Angiogenin (ANG) is a stress-activated ribonuclease that promotes the survival of motor neurons. Ribonuclease inactivating point mutations are found in a subset of patients with ALS, a fatal neurodegenerative disease with no cure. We recently showed that ANG cleaves tRNA within anticodon loops to produce 5'- and 3'-fragments known as tRNA-derived, stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs). Selected 5'-tiRNAs (e.g., tiRNA(Ala), tiRNA(Cys)) cooperate with the translational repressor Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) to displace the cap-binding complex eIF4F from capped mRNA, inhibit translation initiation, and induce the assembly of stress granules (SGs). Here, we show that translationally active tiRNAs assemble unique G-quadruplex (G4) structures that are required for translation inhibition. We show that tiRNA(Ala) binds the cold shock domain of YB-1 to activate these translational reprogramming events. We discovered that 5'-tiDNA(Ala) (the DNA equivalent of 5'-tiRNA(Ala)) is a stable tiRNA analog that displaces eIF4F from capped mRNA, inhibits translation initiation, and induces the assembly of SGs. The 5'-tiDNA(Ala) also assembles a G4 structure that allows it to enter motor neurons spontaneously and trigger a neuroprotective response in a YB-1-dependent manner. Remarkably, the ability of 5'-tiRNA(Ala) to induce SG assembly is inhibited by G4 structures formed by pathological GGGGCC repeats found in C9ORF72, the most common genetic cause of ALS, suggesting that functional interactions between G4 RNAs may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is traditionally considered to be an adaptor molecule that helps ribosomes to decode messenger RNA (mRNA) and synthesize protein. Recent studies have demonstrated that tRNAs also serve as a major source of small non-coding RNAs that possess distinct and varied functions. These tRNA fragments are heterogeneous in size, nucleotide composition, biogenesis and function. Here we describe multiple roles that tRNA fragments play in cell physiology and discuss their relevance to human health and disease.
Mitochondria are crucial players in the signaling and metabolic homeostasis of the plant cell. The molecular components that orchestrate the underlying processes, however, are largely unknown. Using a chemical biology approach, we exploited the responsiveness of Arabidopsis UDP-glucosyltransferase-encoding UGT74E2 towards mitochondrial perturbation in order to look for novel mechanisms regulating mitochondria-to-nucleus communication. The most potent inducers of UGT74E2 shared a (2-furyl)acrylate (FAA) substructure that negatively affected mitochondrial function and was identified before as an auxin transcriptional inhibitor. Based on these premises, we demonstrated that perturbed mitochondria negatively affect the auxin signaling machinery. Moreover, chemical perturbation of polar auxin transport and auxin biosynthesis was sufficient to induce mitochondrial retrograde markers and their transcript abundance was constitutively elevated in the absence of the auxin transcriptional activators ARF7 and ARF19.
Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known to be heterogeneous, and RFs detected by various methods exhibit different characteristics. In addition to interacting with the Fc region of immunoglobulin G (IgG), certain RFs are able to recognize idiotypes of antibodies. Given the important role of idiotypic interactions in regulating autoimmunity, we hypothesize that RF is involved in regulation of lymphocyte activity against autoimmune disease-inducing antigens via idiotype-anti-idiotype interactions with these lymphocytes.
Translational control of gene expression contributes to various aspects of immune function . Recent results by Brubaker et al.  show how alternative translation initiation produces distinct isoforms of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling (MAVS), an adaptor protein associated with RIG-I and MDA5 that possess unique immunomodulatory properties.
Stress granules (SGs) contain translationally-stalled mRNAs, associated preinitiation factors, and specific RNA-binding proteins. In addition, many signaling proteins are recruited to SGs and/or influence their assembly, which is transient, lasting only until the cells adapt to stress or die. Beyond their role as mRNA triage centers, we posit that SGs constitute RNA-centric signaling hubs analogous to classical multiprotein signaling domains such as transmembrane receptor complexes. As signaling centers, SG formation communicates a state of emergency, and their transient existence alters multiple signaling pathways by intercepting and sequestering signaling components. SG assembly and downstream signaling functions may require a cytosolic phase transition facilitated by intrinsically disordered, aggregation-prone protein regions shared by RNA-binding and signaling proteins.
Post-transcriptional mechanisms that modulate global and/or transcript-specific mRNA stability and translation contribute to the rapid and flexible control of gene expression in immune effector cells. These mechanisms rely on RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that direct regulatory complexes (e.g. exosomes, deadenylases, decapping complexes, RNA-induced silencing complexes) to the 3-untranslated regions of specific immune transcripts. Here, we review the surprising variety of post-transcriptional control mechanisms that contribute to gene expression in the immune system and discuss how defects in these pathways can contribute to autoimmune disease.
Vaults are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins (MVP, TEP1, vPARP) and vault?associated RNAs (vRNAs). Although the cellular functions of vaults remain unclear, vaults are strongly linked to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), the major obstacle to the efficient treatment of cancers. Available published data suggest that vaults and their components are frequently upregulated in broad variety of multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and tumors of different histological origin. Here, we provide detailed analysis of vault protein expression in post-surgery ovarian cancer samples from patients that were not exposed to chemotherapy. Our analysis suggests that vault proteins are expressed in the ovaries of healthy individuals but their expression in cancer patients is changed. Specifically, MVP, TEP1 and vPARP mRNA levels are significantly decreased in cancer samples with tendency of lower expression in higher-grade tumors. The pattern of vault protein mRNA expression is strongly correlated with the expression of other MDR-associated proteins such as MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP. Surprisingly, the protein levels of MVP, TEP1 and vPARP are actually increased in the higher?grade tumors suggesting existence of post-transcriptional regulation of vault component production.
A number of intracranial tumors demonstrate some degree of enlargement after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). It necessitates differentiation of their regrowth and various treatment-induced effects. Introduction of low-dose standards for SRS of benign neoplasms significantly decreased the risk of the radiation-induced necrosis after -management of schwannomas and meningiomas. Although in such cases a transient increase of the mass volume within several months after irradiation is rather common, it usually followed by spontaneous shrinkage. Nevertheless, distinguishing tumor recurrence from radiation injury is often required in cases of malignant parenchymal brain neoplasms, such as metastases and gliomas. The diagnosis is frequently complicated by histopathological heterogeneity of the lesion with coexistent viable tumor and treatment-related changes. Several neuroimaging modalities, namely structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion computed tomography (CT) and MRI, single-voxel and multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography with various radioisotope tracers, may provide valuable diagnostic information. Each of these methods has advantages and limitations that may influence its usefulness and accuracy. Therefore, use of a multimodal radiological approach seems reasonable. Addition of functional and metabolic neuroimaging to regular structural MRI investigations during follow-up after SRS of parenchymal brain neoplasms may permit detailed evaluation of the treatment effects and early prediction of the response. If tissue sampling of irradiated intracranial lesions is required, it is preferably performed with the use of metabolic guidance. In conclusion, differentiation of tumor progression and radiation-induced effects after intracranial SRS is challenging. It should be based on a complex evaluation of the multiple clinical, radiosurgical, and radiological factors.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is currently performed with 0.1 mm preciseness, which can be designated microradiosurgery. It requires advanced methods for visualizing the target, which can be effectively attained by a neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state (CISS) images.
Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) should be considered a standard treatment option for small and medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs). It results in a tumor control rate similar to that seen with microsurgery and provides better preservation of facial nerve function and hearing.
The availability of advanced computer-aided robotized devices for the Gamma Knife (i.e., an automatic positioning system and PerfeXion) resulted in significant changes in radiosurgical treatment strategy. The possibility of applying irradiation precisely and the significantly improved software for treatment planning led to the development of the original concept of robotic Gamma Knife microradiosurgery, which is comprised of the following: (1) precise irradiation of the lesion with regard to conformity and selectivity; (2) intentional avoidance of excessive irradiation of functionally important anatomical structures, particularly cranial nerves, located both within the target and in its vicinity; (3) delivery of sufficient radiation energy to the tumor with a goal of shrinking it while keeping the dose at the margins low enough to prevent complications. Realization of such treatment principles requires detailed evaluation of the microanatomy of the target area, which is achieved with an advanced neuroimaging protocol. From 2003, we applied the described microradiosurgical concept in our clinic for patients with benign skull base tumors. Overall, 75 % of neoplasms demonstrated shrinkage, and 47 % showed ?50 % and more volume reduction. Treatment-related complications were encountered in only 6 % of patients and were mainly related to transient cranial nerve palsy. Just 2 % of neoplasms showed regrowth after irradiation. In conclusion, applying the microradiosurgical principles based on advanced neuroimaging and highly precise treatment planning is beneficial for patients, providing a high rate of tumor shrinkage and a low morbidity rate.
In response to severe environmental stresses eukaryotic cells shut down translation and accumulate components of the translational machinery in stress granules (SGs). Since they contain mainly mRNA, translation initiation factors and 40S ribosomal subunits, they have been referred to as dominant accumulations of stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Here we present evidence that the robust heat shock-induced SGs of S. cerevisiae also contain translation elongation factors eEF3 (Yef3p) and eEF1B?2 (Tef4p) as well as translation termination factors eRF1 (Sup45p) and eRF3 (Sup35p). Despite the presence of the yeast prion protein Sup35 in heat shock-induced SGs, we found out that its prion-like domain is not involved in the SGs assembly. Factors eEF3, eEF1B?2 and eRF1 were accumulated and co-localized with Dcp2 foci even upon a milder heat shock at 42°C independently of P-bodies scaffolding proteins. We also show that eEF3 accumulations at 42°C determine sites of the genuine SGs assembly at 46°C. We suggest that identification of translation elongation and termination factors in SGs might help to understand the mechanism of the eIF2? factor phosphorylation-independent repression of translation and SGs assembly.
Under conditions of limited nutrients, eukaryotic cells reprogram protein expression in a way that slows growth but enhances survival. Recent data implicate stress granules, discrete cytoplasmic foci into which untranslated mRNPs are assembled during stress, in this process. In the October 1, 2011, issue of Genes & Development, Damgaard and Lykke-Andersen (p. 2057-2068) provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of a specific subset of mRNAs bearing 5-terminal oligopyrimidine tracts (5TOPs) by the structurally related stress granule proteins TIA-1 and TIAR.
Angiogenin is a stress-activated ribonuclease that cleaves tRNA within anticodon loops to produce tRNA-derived stress-induced fragments (tiRNAs). Transfection of natural or synthetic tiRNAs inhibits protein synthesis and triggers the phospho-eIF2?-independent assembly of stress granules (SGs), essential components of the stress response program. We show that selected tiRNAs inhibit protein synthesis by displacing eIF4G/eIF4A from uncapped > capped RNAs. tiRNAs also displace eIF4F, but not eIF4E:4EBP1, from isolated m(7)G cap. We identify a terminal oligoguanine motif that is required to displace the eIF4F complex, inhibit translation, and induce SG assembly. We show that the tiRNA-associated translational silencer YB-1 contributes to angiogenin-, tiRNA-, and oxidative stress-induced translational repression. Our data reveal some of the mechanisms by which stress-induced tRNA cleavage inhibits protein synthesis and activates a cytoprotective stress response program.
The objective of the present study was the evaluation of outcome in 130 patients with essential trigeminal neuralgia, who were treated using Leksell Gamma Knife model C with automatic positioning system and followed at least 24 months thereafter. Radiosurgery was guided by fused thin-sliced magnetic resonance (MR) and "bone window" computed tomographic (CT) images. In all cases, retrogasserian part of the trigeminal nerve at the level of trigeminal incisura was selected as a target, and one 4-mm collimator was used for delivery of the maximum irradiation dose of 90 Gy. The coordinates of the isocenter were adjusted for positioning of the nerve in the center of 80% isodose area, and were corrected in each individual case with regard to presence of distortion artifacts on MR images. Initial relief of the typical paroxysmal facial pain was marked in 127 patients (98%) within a median interval of 3 weeks after treatment. However, in 23 patients the pain re-appeared later on. Overall, at the time of the last follow-up 112 patients (86%) were pain-free, including 86 who remained both pain- and medication-free after initial radiosurgery. In 31 cases (24%), treatment was complicated by facial hypesthesia and/or paresthesia. In conclusion, radiosurgery of essential trigeminal neuralgia results in a high rate of initial pain relief, but pain recurrences and associated complications are not uncommon. The outcome may be influenced by various technical nuances; therefore, treatment should be preferably done in specialized clinical centers with sufficient expertise in the management of this disorder.
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Hwang et al. (2010) show that the cap-binding protein CBP80 promotes nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) at two steps. In this dual capacity, CBP80 may facilitate essential communication between the premature termination codon (PTC) and the exon-junction complex (EJC) to trigger NMD.
We present Rhodobase, a web-based meta-analytical tool for analysis of transcriptional regulation in a model anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The gene association meta-analysis is based on the pooled data from 100 of R. sphaeroides whole-genome DNA microarrays. Gene-centric regulatory networks were visualized using the StarNet approach (Jupiter, D.C., VanBuren, V., 2008. A visual data mining tool that facilitates reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. PLoS ONE 3, e1717) with several modifications. We developed a means to identify and visualize operons and superoperons. We designed a framework for the cross-genome search for transcription factor binding sites that takes into account high GC-content and oligonucleotide usage profile characteristic of the R. sphaeroides genome. To facilitate reconstruction of directional relationships between co-regulated genes, we screened upstream sequences (-400 to +20bp from start codons) of all genes for putative binding sites of bacterial transcription factors using a self-optimizing search method developed here. To test performance of the meta-analysis tools and transcription factor site predictions, we reconstructed selected nodes of the R. sphaeroides transcription factor-centric regulatory matrix. The test revealed regulatory relationships that correlate well with the experimentally derived data. The database of transcriptional profile correlations, the network visualization engine and the optimized search engine for transcription factor binding sites analysis are available at http://rhodobase.org.
During translation, aminoacyl-tRNAs are delivered to the ribosome by specialized GTPases called translation factors. Here, we report the tRNA binding to the P-site of 40 S ribosomes by a novel GTP-independent factor eIF2D isolated from mammalian cells. The binding of tRNA(i)(Met) occurs after the AUG codon finds its position in the P-site of 40 S ribosomes, the situation that takes place during initiation complex formation on the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site or on some other specific RNAs (leaderless mRNA and A-rich mRNAs with relaxed scanning dependence). Its activity in tRNA binding with 40 S subunits does not require the presence of the aminoacyl moiety. Moreover, the factor possesses the unique ability to deliver non-Met (elongator) tRNAs into the P-site of the 40 S subunit. The corresponding gene is found in all eukaryotes and includes an SUI1 domain present also in translation initiation factor eIF1. The versatility of translation initiation strategies in eukaryotes is discussed.
Angiogenin (ANG) is a secreted ribonuclease that cleaves tRNA to initiate a stress-response program in mammalian cells. Here we show that ANG inhibits protein synthesis and promotes arsenite- and pateamine A-induced assembly of stress granules (SGs). These effects are abrogated in cells transfected with the ANG inhibitor RNH1. Transfection of natural or synthetic 5- but not 3-tRNA fragments (tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs; tiRNAs) induces the phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha-independent assembly of SGs. Natural 5-tiRNAs but not 3-tiRNAs are capped with a 5-monophosphate that is required for optimal SG assembly. These findings reveal that SG assembly is a component of the ANG- and tiRNA-induced stress response program.
Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic foci at which untranslated mRNAs accumulate in cells exposed to environmental stress. We have identified ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an enzyme required for polyamine synthesis, and eIF5A, a polyamine (hypusine)-modified translation factor, as proteins required for arsenite-induced SG assembly. Knockdown of deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) or treatment with a deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitor (GC7) prevents hypusine modification of eIF5A as well as arsenite-induced polysome disassembly and stress granule assembly. Time-course analysis reveals that this is due to a slowing of stress-induced ribosome run-off in cells lacking hypusine-eIF5A. Whereas eIF5A only marginally affects protein synthesis under normal conditions, it is required for the rapid onset of stress-induced translational repression. Our results reveal that hypusine-eIF5A-facilitated translation elongation promotes arsenite-induced polysome disassembly and stress granule assembly in cells subjected to adverse environmental conditions.
We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20-25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially "selfish" genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small "transcriptional scream", but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a "living antibiotic".
Stress granules (SGs) are ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-containing assemblies that are formed in the cytoplasm in response to stress. Previously, we demonstrated that microtubule depolymerization inhibited SG formation. Here, we show that arsenate-induced SGs move throughout the cytoplasm in a microtubule-dependent manner, and microtubules are required for SG disassembly, but not for SG persistence. Analysis of SG movement revealed that SGs exhibited obstructed diffusion on an average, though sometimes SGs demonstrated rapid displacements. Microtubule depolymerization did not influence preformed SG number and size, but significantly reduced the average velocity of SG movement, the frequency of quick movement events, and the apparent diffusion coefficient of SGs. Actin filament disruption had no effect on the SG motility. In cycloheximide-treated cells SGs dissociated into constituent parts that then dissolved within the cytoplasm. Microtubule depolymerization inhibited cycloheximide-induced SG disassembly. However, microtubule depolymerization did not influence the dynamics of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in SGs, according to FRAP results. We suggest that the increase of SG size is facilitated by the transport of smaller SGs along microtubules with subsequent fusion of them. At least some protein components of SGs can exchange with the cytoplasmic pool independently of microtubules.
Environmental stresses inducing translation arrest are accompanied by the deposition of translational components into stress granules (SGs) serving as mRNA triage sites. It has recently been reported that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of SGs occurs as a result of a prolonged glucose starvation. However, these SGs did not contain eIF3, one of hallmarks of mammalian SGs. We have analyzed the effect of robust heat shock on distribution of eIF3a/Tif32p/Rpg1p and showed that it results in the formation of eIF3a accumulations containing other eIF3 subunits, known yeast SG components and small but not large ribosomal subunits and eIF2alpha/Sui2p. Interestingly, under these conditions, Dcp2p and Dhh1p P-body markers also colocalized with eIF3a. Microscopic analyses of the edc3Deltalsm4DeltaC mutant demonstrated that different scaffolding proteins are required to induce SGs upon robust heat shock as opposed to glucose deprivation. Even though eIF2alpha became phosphorylated under these stress conditions, the decrease in polysomes and formation of SGs occurred independently of phosphorylation of eIF2alpha. We conclude that under specific stress conditions, such as robust heat shock, yeast SGs do contain eIF3 and 40S ribosomes and utilize alternative routes for their assembly.
Stress-induced phosphorylation of eIF2alpha inhibits global protein synthesis to conserve energy for repair of stress-induced damage. Stress-induced translational arrest is observed in cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable eIF2alpha mutant (S51A), which indicates the existence of an alternative pathway of translational control. In this paper, we show that arsenite, heat shock, or ultraviolet irradiation promotes transfer RNA (tRNA) cleavage and accumulation of tRNA-derived, stress-induced small RNAs (tiRNAs). We show that angiogenin, a secreted ribonuclease, is required for stress-induced production of tiRNAs. Knockdown of angiogenin, but not related ribonucleases, inhibits arsenite-induced tiRNA production and translational arrest. In contrast, knockdown of the angiogenin inhibitor RNH1 enhances tiRNA production and promotes arsenite-induced translational arrest. Moreover, recombinant angiogenin, but not RNase 4 or RNase A, induces tiRNA production and inhibits protein synthesis in the absence of exogenous stress. Finally, transfection of angiogenin-induced tiRNAs promotes phospho-eIF2alpha-independent translational arrest. Our results introduce angiogenin and tiRNAs as components of a phospho-eIF2alpha-independent stress response program.
Major signaling cascades have been shown to play a role in the regulation of intracellular transport of organelles. In Xenopus melanophores, aggregation and dispersion of pigment granules are regulated by the second messenger cyclic AMP through the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA is bound to pigment granules where it forms complexes with molecular motors involved in pigment transport. Association of PKA with pigment granules occurs through binding to A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), whose identity remains largely unknown. In this study, we used mass spectrometry to examine an 80 kDa AKAP detected in preparations of purified pigment granules. We found that tryptic digests of granule protein fractions enriched in the 80 kDa AKAP contained peptides that corresponded to the actin-binding protein moesin, which has been shown to function as an AKAP in mammalian cells. We also found that recombinant Xenopus moesin interacted with PKA in vitro, copurified with pigment granules and bound to pigment granules in cells. Overexpression in melanophores of a mutant moesin lacking conserved PKA-binding domain did not affect aggregation of pigment granules but partially inhibited their dispersion. We conclude that Xenopus moesin is an AKAP whose PKA-scaffolding activity plays a role in the regulation of pigment dispersion in Xenopus melanophores.
Certain stress conditions can induce cleavage of tRNAs around the anticodon loop via the use of the ribonuclease angiogenin. The cellular factors that regulate tRNA cleavage are not well known. In this study we used normal and eIF2? phosphorylation-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and applied a microarray-based methodology to identify and compare tRNA cleavage patterns in response to hypertonic stress, oxidative stress (arsenite), and treatment with recombinant angiogenin. In all three scenarios mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in eIF2? phosphorylation showed a higher accumulation of tRNA fragments including those derived from initiator-tRNA(Met). We have shown that tRNA cleavage is regulated by the availability of angiogenin, its substrate (tRNA), the levels of the angiogenin inhibitor RNH1, and the rates of protein synthesis. These conclusions are supported by the following findings: (i) exogenous treatment with angiogenin or knockdown of RNH1 increased tRNA cleavage; (ii) tRNA fragment accumulation was higher during oxidative stress than hypertonic stress, in agreement with a dramatic decrease of RNH1 levels during oxidative stress; and (iii) a positive correlation was observed between angiogenin-mediated tRNA cleavage and global protein synthesis rates. Identification of the stress-specific tRNA cleavage mechanisms and patterns will provide insights into the role of tRNA fragments in signaling pathways and stress-related disorders.
In cells exposed to environmental stress, inhibition of translation initiation conserves energy for the repair of cellular damage. Untranslated mRNAs that accumulate in these cells move to discrete cytoplasmic foci known as stress granules (SGs). The assembly of SGs helps cells to survive under adverse environmental conditions. We have analyzed the mechanism by which hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress inhibits translation initiation and induces SG assembly in mammalian cells. Our data indicate that H(2)O(2) inhibits translation and induces the assembly of SGs. The assembly of H(2)O(2)-induced SGs is independent of the phosphorylation of eIF2?, a major trigger of SG assembly, but requires remodeling of the cap-binding eIF4F complex. Moreover, H(2)O(2)-induced SGs are compositionally distinct from canonical SGs, and targeted knockdown of eIF4E, a protein required for canonical translation initiation, inhibits H(2)O(2)-induced SG assembly. Our data reveal new aspects of translational regulation induced by oxidative insults.
Bacterial ribosomes stalled at the 3 end of malfunctioning messenger RNAs can be rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation. The SmpB protein forms a complex with the tmRNA, and the transfer-RNA-like domain (TLD) of the tmRNA then enters the A site of the ribosome. Subsequently, the TLD-SmpB module is translocated to the P site, a process that is facilitated by the elongation factor EF-G, and translation is switched to the mRNA-like domain (MLD) of the tmRNA. Accurate loading of the MLD into the mRNA path is an unusual initiation mechanism. Despite various snapshots of different ribosome-tmRNA complexes at low to intermediate resolution, it is unclear how the large, highly structured tmRNA is translocated and how the MLD is loaded. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a fusidic-acid-stalled ribosomal 70S-tmRNA-SmpB-EF-G complex (carrying both of the large ligands, that is, EF-G and tmRNA) at 8.3?Å resolution. This post-translocational intermediate (TI(POST)) presents the TLD-SmpB module in an intrasubunit ap/P hybrid site and a tRNA(fMet) in an intrasubunit pe/E hybrid site. Conformational changes in the ribosome and tmRNA occur in the intersubunit space and on the solvent side. The key underlying event is a unique extra-large swivel movement of the 30S head, which is crucial for both tmRNA-SmpB translocation and MLD loading, thereby coupling translocation to MLD loading. This mechanism exemplifies the versatile, dynamic nature of the ribosome, and it shows that the conformational modes of the ribosome that normally drive canonical translation can also be used in a modified form to facilitate more complex tasks in specialized non-canonical pathways.
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