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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Adherence to dietary and lifestyle recommendations and prostate cancer risk in the prostate testing for cancer and treatment (ProtecT) trial.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published eight recommendations for cancer prevention, but they are not targeted at prostate cancer prevention. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations and a prostate cancer dietary index is associated with prostate cancer risk.
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Diet and growth in infancy: relationship to socioeconomic background and to health and development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Nutr. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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To assess the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and socioeconomic background, all publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) covering breastfeeding, diet and growth in infancy, and the associations of these factors with socioeconomic background and later health and developmental outcomes were reviewed. Diet was assessed by parent-completed food records and parent-completed food frequency questionnaires covering infant feeding practices. Infancy growth was monitored through routine screening and by standardized measurements. Indicators of socioeconomic background were obtained by parent-completed questionnaires. Childhood outcomes were measured by standardized procedures. Rapid early weight gain was associated with later obesity. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with lower body fat, but not lower body mass index, and with higher IQ in mid-childhood. Breastfed infants were better at regulating their energy intake than bottle-fed infants. In bottle-fed infants, energy intake at 4 months was associated with greater weight gain up to 5 years of age. Feeding cow's milk as a main drink in infancy was associated with anemia and high salt intake. Maternal education was a strong determinant of dietary differences: low education was associated with never breastfeeding and not following feeding guidelines. ALSPAC has provided unique insights into the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and later developmental outcomes.
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Parental, prenatal, and neonatal associations with ball skills at age 8 using an exposome approach.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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There is little consistency in the literature concerning factors that influence motor coordination in children. A hypothesis-free "exposome" approach was used with 7359 children using longitudinal information covering 3 generations in regard to throwing a ball accurately at age 7 years. The analyses showed an independent robust negative association with mother's unhappiness in her midchildhood (6-11 years). No such association was present for study fathers. The offspring of parents who described themselves as having poor eyesight had poorer ability. This hypothesis-free approach has identified a strong negative association with an unhappy childhood. Future studies of this cohort will be used to determine whether the mechanism is manifest through differing parenting skills, or a biological mechanism reflecting epigenetic effects.
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Dairy intakes at age 10 years do not adversely affect risk of excess adiposity at 13 years.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children.
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Are diet and feeding behaviours associated with the onset of and recovery from slow weight gain in early infancy?
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Infants with slow weight gain cause concern in parents and professionals, but it is difficult to be certain whether such infants are genetically small or whether their energy intake is insufficient. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of diet and feeding behaviours on slow weight gain early in infancy. The sample was 11 499 term infants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 507 cases of slow weight gain from birth to 8 weeks were identified and the remaining 10 992 infants were used as controls. It was found that infants who gained weight slowly between birth and 8 weeks were more likely to exhibit feeding problems such as weak sucking and slow feeding during this period. Feeding problems were substantially reduced during the recovery phase (8 weeks to 2 years) when these infants exhibited enhanced catch-up in weight. The proportion of mothers breast-feeding in the 4th week after birth was higher for slow weight gainers, but they were more likely to switch to formula at the start of recovery. During recovery, slow-weight gain infants had a slightly higher energy intake from formula and solids than controls. In conclusion, feeding problems seem to be the most important factors associated with the onset of early slow weight gain. Subsequently, a reduction of feeding problems and an increase in overall energy intake may contribute to their weight recovery. Health professionals should look for feeding problems in the first few weeks after birth and help mothers establish adequate feeding practices.
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Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years.
Food Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood.
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A Review of Environmental Contributions to Childhood Motor Skills.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Although much of childrens motor skills have a heredity component, at least half of the variance is likely to be influenced by the environment. It is important to ascertain features of the environment that are responsible so that toxins can be avoided, children at risk can be identified, and beneficial interventions initiated. This review outlines the results of published studies and recommends the areas where further research is required. We found much confusion with little comparability concerning the ages or measures used. Few studies had sufficient power and few allowed for confounders. We found that research to date implicates associations with prenatal drinking ?4 drinks of alcohol per day; diabetes; taking antidepressant drugs; being deficient in iodine or iron; dietary fish; and postnatal depression. The child appearing to be most at risk was born of low birth weight (but not due to preterm delivery) or with neonatal problems.
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Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on childrens health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (? = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P < 0.001) but positively associated with a "health conscious" dietary pattern [? = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P < 0.001]. A higher index score was also positively associated with total, verbal, and performance IQ scores at 8 y of age [? = 1.92 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.47); P < 0.001 for total IQ). The index score was weakly associated with waist circumference [? = -0.15 (95%CI: -0.31, -0.002); P = 0.046] and diastolic blood pressure [? = -0.24 (95%CI: -0.47, -0.01); P = 0.043] at 7 y of age but was not associated with BMI or other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that adherence to current complementary feeding guidelines may have implications for some, but not all, health and development outcomes in childhood.
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The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established.
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Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury.
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Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. SUBJECTS: Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data. RESULTS: Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a Traditional/health-conscious pattern, a Processed pattern, a Snacks/sugared drinks pattern and a Vegetarian pattern. The Traditional/health-conscious pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The Processed and Snacks/sugared drinks patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the Traditional/health conscious and Vegetarian patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the Traditional/health-conscious and Vegetarian patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration.
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Tracking a dietary pattern associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adolescence.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Understanding dietary tracking may help to inform interventions to improve dietary intakes and health outcomes. This study investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) associated with increased adiposity in childhood tracked from 7 to 13 years of age, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
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Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped.
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Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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As a component of thyroid hormones, iodine is essential for fetal brain development. Although the UK has long been considered iodine replete, increasing evidence suggests that it might now be mildly iodine deficient. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during early pregnancy was associated with an adverse effect on child cognitive development.
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Diet spanning infancy and toddlerhood is associated with child blood pressure at age 7.5 y.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Diet in the first 2 y of life may be a pivotal period regarding effects on future blood pressure (BP). However, data on early-life diet and BP in childhood are sparse.
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Men with prostate cancer make positive dietary changes following diagnosis and treatment.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Few studies have measured dietary changes made among men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PC) without formal dietary interventions, yet they may offer insight into the needs of PC survivors. This study examined dietary changes in men before and after treatment for PC within the prostate testing for cancer and treatment randomized trial.
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Growth outcomes of weight faltering in infancy in ALSPAC.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The goal of this study was to investigate growth outcomes in term infants with weight faltering.
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Sources of vitamin A in the diets of pre-school children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Vitamin A is essential for growth and development. We investigated whether high consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods in the diets of pre-school children is detrimental to diet quality with respect to vitamin A. Data were collected from 755 children at 18-months and 3½-years, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, using 3-day unweighed dietary records completed by parents in 1994 and 1996, respectively. Energy, carotene and retinol intakes were calculated. The quality of the diet declined from 18-months to 3½-years with respect to vitamin A. Preformed retinol intakes decreased by -54 ?g/day on average (p = 0.003). Carotene intakes were similar at each age although there was a 23% increase in energy intake by 3½-years. Longitudinally those in the highest quartile of intake at 18-months were twice as likely to remain in the highest quartile at 3½-years for retinol (OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.48-3.28)) and carotene (OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.11-2.50)) than to change quartiles. Nutrient-rich core foods provided decreasing amounts of carotene and preformed retinol over time (both p < 0.001). Vegetables and milk contributed the highest proportion of carotene at both ages, but milks contribution decreased over time. Milk and liver were the largest sources of retinol. Nutrient-poor foods provided an increased proportion of energy (p < 0.001) with low proportions of both nutrients; however fat spreads made an important contribution. It is recommended that pre-school children should take vitamin supplements; only 19% at 18-months did this, falling to 11% at 3½-years. Care should be taken to choose nutrient-rich foods and avoid energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods when feeding pre-school children.
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Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in childhood and adolescence.
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Nutrition and neurodevelopment in children: focus on NUTRIMENTHE project.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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There is growing evidence that early nutrition affects later cognitive performance. The idea that the diet of mothers, infants, and children could affect later mental performance has major implications for public health practice and policy development and for our understanding of human biology as well as for food product development, economic progress, and future wealth creation. To date, however, much of the evidence is from animal, retrospective studies and short-term nutritional intervention studies in humans. The positive effect of micronutrients on health, especially of pregnant women eating well to maximise their childs cognitive and behavioural outcomes, is commonly acknowledged. The current evidence of an association between gestational nutrition and brain development in healthy children is more credible for folate, n-3 fatty acids, and iron. Recent findings highlight the fact that single-nutrient supplementation is less adequate than supplementation with more complex formulae. However, the optimal content of micronutrient supplementation and whether there is a long-term impact on childs neurodevelopment needs to be investigated further. Moreover, it is also evident that future studies should take into account genetic heterogeneity when evaluating nutritional effects and also nutritional recommendations. The objective of the present review is to provide a background and update on the current knowledge linking nutrition to cognition and behaviour in children, and to show how the large collaborative European Project NUTRIMENTHE is working towards this aim.
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Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.
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Milk intakes are not associated with percent body fat in children from ages 10 to 13 years.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Epidemiologic studies report conflicting results for the relationship between milk intake and adiposity in children. We examined prospective and cross-sectional associations between milk intake and percent body fat among 2245 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cross-sectional analyses were performed at age 13 y between total, full-fat, and reduced-fat milk intake assessed using 3-d dietary records and body fat from DXA. Prospective analyses were conducted between milk intakes at age 10 y and body fat at 11 and 13 y. Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, physical activity, pubertal status, maternal BMI, maternal education, and intakes of total fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, and ready-to-eat cereals; baseline BMI was added to prospective models. Subset analyses were performed for those with plausible dietary intakes. Mean milk consumption at 10 and 13 y was (mean ± SD) 0.90 ± 0.73 and 0.85 ± 0.78 servings/d [1 serving = 8 oz of milk (244 g of plain and 250 g flavored milk)], respectively. Cross-sectional results indicated an inverse association between full-fat milk intake and body fat [? = -0.47 (95% CI = -0.76, -0.19); P = 0.001]. Milk intake at age 10 y was inversely associated with body fat at 11 y [? = -0.16 g/d (95%CI = -0.28, -0.04); P = 0.01], but not among those with plausible dietary intakes, suggesting that this association was influenced by dietary measurement errors. Milk intake was not associated with body fat at age 13 y after adjustment. Although our prospective results corroborate other findings of a null associations between milk intake and adiposity, our inconsistent findings across analyses suggest further investigation is needed to clarify the relation, and accounting for dietary reporting errors is an important consideration.
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Levels of insulin-like growth factor during pregnancy and maternal cancer risk: a nested case-control study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Previous studies have suggested that pregnancy measures of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may be related to breast cancer risk in mothers. IGFs may also be important in cervical cancer etiology. We conducted a nested case-control study (69 breast cancer cases, 151 cervical cancer cases, 443 controls) among mothers of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Over 70% of blood samples was taken prior to 15 weeks gestation; the remainder before 30 weeks. Logistic regression, controlling for maternal age, gestational age, and sample type (plasma/serum) was used to model the association between IGFs and maternal cancer risk. Neither IGF-I nor IGF-II were associated with breast or cervical cancer. IGF-binding protein (BP)-3 was not related to breast cancer, but there was a suggestion that women in the highest compared to lowest quartile of IGFBP-3 had reduced risk of cervical cancer, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.86). In conclusion, the importance of IGFs measured in pregnancy and later breast and cervical cancer remains unclear, though IGFBP-3 may be a marker of lowered risk.
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Is maternal education level associated with diet in 10-year-old children?
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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To examine the associations between maternal education level and diet in 10-year-old children.
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Are dietary patterns in childhood associated with IQ at 8 years of age? A population-based cohort study.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Little is known about the effects of overall diet in childhood and intelligence later in life.
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Parental accounts of the prevalence, causes and treatments of limb pain in children aged 5 to 13 years: a longitudinal cohort study.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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The frequency, cause and treatment of limb pain were ascertained in a cohort of children at six time points between the ages of 5 and 13 years. Data were collected using self-completion questionnaires sent to the chief carers of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Reports of limb pain over the study period doubled from 15.1% of children aged 5 to 32.5% aged 13; 3.4% of children had limb pain at all time points, 43.4% never reported limb pain and 56.6% reported limb pain on at least one occasion. Growing pains were the most common cause given for limb pains. Limb pain and growing pains were each associated with a family history of arthritis and rheumatism. Limb pain prevalence may have been under-reported in this study due to gradual attrition, particularly in the less educated mothers among whom the highest prevalence of limb pain was reported.
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Progression from childhood overweight to adolescent obesity in a large contemporary cohort.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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The overweight - as distinct from obese - child is a potential target for obesity prevention interventions, on the assumption that overweight often progresses to obesity. However, there is limited empirical evidence on the probability that overweight progresses to obesity in contemporary children. Aim. To quantify progression from overweight to obesity in a large contemporary cohort of children.
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Use of accelerometer data in prediction equations for capturing implausible dietary intakes in adolescents.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Reporting errors have been quantified in epidemiologic studies by comparing reported intakes with predicted energy requirements (pERs). Several studies lacking measures of physical activity level (PAL) assigned low-active levels to obtain pERs.
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Feeding symptoms, dietary patterns, and growth in young children with autism spectrum disorders.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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To investigate the feeding, diet and growth of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
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FADS2 polymorphisms modify the effect of breastfeeding on child IQ.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2010
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Breastfeeding is important for child cognitive development. A study by Caspi et al has suggested that rs174575 within the FADS2 gene moderates this effect so that children homozygous in the minor allele (GG genotype) have similar IQs irrespective of feeding method.
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Diet throughout childhood and age at menarche in a contemporary cohort of British girls.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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To investigate associations between dietary intakes throughout childhood and age at menarche, a possible indicator of future risk of disease, in a contemporary cohort of British girls.
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Long-term consequences of early fruit and vegetable feeding practices in the United Kingdom.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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To describe fruit and vegetable (FV) feeding practices at 6 months, and to examine whether these practices predict childrens FV intake at 7 years of age.
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Influences on child fruit and vegetable intake: sociodemographic, parental and child factors in a longitudinal cohort study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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To examine the sociodemographic, parental and child factors that predict fruit and vegetable consumption in 7-year-old children.
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Maternal macronutrient and energy intakes in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 y: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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High maternal dietary intakes in pregnancy may lead to increased fetal growth and program neuroendocrine pathways that result in greater appetite, energy intake, and adiposity in offspring later in life. Few prospective dietary studies have explored this relation.
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Age- and sex-standardised lean and fat indices derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis for ages 7-11 years: functional associations with cardio-respiratory fitness and grip strength.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Indices for lean and fat mass adjusted for height derived from bioelectrical impedance for children aged 7 years have been published previously and their usefulness in the clinical assessment of undernutrition has been demonstrated. However, there is a need for norms that cover a wider age range and to explore their functional significance. The aim of the present study is to derive lean and fat indices for children aged 7-11 years and investigate associations with objective measures of cardio-respiratory fitness and grip strength. Subjects were 9574 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) data collected longitudinally between ages 7 and 11 were used to derive lean and fat indices using the method of standardised residuals. Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) (9 years) and grip strength (11 years) were also measured. Correlation coefficients and 95 % CI were calculated to assess the strength of association between lean index, fat index and CRF and grip strength. Equations for calculating lean and fat indices in children aged 7-11 years relative to the ALSPAC population are presented. Lean index was linearly associated with CRF (rboys 0.20 (95 % CI 0.15, 0.25), rgirls 0.26 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.30)) and grip strength (rboys 0.29 (95 % CI 0.26, 0.32), rgirls 0.26 (95 % CI 0.23, 0.29)). BMI showed slightly weaker associations, while fat index was unrelated to either CRF or grip strength. Lean indices relate to muscle function and fitness while fat index does not.
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Associations between the ability to detect a bitter taste, dietary behavior, and growth: a preliminary report.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) has been used to assess the relationships between the 10-year-old childs response to a bitter taste test using PROP, features of early childhood feeding characteristics and 10-year-old height, weight, and body mass index. Children who were tasters (75% of sample) were slightly more likely to have been described as fussy eaters than the nontasters, and the supertasters were more likely to be in the lowest height decile at age 10.
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Assessing diet in longitudinal birth cohort studies.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Diet is an important component of a persons environment. It is important for adults and particularly for mothers during pregnancy and while breast feeding, and for children in utero and during later growth and development. Measurement of the type and amount of foods consumed is complex. Here we describe the different methods that can be used, when and when not to use each one, and the importance of validation studies.
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is associated with spinal BMD in 9-year-old children.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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The C677T MTHFR polymorphism has been associated with lumbar spine and hip BMD. In older adults, the genetic effect has been reported in women only. However, in younger adults, this influence may only be present in men. This study is the first to investigate associations between the C677T MTHFR polymorphism and bone phenotypes in children. Regression analyses were used to study the relationship between MTHFR genotype and bone phenotypes derived from total body DXA scans in children 9.9 yr of age from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 5816 children had both genetic and DXA data for the total body less head region (TBLH) and 3196 for the spine. A strong association was observed between the C677T MTHFR genotype and spine BMD (p < 0.001; 0.10 SD decrease per T allele). There was some evidence that this genetic effect was stronger in boys compared with girls (p = 0.04 for sex interaction). In contrast, there was no association between the C677T MTHFR genotype and TBLH BMD. The association between MTHFR genotype and spine BMD was attenuated particularly in girls by high maternal dietary intakes of vitamin B(6) and folate during pregnancy but not by child dietary intakes at 7 yr. To the extent that these findings reflect known influences of C677T MTHFR genotype on plasma homocysteine levels, our results suggest that the latter is an important regulator of spinal BMD in childhood.
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High levels of depressive symptoms in pregnancy with low omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Depression during pregnancy has adverse consequences for both mother and child. Although common in western countries, depression appears to be virtually absent in countries with high seafood intake. We test the hypothesis that low seafood intake during pregnancy is associated with increased prevalence of depressive symptoms.
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Infancy weight gain predicts childhood body fat and age at menarche in girls.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Rapid postnatal weight gain has been associated with subsequent increased childhood adiposity. However, the contribution of rapid weight gain during specific infancy periods is not clear. Objective: We aimed to determine which periods of infancy weight gain are related to childhood adiposity and also to age at menarche in UK girls.
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Delayed introduction of lumpy foods to children during the complementary feeding period affects childs food acceptance and feeding at 7 years of age.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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The study aimed to follow up children who had been introduced to lumpy solids (chewy foods) at different ages, and to assess their dietary intake and feeding difficulties at seven years of age. Information was collected from a geographically defined population of 7821 mothers of children born in 1991/92, part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Self-report questionnaires were completed by the mother about her child at 6 months, 15 months, and 7 years postpartum about food foods eaten and feeding difficulties. Children were divided into three groups based on the age at which they were first introduced to lumpy solids: 12.1% were introduced before 6 months of age, 69.8% were introduced between 6 and 9 months of age and 18.1% were introduced after 9 months. Children introduced to lumpy solids after the age of 9 months ate less of many of the food groups at seven years, including all 10 categories of fruit and vegetables, than those introduced to lumpy foods between 6-9 months (P < 0.05-0.001). In addition they were reported as having significantly more feeding problems at seven years (P < 0.05-0.001). The long-term feeding problems and reduced consumption of important food groups such as fruit and vegetables in children who are introduced to lumpy foods after the age of 9 months is a cause for concern. Health professionals must encourage the progression from purees and exposure to important food groups.
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Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.
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Vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and childs IQ at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.
PLoS ONE
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Vitamin B-12 is essential for the development and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Brain development occurs primarily in utero and early infancy, but the role of maternal vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy on offspring cognitive function is unclear. In this study we assessed the effect of vitamin B-12 status in well-nourished pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC). We then examined the association of SNPs in maternal genes FUT2 (rs492602) and TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) that are related to plasma vitamin B-12, with offspring IQ. Observationally, there was a positive association between maternal vitamin B-12 intake and childs IQ that was markedly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (mean difference in offspring IQ score per doubling of maternal B-12 intake, before adjustment: 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 2.8); after adjustment: 0.7 (95% CI -0.04, 1.4)). Maternal FUT2 was weakly associated with offspring IQ: mean difference in IQ per allele was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1, 1.6). The expected effect of maternal vitamin B-12 on offspring IQ, given the relationships between SNPs and vitamin B-12, and SNPs and IQ was consistent with the observational result. Our findings suggest that maternal vitamin B-12 may not have an important effect on offspring cognitive ability. However, further examination of this issue is warranted.
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Longitudinal comparisons of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in 7- to 13-year-old children.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. The present study aims to derive dietary patterns using cluster analysis at three ages in children and track these patterns over time. In all, 3 d diet diaries were completed for children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at 7, 10 and 13 years. Children were grouped based on the similarities between average weight consumed (g/d) of sixty-two food groups using k-means cluster analysis. A total of four clusters were obtained at each age, with very similar patterns being described at each time point: Processed (high consumption of processed foods, chips and soft drinks), Healthy (high consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, vegetables and water), Traditional (high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables) and Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings and snacks). The number of children remaining in the same cluster at different ages was reasonably high: 50 and 43% of children in the Healthy and Processed clusters, respectively, at age 7 years were in the same clusters at age 13 years. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of remaining in the Healthy cluster at each time point – children whose mothers had the highest level of education were nine times more likely to remain in that cluster compared to those with the lowest. Cluster analysis provides a simple way of examining changes in dietary patterns over time, and similar underlying patterns of diet at two ages during late childhood, that persisted through to early adolescence.
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A review of methods to assess parental feeding practices and preschool childrens eating behavior: the need for further development of tools.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles were retrieved, and further searching of reference lists and contact with experts produced an additional 18 articles. We identified three tools on the qualitative dimension of childrens eating behavior, two tools on food intake or preferences, and one tool on parental feeding practices with rigorous testing of internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. All other tools presented in this review need further evaluation of their validity or reliability. Because major gaps exist, we highlight the need for more tools on parental attention to childrens hunger and satiety cues, and the need to evaluate the degree of control allowed to children younger than age 2 years in feeding events. Food avoidance (ie, behaviors or strategies to take away and to reject food) and food approach (ie, attractiveness for food stimuli) have not been assessed in children aged 12 to 24 months. Food preference tests based on sensory aspects rather than nutritional quality may be worth investigating. We identified a need for further evaluation of quality, especially test-retest reliability and construct validity, for most tools developed for use in studying children aged 0 to 5 years.
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Dietary patterns of infants and toddlers are associated with nutrient intakes.
Nutrients
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Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrient intakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrient intake data (n = 725 at 6-8 months, n = 535 at 15-18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrient intake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6-8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6-8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition.
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Dietary patterns throughout childhood and associations with nutrient intakes.
Public Health Nutr
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To examine how the dietary patterns of children at various time points throughout childhood relate to estimated nutrient intakes.
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Dietary patterns obtained through principal components analysis: the effect of input variable quantification.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Principal components analysis (PCA) is a popular method for deriving dietary patterns. A number of decisions must be made throughout the analytic process, including how to quantify the input variables of the PCA. The present study aims to compare the effect of using different input variables on the patterns extracted using PCA on 3-d diet diary data collected from 7473 children, aged 10 years, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Four options were examined: weight consumed of each food group (g/d), energy-adjusted weight, percentage contribution to energy of each food group and binary intake (consumed/not consumed). Four separate PCA were performed, one for each intake measurement. Three or four dietary patterns were obtained from each analysis, with at least one component that described more healthy and less healthy diets and one component that described a diet with high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables. There were no obvious differences between the patterns derived using percentage energy as a measurement and adjusting weight for total energy intake, compared to those derived using gram weights. Using binary input variables yielded a component that loaded positively on reduced fat and reduced sugar foods. The present results suggest that food intakes quantified by gram weights or as binary variables both resulted in meaningful dietary patterns and each method has distinct advantages: weight takes into account the amount of each food consumed and binary intake appears to describe general food preferences, which are potentially easier to modify and useful in public health settings.
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Do ?-3 or other fatty acids influence the development of growing pains? A prebirth cohort study.
BMJ Open
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To assess whether the prevalence of growing pains varies with indicators of fatty acid exposure. Growing pains (limb pains of no obvious explanation) have been shown to be strongly linked to a family history of arthritis, and are thought to predict an increased risk of the development of arthritis in adulthood. Much has been made of the possibility of fatty acids, particularly the ?-3 fatty acids, playing a preventive role in the development of arthritis, but little research has been undertaken to determine whether such fatty acids might reduce the risk of growing pains. We aimed to assess whether the prevalence of growing pains varies with indicators of fatty acid exposures.
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Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
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Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years.
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Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.
Br. J. Nutr.
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There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the vegetarian dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ? 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development.
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Higher fasting plasma free fatty acid levels are associated with lower insulin secretion in children and adults and a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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There are limited data in humans on the association between fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels and pancreatic ?-cell function.
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The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.
Matern Child Nutr
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Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: family foods associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; sweet and easy associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); health conscious associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the family foods and the health conscious patterns, and decreased scores on the sweet and easy pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the family foods and the health conscious patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships.
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An index measuring adherence to complementary feeding guidelines has convergent validity as a measure of infant diet quality.
J. Nutr.
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The complementary feeding period is an important stage of child development. The study aim was to develop an index reflecting the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines, evaluate its convergent validity, and explore associations with socio-demographic factors and dietary pattern scores in childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 6065) using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age, socio-demographic information, and dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis at age 3 y. The Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI) consists of 14 components: breastfeeding duration, feeding to appetite, timing of introduction to solids, exposure to iron-rich cereals, fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to high-fat/-salt/-sugar foods including sugary drinks, food texture, and meal/snack frequency. Regression analyses were undertaken to investigate associations between index scores, socio-demographic factors, food and nutrient intakes, and dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. Milk and food intake at 6 mo and nutrient intake at 8 mo of age varied across quintiles of index score in largely the expected directions. Associations were found among index score, maternal age, education, social class, maternal smoking history, and prepregnancy BMI. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the index score was associated with "processed" [? = -0.234 (95% CI = -0.260, -0.209)] and "healthy" [? = 0.185 (95% CI = 0.155, 0.215)] dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. The CFUI is able to discriminate across food intake, nutrient intake, and socio-demographic factors and is associated with later dietary patterns.
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Characterization of transition diets spanning infancy and toddlerhood: a novel, multiple-time-point application of principal components analysis.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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The portrayal of diet over time is a natural progression from the characterization of diet at single time points. The transition dietary period, a dynamic period of rapid dietary change spanning infancy and toddlerhood when children shift from a milk-based to a food-based diet, has not been characterized.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.