Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13%) and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%). Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73) and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog) as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117). In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.
Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animals death in such pet services.
Since little information is available regarding cellular antigen mapping and the involvement of non-neuronal cells in the pathogenesis of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) infection, it were determined the BHV-5 distribution, the astrocytic reactivity, the involvement of lymphocytes and the presence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the brain of rabbits experimentally infected with BHV-5. Twelve New Zealand rabbits that were seronegative for BHV-5 were used for virus inoculation, and five rabbits were used as mock-infected controls. The rabbits were kept in separate areas and were inoculated intranasally with 500 ?l of virus suspension (EVI 88 Brazilian isolate) into each nostril (virus titer, 10(7.5) TCID50). Control rabbits were inoculated with the same volume of minimum essential medium. Five days before virus inoculation, the rabbits were submitted to daily administration of dexamethasone. After virus inoculation, the rabbits were monitored clinically on a daily basis. Seven rabbits showed respiratory symptoms and four animals exhibited neurological symptoms. Tissue sections were collected for histological examination and immunohistochemistry to examine BHV-5 antigens, astrocytes, T and B lymphocytes and MMP-9. By means of immunohistochemical and PCR methods, BHV-5 was detected in the entire brain of the animals which presented with neurological symptoms, especially in the trigeminal ganglion and cerebral cortices. Furthermore, BHV-5 antigens were detected in neurons and/or other non-neural cells. In addition to the neurons, most infiltrating CD3 T lymphocytes observed in these areas were positive for MMP-9 and also for BHV-5 antigen. These infected cells might contribute to the spread of the virus to the rabbit brain along the trigeminal ganglia and olfactory nerve pathways.
To evaluate the most controversial issue concerning current feline coronavirus (FCoV) virology, the coexisting hypotheses of the intrahost and interhost origins of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in regard to the pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), this study aimed to assess the molecular diversity of the membrane gene FCoVs in 190 samples from 10 cats with signs of FIP and in 5 faecal samples from cats without signs of FIP. All samples from the non-FIP cats and 25.26% of the samples from the FIP cats were positive for the FCoV membrane (M) gene. Mutations in this gene consisted of SNP changes randomly scattered among the sequences; few mutations resulted in amino acid changes. No geographic pattern was observed. Of the cats without FIP that harboured FECoV, the amino acid sequence identities for the M gene were 100% among cats (Cats 1-3) from the same cattery, and the overall sequence identity for the M gene was ?91%. In one cat, two different lineages of FCoV, one enteric and one systemic, were found that segregated apart in the M gene tree. In conclusion, the in vivo mutation transition hypothesis and the circulating high virulent-low virulent FCoV hypothesis have been found to be plausible according to the results obtained from sequencing the M gene.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be created by forcing expression of certain genes in fibroblasts or other somatic cell types, reversing them to a pluripotent state similar to that of embryonic stem cells (ESC). Here, we used human immature dental pulp stem cells (hIDPSCs) as an alternative source for creating iPSC. hIDPSCs can be easily isolated from accessible tissue of young and adult patients. hIDPSCs possess a fibroblast-like morphology, retaining characteristics of adult multipotent stem cells. Reprogramming of hIDPSCs was fast, producing primary hIDPSC-iPSC colonies even under feeder-free conditions. hIDPSCs acquired ESC-like morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, possessed stable, normal karyotypes, and demonstrated the ability to differentiated in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that hIDPSCs-iPSCs offer an advantageous cell system for future cell therapy and basic studies, particularly as a model for pediatric developmental disorders.
Reproductive experience (i.e., pregnancy and lactation) induces physiological changes in mammals. We recently showed that a previous reproductive experience can modulate the activity of dopaminergic hypothalamic systems while decreasing serum prolactin (PRL) levels and oxidative burst activity in peritoneal macrophages. Dopamine receptor antagonists increase serum PRL levels, and both PRL and dopamine receptors might be involved in the modulation of macrophage activity, providing a means of communication between the nervous and immune systems. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of PRL and the dopamine receptor D2 antagonist domperidone (DOMP) on the peritoneal activity of macrophages from primiparous and multiparous female rats during lactation. Oxidative bursts and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages were evaluated by flow cytometry. Primiparous and multiparous Wistar rats, during the period of lactation (i.e., days 5-7 after parturition) were used. Samples of peritoneal fluid from these rats were first incubated with PRL (10 and 100 nM) for different periods of time. The same procedure was repeated to evaluate the effects of DOMP (10 and 100 nM). Our results showed that macrophages from multiparous rats respond more effectively to in vitro incubation with PRL, especially with regard to oxidative bursts and the percentage of phagocytosis. Additionally, these effects were more pronounced after 30 min of incubation. These data suggest that reproductive experience is associated with a reduction in serum PRL levels, and cells in experienced female animals, including their macrophages, become more sensitive to the effects of PRL.
Parte superior do formulário Digite um texto ou endereço de um site ou traduza um documento. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological changes in lung parenchyma of pigs affected by interstitial lung disease induced after the infusion of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs). Ten female swines were submitted to pulmonary fibrosis induced by a single dose of intratracheal bleomicine sulfate. Animals were arranged into two groups: Group 1: induced-disease control and Group 2: cell therapy using BMMCs. Both groups were clinically evaluated for 180 days. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed at 90 and 180 days. BMMC sampling was performed in cell therapy group at 90 days. Euthanasia was performed, and samples were collected for histology and immunohistochemistry. The 90-days HRCT demonstrated typical interstitial lesions in pulmonary parenchyma similarly to human disease. The 180-days HRCT in Group 1 demonstrated advanced stages of the disease when compared with Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests the presence of pre-existent vessels and neoformed vessels as well as predominant young cells in the injured parenchyma of Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that cell therapy would promote a reconstructive response. Histology and HRCT analysis suggest a positive application of swine as a model for a bleomicine inducing of fibrotic interstitial pulmonary disease.
Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of postpartum female rats with morphine inhibits maternal behavior and stimulates foraging. Exposure to drugs of abuse may result in a progressive enhancement of their reinforcing effects. Puerperal treatment with morphine leads to reverse tolerance to this drug. The present study investigated whether repeated morphine treatment during late pregnancy may influence the effects of different morphine dosages on behavioral selection in lactating rats. Females were simultaneously exposed to pups and insects, and the choice between taking care of the pups and hunting insects was observed. Female Wistar rats were treated with morphine (3.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous [s.c.]) or saline for 5 days beginning on pregnancy day 17. On day 5 of lactation, animals were acutely challenged with morphine (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/kg, s.c.; MM0.5, MM1.0, and MM1.5 groups, respectively) or saline (MS group) and tested for predatory hunting and maternal behavior. Control groups were pretreated with saline and challenged with morphine (SM0.5, SM1.0, and SM1.5 groups) or saline (SS group). Animals treated with morphine during late pregnancy and acutely challenged with 1.0 mg/kg morphine (MM1.0 group) exhibited significantly decreased maternal behavior and enhanced hunting. This effect was not evident with the 0.5 mg/kg dose. The 1.5 mg/kg morphine dose decreased maternal behavior and increased hunting in both the MM1.5 group and in animals challenged with morphine after previous saline treatment (SM1.5 group). These results provide evidence of plasticity of the opioidergic role in behavioral selection during lactation.
Senna occidentalis is a weed toxic to different animal species. Very little is known about the effects of prolonged exposure to low doses of S. occidentalis on developmental toxicology. Thus, the present study proposes an approach to evaluate the perinatal toxicity of S. occidentalis seeds in goats. Twenty-one pregnant goats were fed rations containing 0% (control), 1% (So1 group), 2% (So2 group) and 4% (So4 group) mature S. occidentalis seeds from pregnancy detection on day 27 after mating until parturition; weight gains and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Fetuses were evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements; neonates were evaluated by body morphometry, weight gains, and serum biochemistry. Fetal resorption occurred in 2 So4 dams and one dam died. Only a few minor alterations in serum biochemistry occurred in dams and kids; even so one So4 group dam had tissue lesions as vacuolations in hepatocytes and kidneys; necrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscles and for the first time lesions were observed in sciatic nerve cells. No relevant alterations in body morphometry were observed. This study suggests that 4% S. occidentalis seeds is toxic for pregnant goats, but levels of seeds less than 4% have little impact on fetal and post birth body development.
Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (Solanaceae) is a native shrub very common in the Brazilian savanna. The fruit of this plant contains steroidal glycoalkaloids that may disrupt the endocrine system. Because this plant is employed in folk medicine for the management of diabetes, obesity and decreasing cholesterol levels, the present study determined the possible toxic effects of exposure to S. lycocarpum fruit from weaning (21 days old) until adult age (8 weeks of treatment) in male and female rats. In male rats, the plant reduced weight gain, while few significant differences were observed in female animals. Slight significant differences were observed in food and water consumption and in hematological parameters in treated rats. Reductions in adrenal gland, spleen, heart, kidneys and thymus weights of treated males were observed, while increased relative weights were detected in the heart, epididymises, lungs, seminal vesicles, and testicles. In females, no differences were observed in organ weights and few differences were observed in relative weights of some organs. The histopathologic study showed no alteration between groups. Serum biochemical parameters showed triglyceride reductions in treated animals of both sexes; in females, an increase in albumin and alanine aminotransferase levels and a reduction in total protein levels were noted. The present data therefore demonstrate sex-related differences in S. lycocarpum toxicity.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of connexin 32 (Cx 32) during remyelination of the peripheral nervous system, through a local injection of either 0,1% ethidium bromide solution or saline in the sciatic nerve of Cx 32 knockout mice. Euthanasia was performed ranging from 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 21 to 30 days after injection. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopical techniques were used to analyze the development of the lesions. Within the sciatic nerves, Schwann cells initially showed signs of intoxication and rejected their sheaths; after seven days, some thin newly formed myelin sheaths with uneven compactness and redundant loops (tomacula) were conspicuous. We concluded that the regeneration of lost myelin sheaths within the PNS followed the pattern already reported for this model in other laboratory species. Therefore, these results suggest that absence of Cx 32 did not interfere with the normal pattern of remyelination in this model in young mice.
Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion and natimortality in cattle. Host immune defense is capable to inhibit tachyzoite activity during acute infection, but there is no action against bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Activation and modulation of this response is controlled by cell mediators. The real-time RT-PCR technique was employed to detect some of those mediators during N. caninum infection. Holstein and Nelore calves intramuscularly infected with tachyzoites and uninfected controls were slaughtered at the sixth day post-infection and popliteal lymph node, liver and brain cortex samples were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR detected gene expression in all tissues. No significant variation of GAPDH gene expression was detected among groups, its amplification efficiency was similar to the other genes tested and it was used as the endogenous control for the analysis. Comparisons between infected and uninfected groups allowed the relative gene expression quantification. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha genes showed increased expression in some samples. iNOS and TGF-beta1 genes had some non-significant variations and IL-4 and IL-10 stayed practically unaltered.
Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) is an acute, progressive, and often fatal inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, affecting mainly small and toy dog breeds. A definitive diagnosis of GME can only be achieved through histopathologic examination of samples collected after death. This retrospective study describes transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDS) findings in dogs with confirmed clinical histopathology of GME. Eleven dogs were selected for this study. Sonographic findings in B-mode demonstrated diffuse decreased brain parenchyma echogenicity in 9 dogs, ventriculomegaly in 8 dogs, brain atrophy in 4 dogs, and hyperechoic focal lesions in 6 dogs. Color Doppler imaging revealed more obvious vessels of the arterial circle in 10 dogs. Spectral Doppler examination was performed in 10 dogs to detect the 6 major cerebral arteries of interest. The examination showed normal and high resistive index (RI) values in the outlined arteries. The TDS findings were consistent with pathology found on postmortem examination.
In this study, transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in bitches at different stages of pregnancy was evaluated. Three bitches were inoculated in the 3rd week and three in the 6th week of gestation with 10(8) tachyzoites of N. caninum (Nc-1 strain). All the infected bitches and at least one of their offspring presented anti-N. caninum antibodies according to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT > 400). The pups and their mothers were sacrificed and tissues from the central nervous system (CNS), popliteal lymph nodes, skeletal muscle, brain, lungs, heart and liver were analyzed for the presence of N. caninum using the nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The parasite was found in the pups in lymph node, CNS, heart and liver tissues using nested PCR. There was no difference in perinatal mortality between the offspring from bitches infected in the 3rd week of gestation (60%) and in the 6th week (53.8%).
Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions.
Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a poisonous plant found in Brazil and other tropical countries that often poison livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids calystegines and mainly swainsonine, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perinatal effects of I. carnea in goats.
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