Thrombocytopenia in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is associated with shortened survival and an increased risk of evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of romiplostim in patients who had thrombocytopenia with low-risk/intermediate-1-risk MDS.
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPOra) are the only treatments for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) for which evidence of efficacy and safety from randomized, placebo-controlled trials is available. We sought to determine the long-term tolerability of the TPOra romiplostim, with a particular focus on thrombosis, bleeding, bone marrow (BM) reticulin, neoplasms/haematological malignancies and fatal events.
We describe long-term disease-free survival (DFS) after unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in 118 patients aged ?18 years. Forty-six patients had refractory cytopenia (RC), 55 refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), and 17 refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t). Transplant-related mortality was higher after mismatched BMT (relative risk [RR] 3.29, P = .002). Disease recurrence was more likely with advanced stages of MDS at the time of BMT: RAEB (RR 6.50, P = .01) or RAEB-t (RR 11.00, P = .004). Treatment failure (recurrent disease or death from any cause; inverse of DFS) occurred in 68 patients. Treatment failure was higher after mismatched BMT (RR 2.79, P = .001) and in those with RAEB-t (RR 2.38, P = .02). Secondary MDS or chemotherapy prior to BMT was not associated with recurrence or treatment failure. Similarly, cytogenetic abnormalities were not associated with transplant outcomes. Eight-year DFS for patients with RC after matched and mismatched unrelated donor BMT was 65% and 40%, respectively. Corresponding DFS for patients with RAEB and RAEB-t was 48% and 28%, respectively. When a matched adult unrelated donor is available, BMT should be offered as first-line therapy, and children with RC can be expected to have the best outcome.
All allogeneic (allo) and autologous (auto) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital undergo pre-HSCT computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses, chest, and abdomen because they are at significant risk for opportunistic infections. We studied whether this extensive routine imaging is warranted to detect infection despite the risk of additional radiation exposure. We reviewed the medical records of all children receiving allo- and auto-HSCT at St. Jude in 2004 and 2005. Of the 184 eligible patients who received 187 transplants, 131 received allografts and 56 autografts. Solid tumors and lymphomas were removed from the final analysis of the chest and abdomen CT as this imaging is typically warranted as part of disease restaging; thus, 111 allogeneic participants were included in this analysis. Both auto- and allo-recipients were evaluated by sinus CT and included in this final analysis. Most allo- and auto-HSCT recipients (> or =80%) did not have sinus, pulmonary, cardiac, or gastrointestinal symptoms; >85% of the evaluable allo-recipients had no prior fungal infection. Eighty-eight allo- and 31 auto-HSCT recipients had abnormal sinus CT findings, all unrelated to the underlying disease. Sixty-two (55.9%) of the allo-recipients had normal chest CT and 85 (76.6%) had normal abdominal CT. Of the 18 allo-recipients who began new therapy based on these findings, only 2 (11.1%) were related to chest CT findings and the other 16 were related to sinus findings. Our findings suggest that pre-HSCT routine CT imaging of the abdomen may not be warranted in a subset of allogeneic recipients who are asymptomatic and without previous infectious findings. Thus, these patients may be spared unnecessary radiation exposure. Recipients undergoing auto-HSCT or allo-HSCT for lymphomas or solid tumors will routinely undergo chest and abdominal CT imaging as part of their disease evaluation. The decision to perform chest CT should be made judiciously based on a careful history and physical examination. Sinus imaging, which was frequently abnormal, may be justified in all patients to plan post-HSCT care.
Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG; Thymoglobulin) is currently used to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The dose and schedule of rATG as part of the preparative regimen for unrelated donor (URD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have not been optimized in pediatric patients. We conducted a prospective study of 13 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing URD BMT at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital from October 2003 to March 2005, to determine the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of active and total rATG. The conditioning regimen comprised total body irradiation (TBI), thiotepa, and cyclophosphamide (Cy); cyclosporine (CsA) and methotrexate (MTX) were administered as GVHD prophylaxis. Patients received a total dose of 10 mg/kg rATG, and serial blood samples were assayed for total rATG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and active rATG by florescein activated cell sorting (FACS). We found that our weight-based dosing regimen for rATG was effective and well tolerated by patients. The half-lives of total and active rATG were comparable to those from previous studies, and despite high doses our patients had low maximum concentrations of active and total rATG. There were no occurrences of grade iii-iv GVHD even in patients having low peak rATG levels, and the overall incidence of grade II GVHD was only 15%. None of the patients had serious infections following transplantation. These data support the use of a 10 mg/kg dose of rATG in children with hematologic malignancies because it can be administered without increasing the risk of graft rejection, or serious infection in pediatric patients with a low rate of GVHD. These conclusions may not apply to patients with nonmalignant disorders.
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