonazzi, Tim Booth, Peer Bork, Frederic D Bushman, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Patrick S G Chain, Emily Charlson, Elizabeth K Costello, Heather Huot-Creasy, Peter Dawyndt, Todd DeSantis, Noah Fierer, Jed A Fuhrman, Rachel E Gallery, Dirk Gevers, Richard A Gibbs, Inigo San Gil, Antonio Gonzalez, Jeffrey I Gordon, Robert Guralnick, Wolfgang Hankeln, Sarah Highlander, Philip Hugenholtz, Janet Jansson, Andrew L Kau, Scott T Kelley, Jerry Kennedy, Dan Knights, Omry Koren, Justin Kuczynski, Nikos Kyrpides, Robert Larsen, Christian L Lauber, Teresa Legg, Ruth E Ley, Catherine A Lozupone, Wolfgang Ludwig, Donna Lyons, Eamonn Maguire, Barbara A Methé, Folker Meyer, Brian Muegge, Sara Nakielny, Karen E Nelson, Diana Nemergut, Josh D Neufeld, Lindsay K Newbold, Anna E Oliver, Norman R Pace, Giriprakash Palanisamy, Jörg Peplies, Joseph Petrosino, Lita Proctor, Elmar Pruesse, Christian Quast, Jeroen Raes, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Jacques Ravel, David A Relman, Susanna Assunta-Sansone, Patrick D Schloss, Lynn Schriml, Rohini Sinha, Michelle I Smith, Erica Sodergren, Aymé Spo, Jesse Stombaugh, James M Tiedje, Doyle V Ward, George M Weinstock, Doug Wendel, Owen White, Andrew Whiteley, Andreas Wilke, Jennifer R Wortman, Tanya Yatsunenko, Frank Oliver Glöckner.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences--the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The environmental packages apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.
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Complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN(T) is able to efficiently colonize the rhizosphere, root, and above-ground plant tissues of a wide variety of genetically unrelated plants, such as potatoes, canola, maize, and grapevines. Strain PsJN shows strong plant growth-promoting effects and was reported to enhance plant vigor and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which indicates the presence of multiple traits relevant for endophytic colonization and plant growth promotion.
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Genomics for key players in the N cycle from guinea pigs to the next frontier.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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While sequencing methods were available in the late 1970s, it was not until the human genome project and a significant influx of funds for such research that this technology became high throughput. The fields of microbiology and microbial ecology, among many others, have been tremendously impacted over the years, to such an extent that the determination of complete microbial genome sequences is now commonplace. Given the lower costs of next-generation sequencing platforms, even small laboratories from around the world will be able to generate millions of base pairs of data, equivalent to entire genomes worth of sequence information. With this prospect just around the corner, it is timely to provide an overview of the genomics process: from sample preparation to some of the analytical methods used to gain functional knowledge from sequence information.
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Nitrosococcus watsonii sp. nov., a new species of marine obligate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria that is not omnipresent in the worlds oceans: calls to validate the names Nitrosococcus halophilus and Nitrosomonas mobilis.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Local associations between anammox bacteria and obligate aerobic bacteria in the genus Nitrosococcus appear to be significant for ammonia oxidation in oxygen minimum zones. The literature on the genus Nitrosococcus in the Chromatiaceae family of purple sulfur bacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Chromatiales) contains reports on four described species, Nitrosococcus nitrosus, Nitrosococcus oceani, Nitrosococcus halophilus and Nitrosomonas mobilis, of which only N. nitrosus and N. oceani are validly published names and only N. oceani is omnipresent in the worlds oceans. The species N. halophilus with Nc4(T) as the type strain was proposed in 1990, but the species is not validly published. Phylogenetic analyses of signature genes, growth-physiological studies and an average nucleotide identity analysis between N. oceani ATCC19707(T) (C-107, Nc9), N. halophilus strain Nc4(T) and Nitrosococcus sp. strain C-113 revealed that a proposal for a new species is warranted. Therefore, the provisional taxonomic assignment Nitrosococcus watsonii is proposed for Nitrosococcus sp. strain C-113(T) . Sequence analysis of Nitrosococcus haoAB signature genes detected in cultures enriched from Jiaozhou Bay sediments (China) identified only N. oceani-type sequences, suggesting that different patterns of distribution in the environment correlate with speciation in the genus Nitrosococcus.
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The genome of Akkermansia muciniphila, a dedicated intestinal mucin degrader, and its use in exploring intestinal metagenomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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The human gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, fulfilling important health-promoting functions. However, this vast complexity of species hampers the assignment of responsible organisms to these functions. Recently, Akkermansia muciniphila, a new species from the deeply branched phylum Verrucomicrobia, was isolated from the human intestinal tract based on its capacity to efficiently use mucus as a carbon and nitrogen source. This anaerobic resident is associated with the protective mucus lining of the intestines.
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Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM1325, an effective microsymbiont of annual Mediterranean clovers.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is a soil-inhabiting bacterium that has the capacity to be an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM1325 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from root nodules collected in 1993 from the Greek Island of Serifos. WSM1325 is produced commercially in Australia as an inoculant for a broad range of annual clovers of Mediterranean origin due to its superior attributes of saprophytic competence, nitrogen fixation and acid-tolerance. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a microsymbiont of annual clovers. We reveal that its genome size is 7,418,122 bp encoding 7,232 protein-coding genes and 61 RNA-only encoding genes. This multipartite genome contains 6 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,767,043 bp and 5 plasmids of size 828,924 bp, 660,973 bp, 516,088 bp, 350,312 bp and 294,782 bp.
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Complete genome sequence of Archaeoglobus profundus type strain (AV18).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Archaeoglobus profundus (Burggraf et al. 1990) is a hyperthermophilic archaeon in the euryarchaeal class Archaeoglobi, which is currently represented by the single family Archaeoglobaceae, containing six validly named species and two strains ascribed to the genus Geoglobus which is taxonomically challenged as the corresponding type species has no validly published name. All members were isolated from marine hydrothermal habitats and are obligate anaerobes. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the class Archaeoglobi. The 1,563,423 bp genome with its 1,858 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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The United States of America and scientific research.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the Peoples Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This studys aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"
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Complete genome sequence of Conexibacter woesei type strain (ID131577).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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The genus Conexibacter (Monciardini et al. 2003) represents the type genus of the family Conexibacteraceae (Stackebrandt 2005, emend. Zhi et al. 2009) with Conexibacter woesei as the type species of the genus. C. woesei is a representative of a deep evolutionary line of descent within the class Actinobacteria. Strain ID131577(T) was originally isolated from temperate forest soil in Gerenzano (Italy). Cells are small, short rods that are motile by peritrichous flagella. They may form aggregates after a longer period of growth and, then as a typical characteristic, an undulate structure is formed by self-aggregation of flagella with entangled bacterial cells. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete sequence and annotation. The 6,359,369 bp long genome of C. woesei contains 5,950 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Kribbella flavida type strain (IFO 14399).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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The genus Kribbella consists of 15 species, with Kribbella flavida (Park et al. 1999) as the type species. The name Kribbella was formed from the acronym of the Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, KRIBB. Strains of the various Kribbella species were originally isolated from soil, potato, alum slate mine, patinas of catacombs or from horse racecourses. Here we describe the features of K. flavida together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. In addition to the 5.3 Mbp genome of Nocardioides sp. JS614, this is only the second completed genome sequence of the family Nocardioidaceae. The 7,579,488 bp long genome with its 7,086 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma linguale type strain (1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Spirosoma linguale Migula 1894 is the type species of the genus. S. linguale is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, known for its peculiar ringlike and horseshoe-shaped cell morphology. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is only the third completed genome sequence of a member of the family Cytophagaceae. The 8,491,258 bp long genome with its eight plasmids, 7,069 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum type strain (5175).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Sulfurospirillum deleyianum Schumacher et al. 1993 is the type species of the genus Sulfurospirillum. S. deleyianum is a model organism for studying sulfur reduction and dissimilatory nitrate reduction as an energy source for growth. Also, it is a prominent model organism for studying the structural and functional characteristics of cytochrome c nitrite reductase. Here, we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Sulfurospirillum. The 2,306,351 bp long genome with its 2,291 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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The genome sequence of Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, a psychroactive Siberian permafrost bacterium, reveals mechanisms for adaptation to low-temperature growth.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4, which grows at temperatures as low as -10 degrees C, is the first cold-adapted bacterium from a terrestrial environment whose genome was sequenced. Analysis of the 2.65-Mb genome suggested that some of the strategies employed by P. arcticus 273-4 for survival under cold and stress conditions are changes in membrane composition, synthesis of cold shock proteins, and the use of acetate as an energy source. Comparative genome analysis indicated that in a significant portion of the P. arcticus proteome there is reduced use of the acidic amino acids and proline and arginine, which is consistent with increased protein flexibility at low temperatures. Differential amino acid usage occurred in all gene categories, but it was more common in gene categories essential for cell growth and reproduction, suggesting that P. arcticus evolved to grow at low temperatures. Amino acid adaptations and the gene content likely evolved in response to the long-term freezing temperatures (-10 degrees C to -12 degrees C) of the Kolyma (Siberia) permafrost soil from which this strain was isolated. Intracellular water likely does not freeze at these in situ temperatures, which allows P. arcticus to live at subzero temperatures.
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Complete genome sequence of Haloterrigena turkmenica type strain (4k).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Haloterrigena turkmenica (Zvyagintseva and Tarasov 1987) Ventosa et al. 1999, comb. nov. is the type species of the genus Haloterrigena in the euryarchaeal family Halobacteriaceae. It is of phylogenetic interest because of the yet unclear position of the genera Haloterrigena and Natrinema within the Halobacteriaceae, which created some taxonomic problems historically. H. turkmenica, was isolated from sulfate saline soil in Turkmenistan, is a relatively fast growing, chemoorganotrophic, carotenoid-containing, extreme halophile, requiring at least 2 M NaCl for growth. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Haloterrigena, but the eighth genome sequence from a member of the family Halobacteriaceae. The 5,440,782 bp genome (including six plasmids) with its 5,287 protein-coding and 63 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Chitinophaga pinensis type strain (UQM 2034).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Chitinophaga pinensis Sangkhobol and Skerman 1981 is the type strain of the species which is the type species of the rapidly growing genus Chitinophaga in the sphingobacterial family Chitinophagaceae. Members of the genus Chitinophaga vary in shape between filaments and spherical bodies without the production of a fruiting body, produce myxospores, and are of special interest for their ability to degrade chitin. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Chitinophagaceae, and the 9,127,347 bp long single replicon genome with its 7,397 protein-coding and 95 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of the Medicago microsymbiont Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae strain WSM419.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Medicago (medic) species. Strain WSM419 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from a M. murex root nodule collected in Sardinia, Italy in 1981. WSM419 was manufactured commercially in Australia as an inoculant for annual medics during 1985 to 1993 due to its nitrogen fixation, saprophytic competence and acid tolerance properties. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence for a microsymbiont of the group of annual medic species adapted to acid soils. We reveal that its genome size is 6,817,576 bp encoding 6,518 protein-coding genes and 81 RNA only encoding genes. The genome contains a chromosome of size 3,781,904 bp and 3 plasmids of size 1,570,951 bp, 1,245,408 bp and 219,313 bp. The smallest plasmid is a feature unique to this medic microsymbiont.
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Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii strain WSM2304, an effective microsymbiont of the South American clover Trifolium polymorphum.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is the effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual and perennial Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM2304 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, isolated from Trifolium polymorphum in Uruguay in 1998. This microsymbiont predominated in the perennial grasslands of Glencoe Research Station, in Uruguay, to competitively nodulate its host, and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Here we describe the basic features of WSM2304, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a clover species from the American center of origin. We reveal that its genome size is 6,872,702 bp encoding 6,643 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA only encoding genes. This multipartite genome was found to contain 5 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,537,948 bp and four circular plasmids of size 1,266,105 bp, 501,946 bp, 308,747 bp and 257,956 bp.
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Complete genome sequence of Veillonella parvula type strain (Te3).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Veillonella parvula (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Prévot 1933 is the type species of the genus Veillonella in the family Veillonellaceae within the order Clostridiales. The species V. parvula is of interest because it is frequently isolated from dental plaque in the human oral cavity and can cause opportunistic infections. The species is strictly anaerobic and grows as small cocci which usually occur in pairs. Veillonellae are characterized by their unusual metabolism which is centered on the activity of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Strain Te3(T), the type strain of the species, was isolated from the human intestinal tract. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the large clostridial family Veillonellaceae, and the 2,132,142 bp long single replicon genome with its 1,859 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Sphaerobacter thermophilus type strain (S 6022).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Sphaerobacter thermophilus Demharter et al. 1989 is the sole and type species of the genus Sphaerobacter, which is the type genus of the family Sphaerobacteraceae, the order Sphaerobacterales and the subclass Sphaerobacteridae. Phylogenetically, it belongs to the genomically little studied class of the Thermomicrobia in the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi. Here, the genome of strain S 6022(T) is described which is an obligate aerobe that was originally isolated from an aerated laboratory-scale fermentor that was pulse fed with municipal sewage sludge. We describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the thermomicrobial subclass Sphaerobacteridae, and the second sequence from the chloroflexal class Thermomicrobia. The 3,993,764 bp genome with its 3,525 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfohalobium retbaense type strain (HR(100)).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Desulfohalobium retbaense (Ollivier et al. 1991) is the type species of the polyphyletic genus Desulfohalobium, which comprises, at the time of writing, two species and represents the family Desulfohalobiaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria. D. retbaense is a moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, which can utilize H(2) and a limited range of organic substrates, which are incompletely oxidized to acetate and CO(2), for growth. The type strain HR(100) (T) was isolated from sediments of the hypersaline Retba Lake in Senegal. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the family Desulfohalobiaceae. The 2,909,567 bp genome (one chromosome and a 45,263 bp plasmid) with its 2,552 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Streptosporangium roseum type strain (NI 9100).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Streptosporangium roseum Crauch 1955 is the type strain of the species which is the type species of the genus Streptosporangium. The pinkish coiled Streptomyces-like organism with a spore case was isolated from vegetable garden soil in 1955. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the family Streptosporangiaceae, and the second largest microbial genome sequence ever deciphered. The 10,369,518 bp long genome with its 9421 protein-coding and 80 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Gordonia bronchialis type strain (3410).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Gordonia bronchialis Tsukamura 1971 is the type species of the genus. G. bronchialis is a human-pathogenic organism that has been isolated from a large variety of human tissues. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the family Gordoniaceae. The 5,290,012 bp long genome with its 4,944 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius type strain (104-IA).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Darland and Brock 1971) is the type species of the larger of the two genera in the bacillal family Alicyclobacillaceae. A. acidocaldarius is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, but may also be associated with food and fruit spoilage. Due to its acidophilic nature, several enzymes from this species have since long been subjected to detailed molecular and biochemical studies. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the family Alicyclobacillaceae. The 3,205,686 bp long genome (chromosome and three plasmids) with its 3,153 protein-coding and 82 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Xylanimonas cellulosilytica type strain (XIL07).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Xylanimonas cellulosilytica Rivas et al. 2003 is the type species of the genus Xylanimonas of the actinobacterial family Promicromonosporaceae. The species X. cellulosilytica is of interest because of its ability to hydrolyze cellulose and xylan. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the large family Promicromonosporaceae, and the 3,831,380 bp long genome (one chromosome plus an 88,604 bp long plasmid) with its 3485 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Pirellula staleyi type strain (ATCC 27377).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Pirellula staleyi Schlesner and Hirsch 1987 is the type species of the genus Pirellula of the family Planctomycetaceae. Members of this pear- or teardrop-shaped bacterium show a clearly visible pointed attachment pole and can be distinguished from other Planctomycetes by a lack of true stalks. Strains closely related to the species have been isolated from fresh and brackish water, as well as from hypersaline lakes. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the order Planctomyces and only the second sequence from the phylum Planctobacteria/Planctomycetes. The 6,196,199 bp long genome with its 4773 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Streptobacillus moniliformis type strain (9901).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Streptobacillus moniliformis Levaditi et al. 1925 is the type and sole species of the genus Streptobacillus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically much accessed family Leptotrichiaceae within the phylum Fusobacteria. The Leptotrichiaceae have not been well characterized, genomically or taxonomically. S. moniliformis,is a Gram-negative, non-motile, pleomorphic bacterium and is the etiologic agent of rat bite fever and Haverhill fever. Strain 9901(T), the type strain of the species, was isolated from a patient with rat bite fever. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is only the second completed genome sequence of the order Fusobacteriales and no more than the third sequence from the phylum Fusobacteria. The 1,662,578 bp long chromosome and the 10,702 bp plasmid with a total of 1511 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes are part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Stackebrandtia nassauensis type strain (LLR-40K-21).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Stackebrandtia nassauensis Labeda and Kroppenstedt (2005) is the type species of the genus Stackebrandtia, and a member of the actinobacterial family Glycomycetaceae. Stackebrandtia currently contains two species, which are differentiated from Glycomyces spp. by cellular fatty acid and menaquinone composition. Strain LLR-40K-21(T) is Gram-positive, aerobic, and nonmotile, with a branched substrate mycelium and on some media an aerial mycelium. The strain was originally isolated from a soil sample collected from a road side in Nassau, Bahamas. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the actinobacterial suborder Glycomycineae. The 6,841,557 bp long single replicon genome with its 6487 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Rhodothermus marinus type strain (R-10).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2009
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Rhodothermus marinus Alfredsson et al. 1995 is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because the Rhodothermaceae represent the deepest lineage in the phylum Bacteroidetes. R. marinus R-10(T) is a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from marine hot springs off the coast of Iceland. Strain R-10(T) is strictly aerobic and requires slightly halophilic conditions for growth. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Rhodothermus, and only the second sequence from members of the family Rhodothermaceae. The 3,386,737 bp genome (including a 125 kb plasmid) with its 2914 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Halomicrobium mukohataei type strain (arg-2).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2009
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Halomicrobium mukohataei (Ihara et al. 1997) Oren et al. 2002 is the type species of the genus Halomicrobium. It is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location within the large euryarchaeal family Halobacteriaceae. H. mukohataei is an extreme halophile that grows essentially aerobically, but can also grow anaerobically under a change of morphology and with nitrate as electron acceptor. The strain, whose genome is described in this report, is a free-living, motile, Gram-negative euryarchaeon, originally isolated from Salinas Grandes in Jujuy, Andes highlands, Argentina. Its genome contains three genes for the 16S rRNA that differ from each other by up to 9%. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the poorly populated genus Halomicrobium, and the 3,332,349 bp long genome (chromosome and one plasmid) with its 3416 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Jonesia denitrificans type strain (Prevot 55134).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2009
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Jonesia denitrificans (Prevot 1961) Rocourt et al. 1987 is the type species of the genus Jonesia, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. J. denitrificans is characterized by a typical coryneform morphology and is able to form irregular nonsporulating rods showing branched and club-like forms. Coccoid cells occur in older cultures. J. denitrificans is classified as a pathogenic organism for animals (vertebrates). The type strain whose genome is described here was originally isolated from cooked ox blood. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus for which a complete genome sequence is described. The 2,749,646 bp long genome with its 2558 protein-coding and 71 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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