Epileptic syndromes and seizures are the expression of complex brain systems. Because no analysis of complexity has been applied to epileptic seizure semiology, our goal was to apply neuroethology and graph analysis to the study of the complexity of behavioral manifestations of epileptic seizures in human frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We analyzed the video recordings of 120 seizures of 18 patients with FLE and 28 seizures of 28 patients with TLE. All patients were seizure-free >1year after surgery (Engel Class I). All patients' behavioral sequences were analyzed by means of a glossary containing all behaviors and analyzed for neuroethology (Ethomatic software). The same series were used for graph analysis (CYTOSCAPE®). Behaviors, displayed as nodes, were connected by edges to other nodes according to their temporal sequence of appearance. Using neuroethology analysis, we confirmed data in the literature such as in FLE: brief/frequent seizures, complex motor behaviors, head and eye version, unilateral/bilateral tonic posturing, speech arrest, vocalization, and rapid postictal recovery and in the case of TLE: presence of epigastric aura, lateralized dystonias, impairment of consciousness/speech during ictal and postictal periods, and development of secondary generalization. Using graph analysis metrics of FLE and TLE confirmed data from flowcharts. However, because of the algorithms we used, they highlighted more powerfully the connectivity and complex associations among behaviors in a quite selective manner, depending on the origin of the seizures. The algorithms we used are commonly employed to track brain connectivity from EEG and MRI sources, which makes our study very promising for future studies of complexity in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "NEWroscience 2013".
This work reports the preparation of ferro-magnetic nickel nanowires (NiNW) coated with dithiocarbamate-functionalized siliceous shells and its application for the uptake of aqueous Hg(II) ions by magnetic separation. NiNW with an average diameter and length of 35 nm and 5 ?m, respectively, were firstly prepared by Ni electrodeposition in an anodic aluminum oxide template. The NiNW surfaces were then coated with siliceous shells containing dithiocarbamate groups via a one-step procedure consisting in the alkaline hydrolytic co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and a siloxydithiocarbamate precursor (SiDTC). A small amount of these new nanoadsorbents (2.5 mg·L(-1)) removed 99.8% of mercury ions from aqueous solutions with concentration 50 ?g·L(-1) and in less than 24 h of contact time. This outstanding removal ability is attributed to the high affinity of the sulfur donor ligands to Hg(II) species combined with the high surface area-to-volume ratio of the NiNW.
To investigate growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), a marker for axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, as potential substrate for progressive epilepsy and potential predictor of postsurgical seizure outcome in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).
Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay-Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic contamination in freshwater ecosystems.
We report a patient who was diagnosed with opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus and found to have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA)-associated encephalitis, a previously unrecognised aetiology of this condition. The patient was a 23-year-old female admitted for investigation of focal myoclonic status epilepticus in the right side of the face and glossopharyngeal area. Intravenous corticosteroid was administered and improvement was observed in seizure activity and overall general health. A video sequence of opercular myoclonia is included. Due to the presence of inflammatory elements based on brain MRI and CSF studies, a decision to investigate autoimmune encephalitis was undertaken. Anti-GAD65 radioimmunoassay was markedly positive. This case study highlights the need for awareness of the clinical presentation of GADA-associated encephalitis. [Published with video sequences].
The objectives were to develop and evaluate an assistive technology for the use of the male condom by visually impaired men. It was a technology development study with the participation of seven subjects. Three workshops were performed between April and May of 2010; they were all filmed and the statements of the participants were transcribed and analyzed by content. Three categories were established: Sexuality of the visually impaired; Utilization of the text, For avoiding STDs, condoms we will use, divided in two subcategories, Concept discussion and Text evaluation; and Construction of a simple penile prosthesis. The knowledge transmitted related to STD, the utilization of the condom on the penile prosthesis made by the subjects themselves, and the interaction during the workshops were effective factors for the study. In the context of sexual health, the necessity of developing works involving the visually impaired was noted, addressing sexually transmitted diseases and focusing on the use of the condom by this population.
The goal of this study was to assess educational technology in the string literature about breastfeeding. The study was conducted between March and September 2009 by breastfeeding experts and experts on string literature. A psychometric model was adopted as the theoretical-methodological framework. For data collection, an instrument was used to assess the content about breastfeeding and the string literature rules. The analysis was based on comparisons of the notes and critical reflections of experts. Ethical guidelines were followed during the study. After the assessments, the educational technology was adjusted until all of the experts agreed. The assessment of educational technology can reduce obstacles to information dissemination and can lead to improvements in quality of life.
Unicornuate uterus occurs due to a complete or partial nondevelopment of one Mullerian duct; sometimes it is associated with a rudimentary horn, which can communicate or not with uterine cavity or contain functional endometrium. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. The authors describe a case of a primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation admitted with a preeclampsia with severity criteria. A cesarean for fetal malpresentation was done and, unexpectedly, a rudimentary horn pregnancy was found with a live newborn. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability with a live newborn are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case. A review of literature concerning the epidemics, clinical presentation, and appropriate management of uterine horn pregnancies is made.
This work reports research on the development of bimodal magnetic and fluorescent 1D nanoprobes. First, ferromagnetic nickel nanowires (NiNW) have been prepared by Ni electrodeposition in an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The highly ordered self-assembled AAO nanoporous templates were fabricated using a two-step anodization method of aluminum foil. The surface of the NiNW were then modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was previously labeled with an organic dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate: FITC) via covalent bonding. The ensuing functionalized NiNW exhibited the characteristic green fluorescence of FITC and could be magnetically separated from aqueous solutions by using a NdFeB magnet. Finally, the interest of these bimodal NiNW as nanoprobes for in vitro cell separation and biolabeling was preliminary assessed in a proof of principle experiment that involved the attachment of biofunctionalized NiNW to blood cells.
Polymer based composites containing metal nanoparticles are shown to provide new substrates for SERS detection and simultaneously enable the development of new tools for molecular sensing. A very important aspect on the use of hybrid materials relates to the observation of synergistic effects that result from the use of distinct components such as a polymer and metal nanoparticles. We report here the preparation of new SERS substrates made from blends of colloidal Au (nanospheres and nanorods) and PtBA (poly(t-butylacrylate)). The observed SERS enhancement depends on the characteristics of the obtained hybrid material. When compared to the starting Au colloids, the Au/PtBA nanocomposites led to SERS spectra with more intense bands, using 2,2-dithiodipyridine as molecular probe. The origin of the stronger Raman signal in this case, is possibly due to a combination of events related to the nanocomposite characteristics, including the formation of Au assemblies at the polymer surface due to particle clustering, and the absorption increase in a spectral region closer to the laser excitation wavelength. The strategy described here is a low-cost process with potential for the up-scale fabrication of SERS substrates, namely by using other types of nanocomposites.
Patients with refractory epilepsy often have impaired quality of life (QOL) as a consequence of seizures and adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. We assessed the impact of adverse effects on QOL and the utility of a structured instrument to help the physician manage adverse effects in patients with refractory epilepsy.
Researchers see algae as a promising tool to discover both efficient and safe agents for pain therapy. We evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of lectin from the marine alga Pterocladiella capillacea lectin (PcL). PcL was purified and tested in classical models of nociception and inflammation. Male Swiss mice received PcL 30 min prior to receiving 0.8% acetic acid (10 microl/10 g, i.p.), 1% formalin (20 microl/intraplantar) or the hot plate test, and were compared to untreated animals or animals pretreated with indomethacin or morphine. PcL (0.9, 8.1 or 72.9 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced the number of writhes (30%, 39%, and 52%, respectively). PcL (72.9 mg/kg, i.v.) also reduced (p<0.05) both the first and second phases of the formalin test by 58% and 87%, respectively. However, PcL (72.9 mg/kg) did not present significant antinociceptive effects in the hot plate test when compared to morphine, suggesting that its antinociceptive action occurs via peripheral rather than a central-acting mechanism. It was also observed that leukocyte migration was induced by carrageenan (500 microg/cavity) in male Wistar rats and that PcL (8.1 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced neutrophil migration by 84%, as compared to untreated animals, suggesting inhibition of inflammatory mediators. The data indicated that PcL has peripheral actions with both anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties.
The delayed release of mycophenolic acid (MPA) from enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS, myfortic®) may have an impact on the variability of MPA trough (C0 h) levels. A randomized, two-period crossover study was performed in 24 maintenance renal transplants to evaluate the inter- and intrasubject variability of MPA predose levels from EC-MPS and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, CellCept®), both in combination with cyclosporine. Patients received EC-MPS (720 mg b.i.d.) and MMF (1000 mg b.i.d.) for a period of 21 d each. MPA plasma levels were measured over the final seven consecutive days at -1, 0, 1, 2, and 3 h after the morning MPA dose. Intersubject coefficients of variation (%CV) for MPA troughs were 47.5% (95% CI, 34.1-80.3) and 54.4% (40.0-86.8) for EC-MPS and MMF, respectively; intrasubject %CVs were 62.7% (55.1-72.9) and 42.8% (37.9-49.2). High MPA C0 h levels>10 ?g/mL were rarely observed with both EC-MPS (1.8%) and MMF (0.6%). Mean MPA area under the curve (AUC)0-3 h was comparable between treatments, while MPA C0 h was on average 46% higher with EC-MPS. In conclusion, predose MPA trough level monitoring appears of limited value during EC-MPS and MMF therapy given the large intrasubject variability in MPA C0 h levels with both treatments.
This study aimed to construct an assistive technology about breastfeeding for validation among blind people. This technology is a string that will be sung by street musicians, and then evaluated by blind people. It was performed in May and June 2008 and comprises 32 units of six lines, distributed in categories: 1. Composition of mothers milk; 2. Myths and taboos; 3. Professional, family and breastfeeding; 4. Advantages of breastfeeding for the child; 5. Advantages of breastfeeding for the mother and family; 6. Communication in health. By elaborating the string the importance of nurses in health promotion and disease prevention and it can use the string as a means for communication and encouragement of breastfeeding is highlighted.
This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (pk) and drug interactions between cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) in kidney transplant recipients. The morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) pk of CsA (4-5 mg/kg/dose) and SRL (2 mg, n = 20; 5 mg, n = 33) were evaluated on day 7 (n = 53). CsA showed circadian variation when comparing a.m. and p.m. administration [AUC: 8066 vs. 6699, P < 0.001 (CI 970.9; 1763.6); C0: 272 vs. 245, P = 0.007 (CI 7.5; 46.1)]. SRL showed dose-proportional pk. Significant and drug-to-drug concentration-dependent pk interactions were observed within a narrow concentration range for both drugs. A fivefold increase in SRL AUC (from a mean of 130 to 538 ng h/mL) was associated with a 25% increase in mean a.m. CsA AUC [7021 to 8811 ng h/mL, P = 0.037, CI (-3461.2; -118.9)] and with a 42% increase in mean p.m. CsA AUC [5386-7639, P = 0.024, CI (-4164.4; -340.7)]. A twofold increase in a.m. CsA AUC (from 5860 to 10 974 ng h/mL) was associated with a 70% increase in mean SRL AUC [223 to 380 ng h/mL, P = 0.0026, CI (-291.7; -22.8)]. A twofold increase in p.m. CsA AUC (from 4573 to 9692 ng h/mL) was associated with a 63% increase in mean SRL AUC [246 to 400 ng h/mL, P = 0.032, CI (-290.7; -16.6)]. CSA shows circadian pk regardless of sirolimus dose or blood concentration. Significant drug-to-drug interactions occur within narrow blood drug concentrations. The magnitude of the effect of CsA on SRL blood concentration is higher than that of SRL on CsA blood concentrations. These findings emphasize the need for therapeutic drug monitoring using this drug combination.
This study was conducted to evaluate time-dependent pharmacokinetic changes and drug interactions over the first 6 months after transplantation in kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus (TAC), prednisone (PRED) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or sirolimus (SRL). Pharmacokinetic assessments were carried out at day 7 and months 1, 3, and 6 in kidney transplant recipients receiving TAC plus PRED with either MMF (2 g/day, n = 13) or SRL (15 mg loading dose, 5 mg for 7 days followed by 2 mg/day, n = 12). There were no differences in the main demographic characteristics or in mean PRED doses during the first 6 months after transplant. From day 7 to month 6, there was a 65% increase in TAC dose corrected exposure (dose corrected area under the curve; AUC) in patients receiving MMF (P = 0.005) and a 59% increase in TAC dose corrected exposure in patients receiving SRL (P = 0.008). From day 7 to month 6, there was a 72% increase in mycophenolate dose corrected exposure (P = 0.001) and a 65% increase in SRL dose corrected exposure (P = 0.008). TAC dose corrected exposure was 23% lower in patients receiving SRL compared with MMF (P = 0.012) on average over the study period. PRED dose reduction was associated with increase in TAC (in patients receiving SRL, P = 0.040) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) (P = 0.070) drug exposures. Tercile distribution of TAC drug exposure showed a positive correlation with mean SRL exposures (P = 0.016). Conversely, tercile distribution of SRL drug exposure showed a positive correlation with mean TAC exposures (P = 0.004). Time-dependent increases in TAC, MPA and SRL drug exposures occur up to 6 months after transplantation. Drug-to-drug interactions indicate that intense therapeutic drug monitoring is required to avoid under- or over-immunosuppression.
Enhancement of Raman signals of the nucleobase adenine on an Ag based composite was studied using the 1064 nm laser line. The composite comprise emulsions of Ag nanoparticles encapsulated in poly(t-butylacrylate) (PtBA) beads that act as substrate for the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) of adenine. For this system, Raman enhancement was observed for the ring-stretching vibrational mode of adenine after aggregation of the Ag/poly(t-butylacrylate) emulsion and isolation of the solid composite. This is a convenient and alternative analytical approach to SERS monitoring of solutions of adenine over the more common use of pure Ag colloids. As a consequence, this research contributes to develop innovative studies on DNA fragments using polymeric platforms that can act as highly sensitive SERS substrates.
Understanding the ecological consequences of roads and developing ways to mitigate their negative effects has become an important goal for many conservation biologists. Most mitigation measures are based on road mortality and barrier effects data. However, studying fine-scale individual spatial responses in roaded landscapes may help develop more cohesive road planning strategies for wildlife conservation.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.