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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.
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Comparative evaluation of 11 commercialized rapid diagnostic tests for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in serum banks in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Chagas disease is one of the main public health issues in Latin America. Increasingly during the past few decades, Trypanosoma cruzi infection has been detected in North America, Europe, and the Western Pacific, mainly as a result of population movement. The limited availability of rapid serological diagnostic tests hinders rapid diagnosis and early treatment in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity. In collaboration with 11 national reference laboratories (NRLs) from different geographical areas, we evaluated the performances of commercialized serological rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for T. cruzi infection. Eleven commercialized T. cruzi infection RDTs were evaluated on a total of 474 samples extensively tested with at least three different techniques for Chagas disease, maintained at controlled low temperatures, and stored in the serum banks of the 11 NRLs. We measured the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of each RDT and provided an additional questionnaire to evaluate its ease of use. The selected RDTs in this study were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. Out of the 11 RDTs, we found 8 of them to be useful, with the cassette format favored over the strip. We did not observe significant differences in RDT performances in the different regions. Overall, the performance results were lower than those disclosed by the manufacturers. The results of this evaluation validate the possibility of using RDTs to diagnose Chagas disease, thereby decreasing the time to treatment at a primary health care facility for patients who are willing to be treated. Further studies should be conducted in the laboratory and in the field to confirm these data, expressly to evaluate reproducibility in resource-limited settings, or using whole blood in clinical settings in areas of endemicity and nonendemicity.
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Nifurtimox therapy for Chagas disease does not cause hypersensitivity reactions in patients with such previous adverse reactions during benznidazole treatment.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Currently, only two drugs are approved for treating Trypanosoma cruzi infection: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Adverse reactions are frequent with both drugs: they have chemical similarities and common metabolic pathways making cross reactions a possibility. Our objective was to describe the safety/tolerability profile of nifurtimox in patients who had previously discontinued benznidazole due to hypersensitivity reactions. We performed a prospective observational study from September 2009 to December 2011. Patients who discontinued benznidazole therapy due to hypersensitivity reactions (HR) and were later treated with nifurtimox were included. HR to benznidazole were defined as presence of a rash with or without mucosal involvement, fever or laboratory abnormalities (such as eosinophilia, leucopaenia or impaired liver function tests). The drugs were prescribed for 60 days (benznidazole) or 60-90 days (nifurtimox). The National Cancer Institute criteria (CTCAE, 2006, Version 3.0) were used for grading and reporting of adverse reactions (AR). Eighteen patients (16 females, two males, median age 35.5 years, range 15-50 years) with asymptomatic late chronic infection, were included. Median time between benznidazole interruption and start of therapy with nifurtimox was 121.5 days (IQR 72-223 days). Fifteen patients (83.3%) developed an AR to nifurtimox, gastrointestinal complaints and anorexia being the most common, and 13 patients (72%) completed the treatment schedule. Five patients interrupted therapy (27.8%) mainly because of gastrointestinal intolerance and/or nervous system toxicity. Only one patient developed skin lesions, a mild maculopapular rash not requiring specific therapy or treatment withdrawal. There was no severe AR. Nifurtimox as second line therapy in patients who discontinued benznidazole specifically due to HR appears to be safe and does not seem to be associated with a higher incidence of AR.
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A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease.
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Validation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Latin-American Migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Chagas disease is a global public health problem due to the recent exchange of population between Latin America and other regions, including Europe. The recent development of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for Trypanosoma cruzi infection may improve patient access to diagnosis and care worldwide. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Chagas Stat-Pak RDT in a cohort of undocumented Latin-American migrants living in Geneva, Switzerland. Study participants were enrolled in a primary health care center. The Chagas Stat-Pak test was performed independently on blood and serum samples. A combination of two commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based serological tests was used for comparison (reference standard). A total of 999 adults (median age, 36 years) were included in the study; the majority were women (83%) and originally from Bolivia (47%) or Brazil (25%). A total of 125 participants (12.5%) were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection; with the exception of three individuals, all individuals diagnosed with T. cruzi were originally from Bolivia. The sensitivity and specificity of the Chagas Stat-Pak test on blood samples were 95.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 89.2% to 97.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI, 99.3% to 100%), respectively. When the test was performed on serum samples, the sensitivity was 96% (95% CI, 91% to 98.3%), and the specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.2% to 99.9%). The concordance of test results for blood and serum samples was 99.7%. Both negative and positive predictive values were above 98%. The Chagas Stat-Pak is an accurate diagnostic test for T. cruzi infection among Latin-American migrants living in Europe. The mild deficit in sensitivity should be interpreted in light of its ease of use and capacity to provide immediate results, which allow more people at risk to have access to diagnosis and care both in countries where Chagas disease is endemic and in countries where this disease is not endemic.
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Prevalence, clinical staging and risk for blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.
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Treatment and seroconversion in a cohort of children suffering from recent chronic Chagas infection in Yoro, Honduras.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Between 1999-2002, Médécins Sans Frontières-Spain implemented a project seeking to determine the efficacy and safety of benznidazole in the treatment of recent chronic Chagas disease in a cohort of seropositive children in the Yoro Department, Honduras. A total of 24,471 children were screened for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG antibodies through conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) on filter paper. Recombinant ELISA (0.93% seroprevalence) showed 256 initially reactive cases, including 232 confirmed positive cases. Of these, 231 individuals were treated with benznidazole (7.5 mg/kg/day) for 60 days and were followed with a strict weekly medical control and follow-up protocol. At the end of the project, 229 patients were examined by the Honduras Secretariat of Health for post-treatment serological assessments; 88.2% seroconverted after 18 months and 93.9% seroconverted after three years. No differences were found in the seroconversion rates according to age or sex. Most of the side effects of the treatment were minor. These results support the argument that in areas where T. cruzi I is predominant and in areas affected by T. cruzi II, when vector transmission has been interrupted, Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment are feasible, necessary and ethically indisputable.
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Feasibility, drug safety, and effectiveness of etiological treatment programs for Chagas disease in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia: 10-year experience of Médecins Sans Frontières.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Predominantly affecting populations in poor areas of Latin America, medical care for this neglected disease is often lacking. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF) has provided diagnostic and treatment services for Chagas disease since 1999. This report describes 10 years of field experience in four MSF programs in Honduras, Guatemala, and Bolivia, focusing on feasibility protocols, safety of drug therapy, and treatment effectiveness.
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Clinical and laboratory status of patients with chronic Chagas disease living in a vector-controlled area in Minas Gerais, Brazil, before and nine years after aetiological treatment.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Twenty-eight Chagas disease patients (CD), 22 with the indeterminate clinical form (IND) and six with the cardiac or digestive form (CARD/DIG), were treated with benznidazole and underwent clinical and laboratorial analysis before (IND and CARD/DIG) and nine years after [patients after treatment (CDt), patients with the indeterminate clinical form at treatment onset (INDt) and with the cardiac or digestive form at treatment onset (CARD/DIGt)] treatment. The data demonstrate that 82.1% of CDt patients (23/28) remained clinically stable and 95.4% of the INDt (21/22) and 33.3% of the CARD/DIGt (2/6) patients showed unaltered physical and laboratorial examinations. The clinical evolution rate was 2%/year and was especially low in INDt patients (0.5%/year) relative to CARD/DIGt patients (7.4%/year). Positive haemoculture in treated patients was observed in 7.1% of the cases. None of the INDt (0/21) and 33.3% of the CARD/DIGt (2/6) patients displayed positive cultures. The PCR presented a positive rate significantly higher (85.2%, 23/27) than haemoculture and two samples from the same patient revealed the same result 57.7% of the patients. Conventional serology-ELISA on 16 paired samples remained positive in all individuals. Semi-quantitative ELISA highlighted significant decreases in reactivity, particularly in INDt relative to IND. Non-conventional serology-FC-ALTA-IgG, after treatment, showed positive results in all sera and 22 paired samples examined at seven and nine years after treatment, demonstrated significantly lower reactivity, particularly in INDt patients. This study was retrospective in nature, had a low number of samples and lacked an intrinsic control group, but the data corroborate other results found in the literature. The data also demonstrate that, even though a cure has not been detected in the none-treated patients, the benefits for clinical evolution were selectively observed in the group of INDt patients and did not occur for CARD/DIGt patients.
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