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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Geographical and temporal body size variation in a reptile: roles of sex, ecology, phylogeny and ecology structured in phylogeny.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Geographical body size variation has long interested evolutionary biologists, and a range of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed patterns. It is considered to be more puzzling in ectotherms than in endotherms, and integrative approaches are necessary for testing non-exclusive alternative mechanisms. Using lacertid lizards as a model, we adopted an integrative approach, testing different hypotheses for both sexes while incorporating temporal, spatial, and phylogenetic autocorrelation at the individual level. We used data on the Spanish Sand Racer species group from a field survey to disentangle different sources of body size variation through environmental and individual genetic data, while accounting for temporal and spatial autocorrelation. A variation partitioning method was applied to separate independent and shared components of ecology and phylogeny, and estimated their significance. Then, we fed-back our models by controlling for relevant independent components. The pattern was consistent with the geographical Bergmann's cline and the experimental temperature-size rule: adults were larger at lower temperatures (and/or higher elevations). This result was confirmed with additional multi-year independent data-set derived from the literature. Variation partitioning showed no sex differences in phylogenetic inertia but showed sex differences in the independent component of ecology; primarily due to growth differences. Interestingly, only after controlling for independent components did primary productivity also emerge as an important predictor explaining size variation in both sexes. This study highlights the importance of integrating individual-based genetic information, relevant ecological parameters, and temporal and spatial autocorrelation in sex-specific models to detect potentially important hidden effects. Our individual-based approach devoted to extract and control for independent components was useful to reveal hidden effects linked with alternative non-exclusive hypothesis, such as those of primary productivity. Also, including measurement date allowed disentangling and controlling for short-term temporal autocorrelation reflecting sex-specific growth plasticity.
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Phenotypic resonance from a single meal in an insectivorous lizard.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Environmental variations are usually thought to require a nonanecdotal intensity or duration to have major effects on individuals and evolutionary outputs. However, environmental variations of weak intensity and short duration could be of major importance when they influence key targets or critical stages. Because conditions experienced early in life can be critical determinants of life history trajectories, especially early nutrition, we tested this hypothesis by experimentally manipulating the first meal of life in the lizard Zootoca vivipara. The species is a live-bearing lizard without parental care, and it consumes small arthropods. Neonates face a great challenge in acquiring their first meal, as is the case in many species that develop skills through learning to capture live prey. We show that this single meal had an overall and long-lasting impact. Effects on dispersal arose within 10 days, and we found effects 1-2 months later on growth, recapture probability, and juvenile survival. Interestingly, we detected effects on reproduction up to 2 years later. Such a "phenotypic resonance" reveals that the influence of small and ephemeral events should not be neglected by evolutionary biologists.
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Integrative analyses of speciation and divergence in Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae).
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Genetic, phenotypic and ecological divergence within a lineage is the result of past and ongoing evolutionary processes, which lead ultimately to diversification and speciation. Integrative analyses allow linking diversification to geological, climatic, and ecological events, and thus disentangling the relative importance of different evolutionary drivers in generating and maintaining current species richness.
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Superbasicity of a bis-guanidino compound with a flexible linker: a theoretical and experimental study.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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The bis-guanidino compound H(2)C{hpp}(2) (I; hppH = 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine) has been converted to the monocation [I-H](+) and isolated as the chloride and tetraphenylborate salts. Solution-state spectroscopic data do not differentiate the protonated guanidinium from the neutral guanidino group but suggest intramolecular "-N-H...N=" hydrogen bonding to form an eight-membered C(3)N(4)H heterocycle. Solid-state CPMAS (15)N NMR spectroscopy confirms protonation at one of the imine nitrogens, although line broadening is consistent with solid-state proton transfer between guanidine functionalities. X-ray diffraction data have been recorded over the temperature range 50-273 K. Examination of the carbon-nitrogen bond lengths suggests a degree of "partial protonation" of the neutral guanidino group at higher temperatures, with greater localization of the proton at one nitrogen position as the temperature is lowered. Difference electron density maps generated from high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies at 110 K give the first direct experimental evidence for proton transfer in a poly(guanidino) system. Computational analysis of I and its conjugate acid [I-H](+) indicate strong cationic resonance stabilization of the guanidinium group, with the nonprotonated group also stabilized, albeit to a lesser extent. The maximum barrier to proton transfer calculated using the Boese-Martin for kinetics method was 2.8 kcal mol(-1), with hydrogen-bond compression evident in the transition state; addition of zero-point vibrational energy values leads to the conclusion that the proton transfer is barrierless, implying that the proton shuttles freely between the two nitrogen atoms. Calculations determining the gas-phase proton affinity and the pK(a) in acetonitrile both indicate that compound I should behave as a superbase. This has been confirmed by spectrophotometric titrations in MeCN using polyphosphazene references, which give an average pK(a) of 28.98 +/- 0.05. Triadic analysis indicates that the dominant term causing the high basicity is the relaxation energy.
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Are dispersal-dependent behavioral traits produced by phenotypic plasticity?
J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Dispersal is a common response to deteriorating conditions such as intense competition, food limitation, predation or parasitism. Although it provides obvious advantages, dispersal is often assumed to be costly. Selection is therefore likely to have acted to decrease these costs, and indeed several studies demonstrated that dispersers and philopatric individuals differ in their morphology, physiology and/or behavior. Using the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) as our model system, we examined the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to the establishment of dispersal-dependent behavioral traits. We used a reciprocal transplant experiment in which conditions at the maternal site of origin, during offspring development in utero, and at the release site were manipulated. We then compared activity, social interactions and foraging behavior between individuals that stayed philopatric and those that dispersed. Most behavioral traits were also measured at birth and after the dispersal phase.This study demonstrates that (a) 10 months after the dispersal phase, there were still marked behavioral differences between dispersing and philopatric individuals, (b) the reaction when confronted to another individual was also dispersal-status dependent, a result which strongly suggests that individuals are able to recognize the dispersal status of same-age conspecifics and (c) none of the behavioral characteristics were found to be dependent on the environmental conditions (maternal and natal environment) indicating a lack of phenotypic plasticity in the building of the dispersal-dependent behavioral traits examined.
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Ectopic dirofilariosis in two dogs from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
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Report of two canine dirofilariosis cases of ectopic location in the state of Rio de Janeiro. This is the first report of erratic migration for this parasitosis in dogs in the state, calling attention to the short period of time between the two cases. The fact that the area is endemic for this parasite, its zoonotic potential and the report of human cases in the state, demonstrates that authorities should be alerted to the control programs of dirofilariosis along with the pathogenic profile of the infections.
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Assessing the congruence of thermal niche estimations derived from distribution and physiological data. A test using diving beetles.
PLoS ONE
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A basic aim of ecology is to understand the determinants of organismal distribution, the niche concept and species distribution models providing key frameworks to approach the problem. As temperature is one of the most important factors affecting species distribution, the estimation of thermal limits is crucially important for inferring range constraints. It is expectable that thermal physiology data derived from laboratory experiments and species occurrences may express different aspects of the species niche. However, there is no study systematically testing this prediction in a given taxonomic group while controlling by potential phylogenetic inertia. We estimate the thermal niches of twelve Palaearctic diving beetles species using physiological data derived from experimental analyses in order to examine the extent to which these coincided with those estimated from distribution models based on observed occurrences. We found that thermal niche estimates derived from both approaches lack general congruence, and these results were similar before and after controlling by phylogeny. The congruence between potential distributions obtained from the two different procedures was also explored, and we found again that the percentage of agreement were not very high (~60%). We confirm that both thermal niche estimates derived from geographical and physiological data are likely to misrepresent the true range of climatic variation that these diving beetles are able to tolerate, and so these procedures could be considered as incomplete but complementary estimations of an inaccessible reality.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.