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Dynamics of genomic H3K27me3 domains and role of EZH2 during pancreatic endocrine specification.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Endoderm cells undergo sequential fate choices to generate insulin-secreting beta cells. Ezh2 of the PRC2 complex, which generates H3K27me3, modulates the transition from endoderm to pancreas progenitors, but the role of Ezh2 and H3K27me3 in the next transition to endocrine progenitors is unknown. We isolated endoderm cells, pancreas progenitors, and endocrine progenitors from different staged mouse embryos and analyzed H3K27me3 genome-wide. Unlike the decline in H3K27me3 domains reported during embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro, we find that H3K27me3 domains increase in number during endocrine progenitor development in vivo. Genes that lose the H3K27me3 mark typically encode transcriptional regulators, including those for pro-endocrine fates, whereas genes that acquire the mark typically are involved in cell biology and morphogenesis. Deletion of Ezh2 at the pancreas progenitor stage enhanced the production of endocrine progenitors and beta cells. Inhibition of EZH2 in embryonic pancreas explants and in human embryonic stem cell cultures increased endocrine progenitors in vitro. Our studies reveal distinct dynamics in H3K27me3 targets in vivo and a means to modulate beta cell development from stem cells.
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Hematopoietic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in culture.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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This chapter describes a two-dimensional "monolayer" system for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into "primitive" hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) resembling those produced in vivo by the early embryonic yolk sac. This experimental system utilizes defined conditions without serum or feeder cells. Cytokines are added sequentially to stimulate the formation of mesoderm and its subsequent patterning to hematopoietic progenitors. The HPCs produced by this protocol have multi-lineage potential (erythroid, megakaryocyte, and myeloid) and can be isolated as a homogeneous population for use in standard hematopoietic studies including liquid expansion to mature lineages and colony assays. In addition, the HPCs can be cryopreserved for distribution or analysis at later times. The HPCs generated by this protocol have been used successfully to better define intrinsic variation in hematopoietic potential between different PSC lines and to model human hematopoietic diseases using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.
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Utilization of the AAVS1 safe harbor locus for hematopoietic specific transgene expression and gene knockdown in human ES cells.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Human pluripotent stem cells offer a powerful system to study human biology and disease. Here, we report a system to both express transgenes specifically in ES cell derived hematopoietic cells and knockdown gene expression stably throughout the differentiation of ES cells. We characterize a CD43 promoter construct that when inserted into the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus utilizing a zinc finger nuclease specifically drives GFP expression in hematopoietic cells derived from a transgenic ES cell line and faithfully recapitulates endogenous CD43 expression. In addition, using the same gene targeting strategy we demonstrate that constitutive expression of short hairpin RNAs within a microRNA backbone can suppress expression of PU.1, an important regulator of myeloid cell development. We show that PU.1 knockdown cell lines display an inhibition in myeloid cell formation and skewing towards erythroid development. Overall, we have generated a powerful system to track hematopoietic development from pluripotent stem cells and study gene function through hematopoietic specific gene expression and constitutive gene knockdown.
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MicroRNA screen of human embryonic stem cell differentiation reveals miR-105 as an enhancer of megakaryopoiesis from adult CD34+ cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can control stem cell differentiation by targeting mRNAs. Using 96-well plate electroporation, we screened 466 human miRNA mimics by four-color flow cytometry to explore differentiation of common myeloid progenitors (CMP) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The transfected cells were then cultured in a cytokine cocktail that supported multiple hematopoietic lineages. At 4-5 days post-transfection, flow cytometry of erythroid (CD235(+)CD41(-)), megakaryocyte (CD41(+)CD42(+)), and myeloid (CD18(+)CD235(-)) lineages revealed miR-105 as a novel enhancer of megakaryocyte production during in vitro primitive hematopoiesis. In hESC-derived CMPs, miR-105 caused a sixfold enhancement in megakaryocyte production. miR-513a, miR-571, and miR-195 were found to be less potent megakaryocyte enhancers. We confirmed the relevance of miR-105 in adult megakaryopoiesis by demonstrating increased megakaryocyte yield and megakaryocyte colony forming potential in human adult CD34(+) cells derived from peripheral blood. In addition, adult CD34(+) cells express endogenous miR-105 during megakaryocyte differentiation. siRNA knockdown of the hematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb caused a similar enhancement of megakaryocyte production as miR-105. Finally, a luciferase/c-Myb-3'UTR construct and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the hematopoietic transcription factor c-Myb mRNA was a target of miR-105. We report a novel hESC-based miR screening platform and demonstrate that miR-105 is an enhancer of megakaryopoiesis in both primitive and definitive hematopoiesis.
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The negative impact of Wnt signaling on megakaryocyte and primitive erythroid progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The Wnt gene family consists of structurally related genes encoding secreted signaling molecules that have been implicated in many developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Previously, we found that Wnt signaling is required for primitive or yolk sac-derived-erythropoiesis using the murine embryonic stem cell (ESC) system. Here, we examine the effect of Wnt signaling on the formation of early hematopoietic progenitors derived from human ESCs. The first hematopoietic progenitor cells in the human ESC system express the pan-hematopoietic marker CD41 and the erythrocyte marker, glycophorin A or CD235. We have developed a novel serum-free, feeder-free, adherent differentiation system that can efficiently generate large numbers of CD41+CD235+ cells. We demonstrate that this cell population contains progenitors not just for primitive erythroid and megakaryocyte cells but for the myeloid lineage as well and term this population the primitive common myeloid progenitor (CMP). Treatment of mesoderm-specified cells with Wnt3a led to a loss of hematopoietic colony-forming ability while the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with DKK1 led to an increase in the number of primitive CMPs. Canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits the expansion and/or survival of primitive erythrocytes and megakaryocytes, but not myeloid cells, derived from this progenitor population. These findings are in contrast to the role of Wnt signaling during mouse ESC differentiation and demonstrate the importance of the human ESC system in studying species-specific differences in development.
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High-level transgene expression in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived megakaryocytes: correction of Glanzmann thrombasthenia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Megakaryocyte-specific transgene expression in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offers a new approach to study and potentially treat disorders affecting megakaryocytes and platelets. Using a Gp1ba promoter, we have developed a strategy to achieve a high level of protein expression in human megakaryocytes. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in iPS cells derived from two patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), an inherited platelet disorder caused by mutations in integrin ?IIb?3. Hemizygous insertion of Gp1ba promoter-driven human ?IIb cDNA into the AAVS1 locus of iPS cells lead to high ?IIb mRNA and protein expression, and correction of surface ?IIb?3 in megakaryocytes. Agonist stimulation of these cells displayed recovery of integrin ?IIb?3 activation. Our findings demonstrate a novel approach to studying human megakaryocyte biology as well as functional correction of the GT defect, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with diseases that affect platelet function.
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Clonal genetic and hematopoietic heterogeneity among human-induced pluripotent stem cell lines.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for modeling human hematopoietic diseases. However, intrinsic variability in the capacities of different iPSC lines for hematopoietic development complicates comparative studies and is currently unexplained. We created and analyzed 3 separate iPSC clones from fibroblasts of 3 different normal individuals using a standardized approach that included excision of integrated reprogramming genes by Cre-Lox mediated recombination. Gene expression profiling and hematopoietic differentiation assays showed that independent lines from the same individual were generally more similar to one another than those from different individuals. However, one iPSC line (WT2.1) exhibited a distinctly different gene expression, proliferation rate, and hematopoietic developmental potential relative to all other iPSC lines. This "outlier" clone also acquired extensive copy number variations (CNVs) during reprogramming, which may be responsible for its divergent properties. Our data indicate how inherent and acquired genetic differences can influence iPSC properties, including hematopoietic potential.
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Ribosomal and hematopoietic defects in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from Diamond Blackfan anemia patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital disorder with erythroid (Ery) hypoplasia and tissue morphogenic abnormalities. Most DBA cases are caused by heterozygous null mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Understanding how haploinsufficiency of these ubiquitous proteins causes DBA is hampered by limited availability of tissues from affected patients. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of DBA patients carrying mutations in RPS19 and RPL5. Compared with controls, DBA fibroblasts formed iPSCs inefficiently, although we obtained 1 stable clone from each fibroblast line. RPS19-mutated iPSCs exhibited defects in 40S (small) ribosomal subunit assembly and production of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Upon induced differentiation, the mutant clone exhibited globally impaired hematopoiesis, with the Ery lineage affected most profoundly. RPL5-mutated iPSCs exhibited defective 60S (large) ribosomal subunit assembly, accumulation of 12S pre-rRNA, and impaired erythropoiesis. In both mutant iPSC lines, genetic correction of ribosomal protein deficiency via complementary DNA transfer into the "safe harbor" AAVS1 locus alleviated abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis and hematopoiesis. Our studies show that pathological features of DBA are recapitulated by iPSCs, provide a renewable source of cells to model various tissue defects, and demonstrate proof of principle for genetic correction strategies in patient stem cells.
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor directs hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion and differentiation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The evolutionarily conserved aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been studied for its role in environmental chemical-induced toxicity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the AhR may regulate the hematopoietic and immune systems during development in a cell-specific manner. These results, together with the absence of an in vitro model system enabling production of large numbers of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPs) capable of differentiating into megakaryocyte- and erythroid-lineage cells, motivated us to determine if AhR modulation could facilitate both progenitor cell expansion and megakaryocyte and erythroid cell differentiation. Using a novel, pluripotent stem cell-based, chemically-defined, serum and feeder cell-free culture system, we show that the AhR is expressed in HPs and that, remarkably, AhR activation drives an unprecedented expansion of HPs, megakaryocyte-lineage cells, and erythroid-lineage cells. Further AhR modulation within rapidly expanding progenitor cell populations directs cell fate, with chronic AhR agonism permissive to erythroid differentiation and acute antagonism favoring megakaryocyte specification. These results highlight the development of a new Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant platform for generating virtually unlimited numbers of human HPs with which to scrutinize red blood cell and platelet development, including the assessment of the role of the AhR critical cell fate decisions during hematopoiesis.
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Endodermal stem cell populations derived from pluripotent stem cells.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The generation of functional endodermal lineages, such as hepatocytes and pancreatic endocrine cells, from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) remains a challenge. One strategy to enhance the purity, yield and maturity of endodermal derivatives is to expand endoderm committed stem or progenitor cell populations derived from PSCs before final differentiation. Recent studies have shown that this is in fact a viable option both for expanding pure populations of endodermal cells as well as for generating more mature derivative tissues, as highlighted in the case of pancreatic beta cells.
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AAV-mediated gene therapy for choroideremia: preclinical studies in personalized models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Choroideremia (CHM) is an X- linked retinal degeneration that is symptomatic in the 1(st) or 2(nd) decade of life causing nyctalopia and loss of peripheral vision. The disease progresses through mid-life, when most patients become blind. CHM is a favorable target for gene augmentation therapy, as the disease is due to loss of function of a protein necessary for retinal cell health, Rab Escort Protein 1 (REP1).The CHM cDNA can be packaged in recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), which has an established track record in human gene therapy studies, and, in addition, there are sensitive and quantitative assays to document REP1 activity. An animal model that accurately reflects the human condition is not available. In this study, we tested the ability to restore REP1 function in personalized in vitro models of CHM: lymphoblasts and induced pluripotent stems cells (iPSCs) from human patients. The initial step of evaluating safety of the treatment was carried out by evaluating for acute retinal histopathologic effects in normal-sighted mice and no obvious toxicity was identified. Delivery of the CHM cDNA to affected cells restores REP1 enzymatic activity and also restores proper protein trafficking. The gene transfer is efficient and the preliminary safety data are encouraging. These studies pave the way for a human clinical trial of gene therapy for CHM.
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An endothelial cell niche induces hepatic specification through dual repression of Wnt and Notch signaling.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Complex cross-talk between endoderm and the microenvironment is an absolute requirement to orchestrate hepatic specification and expansion. In the mouse, the septum transversum and cardiac mesoderm, through secreted bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF), respectively, instruct the adjacent ventral endoderm to become hepatic endoderm. Consecutively, endothelial cells promote expansion of the specified hepatic endoderm. By using a mouse reporter embryonic stem cell line, in which hCD4 and hCD25 were targeted to the Foxa2 and Foxa3 loci, we reconstituted an in vitro culture system in which committed endoderm cells coexpressing hCD4-Foxa2 and hCD25-Foxa3 were isolated and cocultured with endothelial cells in the presence of BMP4 and bFGF. In this culture setting, we provide mechanistic evidence that endothelial cells function not only to promote hepatic endoderm expansion but are also required at an earlier step for hepatic specification, at least in part through regulation of the Wnt and Notch pathways. Activation of Wnt and Notch by chemical or genetic approaches increases endoderm cell numbers but inhibits hepatic specification, and conversely, chemical inhibition of both pathways enhances hepatic specification and reduces proliferation. By using identical coculture conditions, we defined a similar dependence of endoderm harvested from embryos on endothelial cells to support their growth and hepatic specification. Our findings (1) confirm a conserved role of Wnt repression for mouse hepatic specification, (2) uncover a novel role for Notch repression in the hepatic fate decision, and (3) demonstrate that repression of Wnt and Notch signaling in hepatic endoderm is controlled by the endothelial cell niche.
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Mouse ES and iPS cells can form similar definitive endoderm despite differences in imprinted genes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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The directed differentiation of iPS and ES cells into definitive endoderm (DE) would allow the derivation of otherwise inaccessible progenitors for endodermal tissues. However, a global comparison of the relative equivalency of DE derived from iPS and ES populations has not been performed. Recent reports of molecular differences between iPS and ES cells have raised uncertainty as to whether iPS cells could generate autologous endodermal lineages in vitro. Here, we show that both mouse iPS and parental ES cells exhibited highly similar in vitro capacity to undergo directed differentiation into DE progenitors. With few exceptions, both cell types displayed similar surges in gene expression of specific master transcriptional regulators and global transcriptomes that define the developmental milestones of DE differentiation. Microarray analysis showed considerable overlap between the genetic programs of DE derived from ES/iPS cells in vitro and authentic DE from mouse embryos in vivo. Intriguingly, iPS cells exhibited aberrant silencing of imprinted genes known to participate in endoderm differentiation, yet retained a robust ability to differentiate into DE. Our results show that, despite some molecular differences, iPS cells can be efficiently differentiated into DE precursors, reinforcing their potential for development of cell-based therapies for diseased endoderm-derived tissues.
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Generation of transgene-free lung disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells using a single excisable lentiviral stem cell cassette.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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The development of methods to achieve efficient reprogramming of human cells while avoiding the permanent presence of reprogramming transgenes represents a critical step toward the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for clinical purposes, such as disease modeling or reconstituting therapies. Although several methods exist for generating iPSC free of reprogramming transgenes from mouse cells or neonatal normal human tissues, a sufficiently efficient reprogramming system is still needed to achieve the widespread derivation of disease-specific iPSC from humans with inherited or degenerative diseases. Here, we report the use of a humanized version of a single lentiviral "stem cell cassette" vector to accomplish efficient reprogramming of normal or diseased skin fibroblasts obtained from humans of virtually any age. Simultaneous transfer of either three or four reprogramming factors into human target cells using this single vector allows derivation of human iPSC containing a single excisable viral integration that on removal generates human iPSC free of integrated transgenes. As a proof of principle, here we apply this strategy to generate >100 lung disease-specific iPSC lines from individuals with a variety of diseases affecting the epithelial, endothelial, or interstitial compartments of the lung, including cystic fibrosis, ?-1 antitrypsin deficiency-related emphysema, scleroderma, and sickle-cell disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that human iPSC generated with this approach have the ability to robustly differentiate into definitive endoderm in vitro, the developmental precursor tissue of lung epithelia.
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A high-throughput multiplexed screening assay for optimizing serum-free differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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Serum-free differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the ability to maximize reproducibility and to develop clinically applicable therapies. We developed a high-throughput, 96-well plate, four-color flow cytometry-based assay to optimize differentiation media cocktails and to screen a variety of conditions. We were able to differentiate hESCs to all three primary germ layers, screen for the effect of a range of activin A, BMP4, and VEGF concentrations on endoderm and mesoderm differentiation, and perform RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of a reporter gene during differentiation. Cells were seeded in suspension culture and embryoid bodies were induced to differentiate to the three primary germ layers for 6 days. Endoderm (CXCR4(+)KDR(-)), mesoderm (KDR(+)SSEA-3(-)), and ectoderm (SSEA-3(+)NCAM(+)) differentiation yields for H9 cells were 80 ± 11, 78 ± 7, and 41 ± 9%, respectively. Germ layer identities were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Activin A, BMP4, and bFGF drove differentiation, with increasing concentrations of activin A inducing higher endoderm yields and increasing BMP4 inducing higher mesoderm yields. VEGF drove lateral mesoderm differentiation. RNAi-mediated knockdown of constitutively expressed red fluorescent protein did not affect endoderm differentiation. This assay facilitates the development of serum-free protocols for hESC differentiation to target lineages and creates a platform for screening small molecules or RNAi during ESC differentiation.
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Transcriptional competence and the active marking of tissue-specific enhancers by defined transcription factors in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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We reported previously that well-characterized enhancers but not promoters for typical tissue-specific genes, including the classic Alb1 gene, contain unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and evidence of pioneer factor interactions in embryonic stem (ES) cells. These properties, which are distinct from the bivalent histone modification domains that characterize the promoters of genes involved in developmental decisions, raise the possibility that genes expressed only in differentiated cells may need to be marked at the pluripotent stage. Here, we demonstrate that the forkhead family member FoxD3 is essential for the unmethylated mark observed at the Alb1 enhancer in ES cells, with FoxA1 replacing FoxD3 following differentiation into endoderm. Up-regulation of FoxD3 and loss of CpG methylation at the Alb1 enhancer accompanied the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Studies of two genes expressed in specific hematopoietic lineages revealed that the establishment of enhancer marks in ES cells and iPS cells can be regulated both positively and negatively. Furthermore, the absence of a pre-established mark consistently resulted in resistance to transcriptional activation in the repressive chromatin environment that characterizes differentiated cells. These results support the hypothesis that pluripotency and successful reprogramming may be critically dependent on the marking of enhancers for many or all tissue-specific genes.
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Stem cells unscramble yolk sac hematopoiesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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Klimchenko and colleagues use human embryonic stem cells to define a novel bipotential hematopoietic progenitor that gives rise to primitive (yolk sac-type) erythrocytes and megakaryocytes.
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Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface molecules expressed on early mouse endoderm.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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The development of functional cell populations such as hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells from embryonic stem cell (ESC) is dependent on the efficient induction of definitive endoderm early in the differentiation process. To monitor definitive endoderm formation in mouse ESC differentiation cultures in a quantitative fashion, we generated a reporter cell line that expresses human CD25 from the Foxa3 locus and human CD4 from the Foxa2 locus. Induction of these reporter ESCs with high concentrations of activin A led to the development of a CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population within 4-5 days of culture. Isolation and characterization of this population showed that it consists predominantly of definitive endoderm that is able to undergo hepatic specification under the appropriate conditions. To develop reagents that can be used for studies on endoderm development from unmanipulated ESCs, from induced pluripotent stem cells, and from the mouse embryo, we generated monoclonal antibodies against the CD25-Foxa3+CD4-Foxa2+ population. With this approach, we identified two antibodies that react specifically with endoderm from ESC cultures and from the early embryo. The specificity of these antibodies enables one to quantitatively monitor endoderm development in ESC differentiation cultures, to study endoderm formation in the embryo, and to isolate pure populations of culture- or embryo-derived endodermal cells.
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Foxa2 and H2A.Z mediate nucleosome depletion during embryonic stem cell differentiation.
Cell
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Nucleosome occupancy is fundamental for establishing chromatin architecture. However, little is known about the relationship between nucleosome dynamics and initial cell lineage specification. Here, we determine the mechanisms that control global nucleosome dynamics during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation into endoderm. Both nucleosome depletion and de novo occupation occur during the differentiation process, with higher overall nucleosome density after differentiation. The variant histone H2A.Z and the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 both act to regulate nucleosome depletion and gene activation, thus promoting ES cell differentiation, whereas DNA methylation promotes nucleosome occupation and suppresses gene expression. Nucleosome depletion during ES cell differentiation is dependent on Nap1l1-coupled SWI/SNF and INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes. Thus, both epigenetic and genetic regulators cooperate to control nucleosome dynamics during ES cell fate decisions.
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Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood using the STEMCCA lentiviral vector.
J Vis Exp
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Through the ectopic expression of four transcription factors, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and cMyc, human somatic cells can be converted to a pluripotent state, generating so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)(1-4). Patient-specific iPSCs lack the ethical concerns that surround embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and would bypass possible immune rejection. Thus, iPSCs have attracted considerable attention for disease modeling studies, the screening of pharmacological compounds, and regenerative therapies(5). We have shown the generation of transgene-free human iPSCs from patients with different lung diseases using a single excisable polycistronic lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette (STEMCCA) encoding the Yamanaka factors(6). These iPSC lines were generated from skin fibroblasts, the most common cell type used for reprogramming. Normally, obtaining fibroblasts requires a skin punch biopsy followed by expansion of the cells in culture for a few passages. Importantly, a number of groups have reported the reprogramming of human peripheral blood cells into iPSCs(7-9). In one study, a Tet inducible version of the STEMCCA vector was employed(9), which required the blood cells to be simultaneously infected with a constitutively active lentivirus encoding the reverse tetracycline transactivator. In contrast to fibroblasts, peripheral blood cells can be collected via minimally invasive procedures, greatly reducing the discomfort and distress of the patient. A simple and effective protocol for reprogramming blood cells using a constitutive single excisable vector may accelerate the application of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community. Furthermore, reprogramming of peripheral blood cells allows for the generation of iPSCs from individuals in which skin biopsies should be avoided (i.e. aberrant scarring) or due to pre-existing disease conditions preventing access to punch biopsies. Here we demonstrate a protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using a single floxed-excisable lentiviral vector constitutively expressing the 4 factors. Freshly collected or thawed PBMCs are expanded for 9 days as described(10,11) in medium containing ascorbic acid, SCF, IGF-1, IL-3 and EPO before being transduced with the STEMCCA lentivirus. Cells are then plated onto MEFs and ESC-like colonies can be visualized two weeks after infection. Finally, selected clones are expanded and tested for the expression of the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. This protocol is simple, robust and highly consistent, providing a reliable methodology for the generation of human iPSCs from readily accessible 4 ml of blood.
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Trisomy 21-associated defects in human primitive hematopoiesis revealed through induced pluripotent stem cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Patients with Down syndrome (trisomy 21, T21) have hematologic abnormalities throughout life. Newborns frequently exhibit abnormal blood counts and a clonal preleukemia. Human T21 fetal livers contain expanded erythro-megakaryocytic precursors with enhanced proliferative capacity. The impact of T21 on the earliest stages of embryonic hematopoiesis is unknown and nearly impossible to examine in human subjects. We modeled T21 yolk sac hematopoiesis using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Blood progenitor populations generated from T21 iPSCs were present at normal frequency and proliferated normally. However, their developmental potential was altered with enhanced erythropoiesis and reduced myelopoiesis, but normal megakaryocyte production. These abnormalities overlap with those of T21 fetal livers, but also reflect important differences. Our studies show that T21 confers distinct developmental stage- and species-specific hematopoietic defects. More generally, we illustrate how iPSCs can provide insight into early stages of normal and pathological human development.
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Self-renewing endodermal progenitor lines generated from human pluripotent stem cells.
Cell Stem Cell
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The use of human pluripotent stem cells for laboratory studies and cell-based therapies is hampered by their tumor-forming potential and limited ability to generate pure populations of differentiated cell types in vitro. To address these issues, we established endodermal progenitor (EP) cell lines from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Optimized growth conditions were established that allow near unlimited (>10(16)) EP cell self-renewal in which they display a morphology and gene expression pattern characteristic of definitive endoderm. Upon manipulation of their culture conditions in vitro or transplantation into mice, clonally derived EP cells differentiate into numerous endodermal lineages, including monohormonal glucose-responsive pancreatic ?-cells, hepatocytes, and intestinal epithelia. Importantly, EP cells are nontumorigenic in vivo. Thus, EP cells represent a powerful tool to study endoderm specification and offer a potentially safe source of endodermal-derived tissues for transplantation therapies.
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High-throughput screening assay for embryoid body differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol
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Serum-free human pluripotent stem cell media offer the potential to develop reproducible clinically applicable differentiation strategies and protocols. The vast array of possible growth factor and cytokine combinations for media formulations makes differentiation protocol optimization both labor and cost-intensive. This unit describes a 96-well plate, 4-color flow cytometry-based screening assay to optimize pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols. We provide conditions both to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, and to utilize flow cytometry to distinguish between them. This assay exhibits low inter-well variability and can be utilized to efficiently screen a variety of media formulations, reducing cost, incubator space, and labor. Protocols can be adapted to a variety of differentiation stages and lineages.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.