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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Accuracy of Brain Multimodal Monitoring to Detect Cerebral Hypoperfusion After Traumatic Brain Injury.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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To examine the accuracy of brain multimodal monitoring-consisting of intracranial pressure, brain tissue PO2, and cerebral microdialysis-in detecting cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
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Surgical management of cervical spine instability in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.
Acta Reumatol Port
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Aim: Cross-sectional study that aims to evaluate the results of cervical spine surgeries due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) instability, between January of 2000 and of 2012 in a main Portuguese centre. Methods: Patients followed on Rheumatology submitted to cervical spine fusion due to atlantoaxial (AAI), sub-axial (SAI) or cranio-cervical (CCI) instabilities between 2000-2012 were included. Information about the surgical procedure and associated complications was gathered and imagiologic and clinical indexes before and after surgery (as anterior and posterior atlanto-axial interval and Ranawat index) were evaluated and compared using adequate statistics. Results: Forty-five patients with RA were included: 25 with AAI, 13 with CCI and 7 with SAI. Ten AAI and 4 CCI patients were submitted to wiring stabilization techniques; 15 AAI and 9 CCI patients to rigid ones; and in all patients with SAI an anterior cervical arthrodesis was chosen. There is a significant increase in PADI and a decrease in AADI in the postoperative evaluation (p.
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Trends and determinants of time in bed in geneva, Switzerland.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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There is limited information regarding sleep duration and determinants in Switzerland. We aimed to assess the trends and determinants of time in bed as a proxy for sleep duration in the Swiss canton of Geneva.
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Normobaric Hyperoxia is Associated with Increased Cerebral Excitotoxicity After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.
Neurocrit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Normobaric oxygen therapy is frequently applied in neurocritical care, however, whether supplemental FiO2 has beneficial cerebral effects is still controversial. We examined in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) the effect of incremental FiO2 on cerebral excitotoxicity, quantified by cerebral microdialysis (CMD) glutamate.
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FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177 330 individuals.
Qibin Qi, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Mary K Downer, Toshiko Tanaka, Caren E Smith, Ivonne Sluijs, Emily Sonestedt, Audrey Y Chu, Frida Renstrom, Xiaochen Lin, Lars H Angquist, Jinyan Huang, Zhonghua Liu, Yanping Li, Muhammad Asif Ali, Min Xu, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Jolanda M A Boer, Peng Chen, Makoto Daimon, Johan Eriksson, Markus Perola, Yechiel Friedlander, Yu-Tang Gao, Denise H M Heppe, John W Holloway, Denise K Houston, Stavroula Kanoni, Yu-Mi Kim, Maarit A Laaksonen, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Nanette R Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Wei Lu, Robert N Luben, Ani Manichaikul, Satu Mannisto, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Keri L Monda, Julius S Ngwa, Louis Pérusse, Frank J A van Rooij, Yong-Bing Xiang, Wanqing Wen, Mary K Wojczynski, Jingwen Zhu, Ingrid B Borecki, Claude Bouchard, Qiuyin Cai, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Luigi Ferrucci, Nita G Forouhi, Torben Hansen, Lene Christiansen, Albert Hofman, Ingegerd Johansson, Torben Jørgensen, Shigeru Karasawa, Kay-Tee Khaw, Mi-Kyung Kim, Kati Kristiansson, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin, Yongmei Liu, Kurt K Lohman, Jirong Long, Vera Mikkilä, Dariush Mozaffarian, Kari North, Oluf Pedersen, Olli Raitakari, Harri Rissanen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yvonne T van der Schouw, André G Uitterlinden, M Carola Zillikens, Oscar H Franco, E Shyong Tai, Xiao Ou Shu, David S Siscovick, Ulla Toft, W M Monique Verschuren, Peter Vollenweider, Nicholas J Wareham, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Wei Zheng, Paul M Ridker, Jae H Kang, Liming Liang, Majken K Jensen, Gary C Curhan, Louis R Pasquale, David J Hunter, Karen L Mohlke, Matti Uusitupa, L Adrienne Cupples, Tuomo Rankinen, Marju Orho-Melander, Tao Wang, Daniel I Chasman, Paul W Franks, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Frank B Hu, Ruth J F Loos, Jennifer A Nettleton, Lu Qi.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177 330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity.
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Diabetes risk scores and death: predictability and practicability in two different populations.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The aim was to examine the capacity of commonly used type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk scores to predict overall mortality. The US-based NHANES III (n = 3138; 982 deaths) and the Swiss-based CoLaus study (n = 3946; 191 deaths) were used. The predictive value of eight T2DM risk scores regarding overall mortality was tested. The Griffin score, based on few self-reported parameters, presented the best (NHANES III) and second best (CoLaus) predictive capacity. Generally, the predictive capacity of scores based on clinical (anthropometrics, lifestyle, history) and biological (blood parameters) data was not better than of scores based solely on clinical self-reported data. T2DM scores can be validly used to predict mortality risk in general populations without diabetes. Comparison with other scores could further show whether such scores also suit as a screening tool for quick overall health risk assessment.
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Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.
Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo, Richard J Silverwood, Yiran Guo, Zheng Ye, David Prieto-Merino, Abbas Dehghan, Stella Trompet, Andrew Wong, Alana Cavadino, Dagmar Drogan, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Shanshan Li, Ajay Yesupriya, Maarten Leusink, Johan Sundström, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Hynek Pikhart, Daniel I Swerdlow, Andrie G Panayiotou, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Chris Finan, Sonia Shah, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Fulvio Ricceri, Olle Melander, Carlotta Sacerdote, Dale M Gamble, Sruti Rayaprolu, Owen A Ross, Stela McLachlan, Olga Vikhireva, Ivonne Sluijs, Robert A Scott, Vera Adamkova, Leon Flicker, Frank M van Bockxmeer, Christine Power, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Tom Meade, Michael G Marmot, José M Ferro, Sofia Paulos-Pinheiro, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Irene Mateo Leach, Niek Verweij, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten J Cramer, Pim van der Harst, Olaf H Klungel, Nicole F Dowling, Anna F Dominiczak, Meena Kumari, Andrew N Nicolaides, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Shah Ebrahim, Tom R Gaunt, Jackie F Price, Lars Lannfelt, Anne Peasey, Růžena Kubinova, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Mikhail I Voevoda, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Paul E Norman, Graeme J Hankey, Manuela M Bergmann, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jackie Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Wilko Spiering, Pim A de Jong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Ian Ford, Elina Hyppönen, Osvaldo P Almeida, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anders Hamsten, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Anne Tjønneland, Janne S Tolstrup, Eric Rimm, Joline W J Beulens, W M Monique Verschuren, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Richard Morris, Astrid M Vicente, Hugh Watkins, Martin Farrall, J Wouter Jukema, James Meschia, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen J Sharp, Myriam Fornage, Charles Kooperberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, James Y Dai, Matthew B Lanktree, David S Siscovick, Eric Jorgenson, Bonnie Spring, Josef Coresh, Yun R Li, Sarah G Buxbaum, Pamela J Schreiner, R Curtis Ellison, Michael Y Tsai, Sanjay R Patel, Susan Redline, Andrew D Johnson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Hakon Hakonarson, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Paul I W de Bakker, Mika Kivimäki, Folkert W Asselbergs, Naveed Sattar, Debbie A Lawlor, John Whittaker, George Davey Smith, Kenneth Mukamal, Bruce M Psaty, James G Wilson, Leslie A Lange, Ajna Hamidovic, Aroon D Hingorani, Børge G Nordestgaard, Martin Bobak, David A Leon, Claudia Langenberg, Tom M Palmer, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Frank Dudbridge, Juan P Casas, .
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease.
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[Chronic hypocalcemia due to anti-calcium sensing receptor antibodies].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Hypoparathyroidism is an entity associated with hypocalcemia, more frequently a consequence of neck surgery. An autoimmune etiology is rare and its diagnosis difficult to establish.
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Thyroid Carcinoma Detected by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Among Individuals Without Prior Evidence of Thyroid Disease: Relevance and Clinicopathological Features.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Objective: The expanding use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG-PET) has contributed to an increasing number of thyroid incidentalomas. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of 18F-FDG-PET thyroid incidentalomas and to evaluate the clinicopathological features of thyroid malignancies detected by 18F-FDG-PET.Methods: Revision of all 18F-FDG-PET exams performed at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology, Lisbon, between 2007 and 2012 (n=9374). The inclusion criteria were focal thyroid uptake and absence of known thyroid disease.Results: Focal thyroid uptake was observed in 60 out of 9374 18F-FDG-PET exams (prevalence of 0.64%). Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed in 23 patients and reported as malignant in 14 cases (56.5% primary thyroid carcinoma; 4.3% secondary malignancy), as benign in 7 cases (30.5%) and as follicular lesion of undetermined significance in 2 cases (8.7%).Fourteen patients had surgery. A final histological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was established in 12 cases (52.2%). Three were multifocal (25.0%); 8 had extrathyroidal extension (66.7%); 5 had angioinvasion (41.7%); 3 had lymph nodes metastases (25.0%) and 2 showed lung metastases (16.7%). Overall, 91.7% were classified as intermediate or high risk. All patients had radioiodine therapy. At the last observation (mean follow-up was 29.9 months), persistent or recurrent disease was identified in 4 patients (33.3%) and none died from thyroid malignancy.Conclusions: Thyroid carcinomas disclosed by 18F-FDG-PET are associated with aggressive histological criteria likely to carry a worse prognosis.
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Depression with atypical features and increase in obesity, body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass: a prospective, population-based study.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Depression and obesity are 2 prevalent disorders that have been repeatedly shown to be associated. However, the mechanisms and temporal sequence underlying this association are poorly understood.
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The use of statins in people at risk of developing diabetes mellitus: evidence and guidance for clinical practice.
Atheroscler Suppl
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins is associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) events in a wide range of patient populations. Although statins are generally considered to be safe, recent studies suggest they are associated with an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change their labelling requirements for statins to include a warning about the possibility of increased blood sugar and HbA1c levels and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to issue guidance on a small increased risk of T2D with the statin class. This review examines the evidence leading to these claims and provides practical guidance for primary care physicians on the use of statins in people with or at risk of developing T2D. Overall, evidence suggests that the benefits of statins for the reduction of CV risk far outweigh the risk of developing T2D, especially in individuals with higher CV risk. To reduce the risk of developing T2D, physicians should assess all patients for T2D risk prior to starting statin therapy, educate patients about their risks, and encourage risk-reduction through lifestyle changes. Whether some statins are more diabetogenic than others requires further study. Statin-treated patients at high risk of developing T2D should regularly be monitored for changes in blood glucose or HbA1c levels, and the risk of conversion from pre-diabetes to T2D should be reduced by intensifying lifestyle changes. Should a patient develop T2D during statin treatment, physicians should continue with statin therapy and manage T2D in accordance with relevant national guidelines.
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Clinical and biological determinants of kidney outcomes in a population-based cohort study.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Prospective studies on factors associated with adverse kidney outcomes in European general populations are scant. Also, few studies consider the potential confounding effect of baseline kidney function.
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Metformin safety in the management of gestational diabetes.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The use of metformin in pregnant women is still controversial, despite the increasing reports on metformin's safety and effectiveness. We aimed to evaluate the maternal and neonatal safety of metformin in subjects with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
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Calcium signalling from the type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor is required at early phase of liver regeneration.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Liver regeneration is a multistage process that unfolds gradually, with different mediators acting at different stages of regeneration. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) signalling is essential for liver regeneration. In hepatocytes, Ca(2+) signalling results from the activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3 R) of which two of the three known isoforms are expressed (InsP3 R-I and InsP3 R-II). Here, we investigated the role of the InsP3 R-I-dependent Ca(2+) signals in hepatic proliferation during liver regeneration.
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Automated quantitative pupillometry for the prognostication of coma after cardiac arrest.
Neurocrit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Sedation and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) delay neurological responses and might reduce the accuracy of clinical examination to predict outcome after cardiac arrest (CA). We examined the accuracy of quantitative pupillary light reactivity (PLR), using an automated infrared pupillometry, to predict outcome of post-CA coma in comparison to standard PLR, EEG, and somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEP).
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Aggressive pituitary lesion with a remarkably high Ki-67.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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The uncommon aggressive pituitary tumors are named carcinomas when metastases are detected, either in the central nervous system and/or systemically. Some cases are associated with hormonal overproduction, but most are diagnosed because of local symptoms. These neoplasias are generally refractory to current treatments. A 51 year-old woman presented sudden onset of headache, left arm paresis and left facial hypoesthesia. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pituitary tumor invading the left sphenoidal and cavernous sinuses. Laboratory data excluded hormonal hypersecretion. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery and histological findings showed a neoplasia with Ki-67 estimated at 75%. Medical imaging excluded both a primary occult tumor and central nervous system or systemic dissemination. Three weeks postoperatively, neurological condition worsened, with new onset of ataxia, bilateral ptosis, ophthalmoplegia and an increase in the size of the lesion, leading to surgical intervention by craniotomy, followed by only a few sessions of radiotherapy, because of severe disease progression. Patient died nearly 2 months after the initial manifestations. This case illustrates the aggressiveness of some pituitary lesions, the limited efficacy of current treatment modalities such as surgery or radiotherapy and the pitfalls of the current pituitary tumors classification. To our knowledge, this case corresponds to one of the most aggressive pituitary neoplasms reported so far, with a very high Ki-67 index (75%) and short survival (2 months). Ki-67 index could be of prognostic value in pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumors World Health Organization (WHO) classification could be revisited.
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Repositioning nystagmus: prognostic usefulness?
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The presence of orthotropic nystagmus (ON), in multiple positions, appears to predict the success of canalith repositioning maneuvers (CRMs). In this sense CRMs under video-Frenzel are informative for the immediate follow-up, although not related to the degree of disability or emotional distress. Still, attention should be given to psychological assistance even in cases of clinically cured benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
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Antihypertensive drug treatment changes in the general population: the CoLaus study.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Changes in antihypertensive drug treatment are paramount in the adequate management of patients with hypertension, still, there is little information regarding changes in antihypertensive drug treatment in Switzerland. Our aim was to assess those changes and associated factors in a population-based, prospective study.
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Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.
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Association of electrocardiogram abnormalities and incident heart failure events.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Unless effective preventive strategies are implemented, aging of the population will result in a significant worsening of the heart failure (HF) epidemic. Few data exist on whether baseline electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities can refine risk prediction for HF.
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Parents and primary care physicians have different views about copying medical letters to parents after paediatric outpatient visits.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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We assessed how satisfied parents were when they received a copy of the letter sent to their primary care physician after their child attended a hospital outpatient clinic and compared their views with those of the primary care physician.
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Associations between mood, anxiety or substance use disorders and inflammatory markers after adjustment for multiple covariates in a population-based study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Inflammation is one possible mechanism underlying the associations between mental disorders and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, studies on mental disorders and inflammation have yielded inconsistent results and the majority did not adjust for potential confounding factors. We examined the associations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with lifetime and current mood, anxiety and substance use disorders (SUD), while adjusting for multiple covariates. The sample included 3719 subjects, randomly selected from the general population, who underwent thorough somatic and psychiatric evaluations. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with a semi-structured interview. Major depressive disorder was subtyped into "atypical", "melancholic", "combined atypical-melancholic" and "unspecified". Associations between inflammatory markers and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Lifetime bipolar disorders and atypical depression were associated with increased levels of hsCRP, but not after multivariate adjustment. After multivariate adjustment, SUD remained associated with increased hsCRP levels in men (? = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03,0.23)) but not in women. After multivariate adjustment, lifetime combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of IL-6 (? = -0.27 (-0.51,-0.02); ? = -0.19 (-0.34,-0.05), respectively) and TNF-? (? = -0.16 (-0.30,-0.01); ? = -0.10 (-0.19,-0.02), respectively), whereas current combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of hsCRP (? = -0.20 (-0.39,-0.02); ? = -0.12 (-0.24,-0.01), respectively). Our data suggest that the significant associations between increased hsCRP levels and mood disorders are mainly attributable to the effects of comorbid disorders, medication as well as behavioral and physical CVRFs.
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[Hospital protocol for snakebite victims management].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Venomous snakebites are relatively rare in Portugal. Pediatric victims present with greater severity and are at risk of fatal complications. Clinical management protocols are the gold standard of care worldwide. We report two cases of venomous adder bites in pediatric patients. Based on a literature review we also discuss the clinical management and present a treatment protocol that ensures multidisciplinary and updated practice by medical teams.
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Adapting to test structure: Letting testing teach what to learn.
Memory
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We propose that we encode and store information as a function of the particular ways we have used similar information in the past. More specifically, we contend that the experience of retrieval can serve as a powerful cue to the most effective ways to encode similar information in comparable future learning episodes. To explore these ideas, we did two studies in which all participants went through study-test cycles of single category lists while we manipulated the nature of the recognition tests. The recognition tests either included only same-category lures or only different-category lures. The experience of repeated testing leads participants to avoid conceptual-based strategies but only when conceptual knowledge was poorly diagnostic for recognition (i.e., in the same-category lures condition). In a second study with a similar manipulation, we showed that repeated testing with lures from the same category as study items improved performance in a final recall surprise test compared to conditions in which different-category lures were used. Such a difference is akin to the one obtained when encoding instructions focus on distinctive item features compared to cases in which the focus is on relational processing. We suggest that testing requirements lead to adaptive changes at encoding.
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Hepatic DNA deposition drives drug-induced liver injury and inflammation in mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of acute liver failure, with limited therapeutic options. During DILI, oncotic necrosis with concomitant release and recognition of intracellular content amplifies liver inflammation and injury. Among these molecules, self-DNA has been widely shown to trigger inflammatory and autoimmune diseases; however, whether DNA released from damaged hepatocytes accumulates into necrotic liver and the impact of its recognition by the immune system remains elusive. Here we show that treatment with two different hepatotoxic compounds (acetaminophen and thioacetamide) caused DNA release into the hepatocyte cytoplasm, which occurred in parallel with cell death in vitro. Administration of these compounds in vivo caused massive DNA deposition within liver necrotic areas, together with an intravascular DNA coating. Using confocal intravital microscopy, we revealed that liver injury due to acetaminophen overdose led to a directional migration of neutrophils to DNA-rich areas, where they exhibit an active patrolling behavior. DNA removal by intravenous DNASE1 injection or ablation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated sensing significantly reduced systemic inflammation, liver neutrophil recruitment, and hepatotoxicity. Analysis of liver leukocytes by flow cytometry revealed that emigrated neutrophils up-regulated TLR9 expression during acetaminophen-mediated necrosis, and these cells sensed and reacted to extracellular DNA by activating the TLR9/NF-?B pathway. Likewise, adoptive transfer of wild-type neutrophils to TLR9(-/-) mice reversed the hepatoprotective phenotype otherwise observed in TLR9 absence. Conclusion: Hepatic DNA accumulation is a novel feature of DILI pathogenesis. Blockage of DNA recognition by the innate immune system may constitute a promising therapeutic venue. (Hepatology 2014).
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Acute intake of a high-fructose diet alters the balance of adipokine concentrations and induces neutrophil influx in the liver.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The postprandial state is a period of metabolic fluxes, biosynthesis and oxidative metabolism. A considerable amount is known about the inflammatory response to the chronic consumption of fructose, but little is known about its effects in the postprandial state. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inflammatory effects of a single meal containing fructose on healthy mice. Male BALB/c and LysM-eGFP mice at 12-14 weeks were divided into three groups: fasted, control (mice fed with a sucrose-containing diet) and fructose (mice fed with a fructose-containing diet). One, 2 or 4 h postprandial, the BALB/c mice were killed, and samples were collected. LysM-eGFP mice were submitted to intravital microscopy. The fed mice showed a low-grade inflammatory response apart from dietary composition, which was characterized by increased numbers of leukocytes and high serum concentrations of pentraxin 3, leptin and resistin. TNF-? and CCL2 concentrations rose in the liver after the meal. IL-6 concentration increased and IL-10 decreased in the adipose tissue of the fed mice. Mice fed with the fructose-containing diet showed an intensification of the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentration dropped, and the liver influx of neutrophils increased after fructose intake. Overall, this study showed a rapid increase in the systemic and tissue-specific immune response after a balanced meal. The study also showed an increased neutrophil influx in liver associated with an imbalance of adipokine concentrations and an increase of cytokine in the liver and adipose tissue following a fructose-containing meal.
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Genome-wide association study of metabolic traits reveals novel gene-metabolite-disease links.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on (1)H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10(-8)) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P?=?6.9×10(-44)) and lysine (rs8101881, P?=?1.2×10(-33)), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers.
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Cerebral metabolic effects of exogenous lactate supplementation on the injured human brain.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Experimental evidence suggests that lactate is neuroprotective after acute brain injury; however, data in humans are lacking. We examined whether exogenous lactate supplementation improves cerebral energy metabolism in humans with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
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Selling dreams: an overview of slimming products' advertisements in Switzerland.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The aim of this work was to assess weight loss claims of slimming products available in Switzerland.
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Cholesterol crystal embolism and delayed-onset paraplegia after thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Postoperative paraplegia caused by ischemic injury of the spinal cord is the most disabling complication of thoracoabdominal surgery. We described the case of a 75-year-old patient who underwent a thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair (type IV aneurysm according to Crawford classification). The aorta clamping was done at the T11 level without specific medullary protection. The first postoperative week was uneventful. On the postoperative day 8, renal failure and livedo of the left lower limb occurred together with complete hypotonic paraplegia and severe sepsis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a gangrenous cholecystitis, and skin biopsies showed cholesterol crystals embolisms in the hypodermis small arteries. The patient died on the postoperative day 28 from a multiorgan failure. In this case, paraplegia was due to cholesterol crystal embolism, which migrated secondarily after aortic clamping.
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Identification of psychological dysfunctions and eating disorders in obese women seeking weight loss: cross-sectional study.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools.
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Association of education and receiving social transfers with allostatic load in the Swiss population-based CoLaus study.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Allostatic load reflects cumulative exposure to stressors throughout lifetime and has been associated with several adverse health outcomes. It is hypothesized that people with low socioeconomic status (SES) are exposed to higher chronic stress and have therefore greater levels of allostatic load.
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Cytokines and hs-CRP levels in individuals treated with low-dose aspirin for cardiovascular prevention: a population-based study (CoLaus Study).
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin for CV prevention is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention in a population-based cohort (CoLaus Study). We assessed blood samples in 6085 participants (3201 women) aged 35-75years. Medications' use and indications were recorded. Among aspirin users (n=1'034; 17%), overall low-dose users (351; 5.8%) and low-dose for cardiovascular prevention users (324; 5.3%) were selected for analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? were assessed by a multiplex particle-based flow cytometric assay and hs-CRP by an immunometric assay. Cytokines and hs-CRP were presented in quartiles. Multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and immunomodulatory drugs showed no association between cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention, either comparing the topmost vs. the three other quartiles (OR 95% CI, 0.84 (0.59-1.18), 1.03 (0.78-1.32), 1.10 (0.83-1.46), 1.00 (0.67-1.69) for IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and hs-CRP, respectively), or comparing the topmost quartile vs. the first one (OR 95% CI, 0.87 (0.60-1.26), 1.19 (0.79-1.79), 1.26 (0.86-1.84), 1.06 (0.67-1.69)). Low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention does not impact plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and hs-CRP levels in a population-based cohort.
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Connexin and pannexin (hemi)channels in the liver.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The liver was among the first organs in which connexin proteins have been identified. Hepatocytes harbor connexin32 and connexin26, while non-parenchymal liver cells typically express connexin43. Connexins give rise to hemichannels, which dock with counterparts on adjacent cells to form gap junctions. Both hemichannels and gap junctions provide pathways for communication, via paracrine signaling or direct intercellular coupling, respectively. Over the years, hepatocellular gap junctions have been shown to regulate a number of liver-specific functions and to drive liver cell growth. In the last few years, it has become clear that connexin hemichannels are involved in liver cell death, particularly in hepatocyte apoptosis. This also holds true for hemichannels composed of pannexin1, a connexin-like protein recently identified in the liver. Moreover, pannexin1 hemichannels are key players in the regulation of hepatic inflammatory processes. The current paper provides a concise overview of the features of connexins, pannexins and their channels in the liver.
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Psychometric evaluation of the French version of the questionnaire attitudes towards morphine use; a cross-sectional study in Valais, Switzerland.
BMC Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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In Switzerland, nurses are allowed to prescribe and administer morphine in emergency situations without a doctor. Still, nurses and other health professionals are often reluctant to prescribe and administer morphine for pain management in patients. No valid French-speaking instrument is available in Switzerland to assess the attitudes of nurses and other health professionals towards the prescription and administration of morphine. In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version of the questionnaire "Attitudes towards morphine use".
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Multivitamins/multiminerals in Switzerland: not as good as it seems.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Multivitamin/multimineral (MVM) supplements are commonly consumed by the general population, but little is known regarding their composition and compliance with local regulations. We assessed the composition and compliance with regulations [no indication in the label of vitamin/minerals amounting <15% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI)] of MVM available in Switzerland.
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Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase) mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.
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Ecologic correlations of selected food groups with disease incidence and mortality in Switzerland.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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There is little information regarding the impact of diet on disease incidence and mortality in Switzerland. We assessed ecologic correlations between food availability and disease.
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Interleukin-4 deficiency protects mice from acetaminophen-induced liver injury and inflammation by prevention of glutathione depletion.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in many diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis and idiosyncratic drug reactions. However, its role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of IL-4 to the pathogenesis of APAP-induced liver injury.
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Contribution of endosonography in an uncommon case of pancreatic cysts.
World J Gastrointest Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Here we present the case of a 35-year-old female patient with long standing dyspepsia and imaging studies showing the presence of multiple cysts in the head and tail of the pancreas. The patient underwent endosonography that confirmed the presence of multiple simple cysts throughout the entirety of the pancreas without dilation of the pancreatic duct. The majority of the cysts were less than one centimeter in size, and the largest cyst showed a honeycomb appearance. Cytology of aspirates from the two largest cysts was compatible with benign pancreatic cysts. Endosonography also revealed cysts within the left kidney and spleen. Genetic testing confirmed Von Hippel-Lindau disease. We highlight this case because it is unusual for Von Hippel-Lindau disease, a rare clinical entity, to present solely with cysts in the absence of more common manifestations, such as hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and malignancy.
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Compliance with the Swiss Society for Nutritions Dietary Recommendations in the Population of Geneva, Switzerland: A 10-Year Trend Study (1999-2009).
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The trends in compliance with the dietary recommendations of the Swiss Society for Nutrition in the Geneva population were assessed for the period from 1999 to 2009 using 10 cross-sectional, population-based surveys (Bus Santé study) with a total of 9,320 participants aged 35 to 75 years (50% women). Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered, validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Trends were assessed by logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking status, education, and nationality using survey year as the independent variable. After excluding participants with extreme intakes, the percentage of participants with a cholesterol intake of <300 mg/day increased from 40.8% in 1999 to 43.6% in 2009 for men (multivariate-adjusted P for trend=0.04) and from 57.8% to 61.4% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend=0.06). Calcium intake >1 g/day decreased from 53.3% to 46% in men and from 47.6% to 40.7% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend<0.001). Adequate iron intake decreased from 68.3% to 65.3% in men and from 13.3% to 8.4% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend<0.001). Conversely, no significant changes were observed for carbohydrates, protein, total fat (including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids), fiber, and vitamins D and A. We conclude that the quality of the Swiss diet did not improve between 1999 and 2009 and that intakes deviate substantially from expert recommendations for health promotion and chronic disease risk reduction.
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Determinants and burden of chronic kidney disease in the population-based CoLaus study: a cross-sectional analysis.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an increasing health burden. We present the population-based prevalence of CKD and compare the CKD Epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equations to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, using the revised CKD classification with three albuminuria classes. We also explore factors associated with CKD.
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Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youpla Bouge) on child motor skills.Patients and methods: We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed.
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An unusual cause of pseudoachalasia: the Alport syndrome-diffuse leiomyomatosis association.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary disease characterized by glomerular nephropathy progressing to end-stage renal disease, frequently associated with sensorineural deafness and ocular abnormalities. Rarely, AS coexists with diffuse leiomyomatosis, a benign proliferation of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract, mostly of the oesophagus, but also of the tracheobronchial tree and the female genital tract. Patients with this association have been shown to have contiguous gene deletion involving both COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man with AS and long-standing dysphagia. The patient received a renal transplant at the age of 23 because of end-stage renal disease. Clinical assessment as well as endoscopic, manometric and radiologic studies suggested the diagnosis of achalasia, which was treated by Hellers myotomy with Dor fundoplication. Postprocedure dysphagia led to an endoscopic ultrasound that showed diffuse thickening of the second layer, resulting in the hypothesis of oesophageal leiomyomatosis. The diagnosis was confirmed through histological study of endoscopic biopsies and genetic analysis.
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Duodenal subepithelial hyperechoic lesions of the third layer: Not always a lipoma.
World J Gastrointest Endosc
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Endoscopic ultrasonography is the most accurate procedure for the evaluation of subepithelial lesions. The finding of a homogeneous, hyperechoic, well-delimited lesion, originating from the third layer of the gastrointestinal tract (submucosa) suggests a benign tumor, generally lipoma. As other differential diagnoses have not been reported, echoendoscopists might not pursue a definitive pathological diagnosis or follow-up the patient. This case series aims to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnosis for duodenal hyperechoic third layer subepithelial lesions by providing four different and relevant pathologies with this echoendoscopic pattern.
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Association between circulating cytokine levels, diabetes and insulin resistance in a population-based sample (CoLaus study).
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The associations between inflammation, diabetes and insulin resistance remain controversial. Hence, we assessed the associations between diabetes, insulin resistance (using HOMA-IR) and metabolic syndrome with the inflammatory markers high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?).
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GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.
Cornelius A Rietveld, Sarah E Medland, Jaime Derringer, Jian Yang, Tonu Esko, Nicolas W Martin, Harm-Jan Westra, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, John Barnard, Sebastian E Baumeister, Kelly S Benke, Lawrence F Bielak, Jeffrey A Boatman, Patricia A Boyle, Gail Davies, Christiaan de Leeuw, Niina Eklund, Daniel S Evans, Rudolf Ferhmann, Krista Fischer, Christian Gieger, Håkon K Gjessing, Sara Hägg, Jennifer R Harris, Caroline Hayward, Christina Holzapfel, Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Peter K Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Stavroula Kanoni, Juha Karjalainen, Ivana Kolčić, Kati Kristiansson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sang H Lee, Peng Lin, Penelope A Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, George McMahon, Pedro Marques Vidal, Osorio Meirelles, Lili Milani, Ronny Myhre, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Christopher J Oldmeadow, Katja E Petrovic, Wouter J Peyrot, Ozren Polašek, Lydia Quaye, Eva Reinmaa, John P Rice, Thais S Rizzi, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Albert V Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Matthijs J H M van der Loos, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Jürgen Wellmann, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao, Jüri Allik, John R Attia, Stefania Bandinelli, François Bastardot, Jonathan Beauchamp, David A Bennett, Klaus Berger, Laura J Bierut, Dorret I Boomsma, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, Christopher F Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K Chung, Francesco Cucca, Mariza de Andrade, Philip L De Jager, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Ian J Deary, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Guðný Eiríksdóttir, Martin F Elderson, Johan G Eriksson, David M Evans, Jessica D Faul, Luigi Ferrucci, Melissa E Garcia, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Guðnason, Per Hall, Juliette M Harris, Tamara B Harris, Nicholas D Hastie, Andrew C Heath, Dena G Hernandez, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G Holliday, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, William G Iacono, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Matthew Kowgier, Antti Latvala, Lenore J Launer, Debbie A Lawlor, Terho Lehtimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C Liewald, Pamela A Madden, Patrik K E Magnusson, Tomi E Mäkinen, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Andreas Mielck, Michael B Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Dale R Nyholt, Ben A Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Patricia A Peyser, Martin Preisig, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T Raitakari, Anu Realo, Susan M Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti-Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Rodney J Scott, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Alexander Teumer, , Henning Tiemeier, Frank J A van Rooij, David R Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Judith M Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R Weir, H-Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widén, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, Dalton Conley, George Davey-Smith, Lude Franke, Patrick J F Groenen, Albert Hofman, Magnus Johannesson, Sharon L R Kardia, Robert F Krueger, David Laibson, Nicholas G Martin, Michelle N Meyer, Danielle Posthuma, A Roy Thurik, Nicholas J Timpson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter M Visscher, Daniel J Benjamin, David Cesarini, Philipp D Koellinger.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ? 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ?2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
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Primary hepatocytes and their cultures in liver apoptosis research.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Apoptosis not only plays a key role in physiological demise of defunct hepatocytes, but is also associated with a plethora of acute and chronic liver diseases as well as with hepatotoxicity. The present paper focuses on the modelling of this mode of programmed cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures. Particular attention is paid to the activation of spontaneous apoptosis during the isolation of hepatocytes from the liver, its progressive manifestation upon the subsequent establishment of cell cultures and simultaneously to strategies to counteract this deleterious process. In addition, currently applied approaches to experimentally induce controlled apoptosis in this in vitro setting for mechanistic research purposes and thereby its detection using relevant biomarkers are reviewed.
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[Population-level changes to promote cardiovascular health].
G Ital Cardiol (Rome)
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause 1.8 million premature (<75 years) death annually in Europe. The majority of these deaths are preventable with the most efficient and cost-effective approach being on the population level. The aim of this position paper is to assist authorities in selecting the most adequate management strategies to prevent CVD.
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Health-related quality of life in migrant preschool children.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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BACKGROUND: Minority groups have a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but there is little information if this finding also applies to children. In this study, we compared HRQOL between young children with and without migrant parents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies of culturally diverse preschool populations in Switzerland: Ballabeina (40 preschools, 258 girls and 232 boys aged 4 to 6 years) and Youpla Bouge (58 child care centers, 453 girls and 522 boys aged 2 to 4 years). Most children were born in Switzerland (Ballabeina: 92.3%; Youpla Bouge: 93.7%). Number of migrant parents was considered as the main exposure. HRQOL was measured using the 23-item Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. RESULTS: Children of migrant parents had a significantly lower HRQOL total score (mean +/- SD, Ballabeina: 84.2 +/- 9.1; 82.7 +/- 9.6 and 81.7 +/- 11.7 for children with none, one or two migrant parents, respectively; Youpla Bouge: 83.8 +/- 8.6; 82.9 +/- 9.5; 80.7 +/- 11.7, all p < 0.05). Similar results were found in Ballabeina and Youpla Bouge for social, school and physical functioning (all p < 0.05), but not for emotional functioning. The differences in HRQOL measures were partly mediated by childrens place of birth, parental education, paternal occupational level, childrens BMI, screen time and physical activity in one study (Ballabeina), but not in the other (Youpla Bouge). CONCLUSION: In preschoolers, children of migrant parents have lower HRQOL than children of non-migrant parents. These differences are only partly mediated by other sociocultural characteristics or lifestyle behavior. These families may need assistance to prevent further inequalities.
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Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders.
Marcel den Hoed, Mark Eijgelsheim, Tonu Esko, Bianca J J M Brundel, David S Peal, David M Evans, Ilja M Nolte, Ayellet V Segrè, Hilma Holm, Robert E Handsaker, Harm-Jan Westra, Toby Johnson, Aaron Isaacs, Jian Yang, Alicia Lundby, Jing Hua Zhao, Young Jin Kim, Min Jin Go, Peter Almgren, Murielle Bochud, Gabrielle Boucher, Marilyn C Cornelis, Daniel Gudbjartsson, David Hadley, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, Martin den Heijer, Wilmar Igl, Anne U Jackson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, John P Kemp, Kati Kristiansson, Claes Ladenvall, Mattias Lorentzon, May E Montasser, Omer T Njajou, Paul F O'Reilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Beate St Pourcain, Tuomo Rankinen, Perttu Salo, Toshiko Tanaka, Nicholas J Timpson, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay Waite, William Wheeler, Weihua Zhang, Harmen H M Draisma, Mary F Feitosa, Kathleen F Kerr, Penelope A Lind, Evelin Mihailov, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Ci Song, Michael N Weedon, Weijia Xie, Loïc Yengo, Devin Absher, Christine M Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Dan E Arking, Paul I W de Bakker, Beverley Balkau, Cristina Barlassina, Paola Benaglio, Joshua C Bis, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Søren Brage, Stephen J Chanock, Peter S Chines, Mina Chung, Dawood Darbar, Christian Dina, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Stephan B Felix, Krista Fischer, Christian Fuchsberger, Eco J C de Geus, Philippe Goyette, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Susan R Heckbert, Andrew A Hicks, Albert Hofman, Suzanne Holewijn, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Asa Johansson, Juhani Junttila, Stefan Kääb, Bart Kanon, Shamika Ketkar, Kay-Tee Khaw, Joshua W Knowles, Angrad S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Meena Kumari, Lili Milani, Päivi Laiho, Edward G Lakatta, Claudia Langenberg, Maarten Leusink, Yongmei Liu, Robert N Luben, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stacey N Lynch, Marcello R P Markus, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Irene Mateo Leach, Wendy L McArdle, Steven A McCarroll, Sarah E Medland, Kathryn A Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Alanna C Morrison, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Pau Navarro, Mari Nelis, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ken K Ong, Anne B Newman, Annette Peters, Ozren Polašek, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Dabeeru C Rao, Susan M Ring, Elizabeth J Rossin, Diana Rudan, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, Jaban S Sehmi, Stephen Sharp, Jordan T Shin, Andrew B Singleton, Albert V Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Tim D Spector, Chip Stewart, Heather M Stringham, Kirill V Tarasov, André G Uitterlinden, Liesbeth Vandenput, Shih-Jen Hwang, John B Whitfield, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Andrew Wong, Quenna Wong, Yalda Jamshidi, Paavo Zitting, Jolanda M A Boer, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ulf Ekelund, Nita G Forouhi, Philippe Froguel, Aroon Hingorani, Erik Ingelsson, Mika Kivimäki, Richard A Kronmal, Diana Kuh, Lars Lind, Nicholas G Martin, Ben A Oostra, Nancy L Pedersen, Thomas Quertermous, Jerome I Rotter, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Mark Walker, Demetrius Albanes, David O Arnar, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Michael Boehnke, Rudolf A de Boer, Claude Bouchard, W L Mark Caulfield, John C Chambers, Gary Curhan, Daniele Cusi, Johan Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Wiek H van Gilst, Nicola Glorioso, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leif Groop, Ulf Gyllensten, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Frank B Hu, Heikki V Huikuri, David J Hunter, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter Kraft, Licia Iacoviello, Terho Lehtimäki, Marja-Liisa L Lokki, Braxton D Mitchell, Gerjan Navis, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Neil R Poulter, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Eric B Rimm, John D Rioux, Federica Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Peter S Sever, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Alice V Stanton, Ronald P Stolk, David P Strachan, Jean-Claude Tardif, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jaako Tuomilehto, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Jarmo Virtamo, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Elisabeth Widén, Yoon Shin Cho, Jesper V Olsen, Peter M Visscher, Cristen Willer, Lude Franke, , Jeanette Erdmann, John R Thompson, Arne Pfeufer, Nona Sotoodehnia, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patrick T Ellinor, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Jacques S Beckmann, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Nicholas J Wareham, Patricia B Munroe, Ody C M Sibon, David J Milan, Harold Snieder, Nilesh J Samani, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
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Trends in hospital discharges, management and in-hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction in Switzerland between 1998 and 2008.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Since the late nineties, no study has assessed the trends in management and in-hospital outcome of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Switzerland. Our objective was to fill this gap.
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Trends in dietary intake in Switzerland, 1999 to 2009.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To assess nutrition trends of the Geneva population for the period 1999-2009. DESIGN: Bus Santé Geneva study, which conducts annual health surveys in random samples of the Geneva population. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ and trends were assessed by linear regression. SETTING: Population-based survey. SUBJECTS: Data from 9283 participants (50 % women, mean age 51·5 (sd 10·8) years) were analysed. RESULTS: In both genders total energy intake decreased from 1999 to 2009, by 2·9 % in men and by 6·3 % in women (both trends P < 0·005). Vegetable protein and total carbohydrate intakes, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, increased in women. MUFA intake increased while SFA, PUFA and alcohol intakes decreased in both genders. Intakes of Ca, Fe and carotene decreased in both genders. No changes in fibre, vitamin D and vitamin A intakes were found. Similar findings were obtained after excluding participants with extreme dietary intakes, except that the decreases in SFA, vegetable protein and carbohydrate were no longer significant in women. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1999 and 2009, a small decrease in total energy intake was noted in the Geneva population. Although the decrease in alcohol and SFA intakes is of interest, the decrease in Ca and Fe intakes may have adverse health effects in the future.
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Purinergic signalling during sterile liver injury.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The liver plays a vital role in the organism, and thousands of patients suffer and even die from hepatic complications every year. Viral hepatitis is one of the most important causes of liver-related pathological processes. However, sterile liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury, cirrhosis and fibrosis, are still a worldwide concern and contribute significantly to liver transplantation statistics. During hepatocyte death, several genuine intracellular contents are released to the interstitium, where they will trigger inflammatory responses that may boost organ injury. Intracellular purines are key molecules to several metabolic pathways and regulate cell bioenergetics. However, seminal studies in early 70s revealed that purines may also participate in cell-to-cell communication, and more recent data have unequivocally demonstrated that the purinergic signalling plays a key role in the recognition of cell functionality by neighbouring cells and also by the immune system. This new body of knowledge has pointed out that several promising therapeutic opportunities may rely on the modulation of purine release and sensing during diseases. Here, we review the most recent data on the physiological roles of purinergic signalling and how its imbalance may contribute to injury progression during sterile liver injury.
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Altered responsiveness to extracellular ATP enhances acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.
Cell Commun. Signal
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is secreted from hepatocytes under physiological conditions and plays an important role in liver biology through the activation of P2 receptors. Conversely, higher extracellular ATP concentrations, as observed during necrosis, trigger inflammatory responses that contribute to the progression of liver injury. Impaired calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is a hallmark of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, and since ATP induces mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+ stocks, we evaluated if the release of ATP during APAP-induced necrosis could directly contribute to hepatocyte death.
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Competing together: Assessing the dynamics of team-team and player-team synchrony in professional association football.
Hum Mov Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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This study investigated movement synchronization of players within and between teams during competitive association football performance. Cluster phase analysis was introduced as a method to assess synchronies between whole teams and between individual players with their team as a function of time, ball possession and field direction. Measures of dispersion (SD) and regularity (sample entropy - SampEn - and cross sample entropy - Cross-SampEn) were used to quantify the magnitude and structure of synchrony. Large synergistic relations within each professional team sport collective were observed, particularly in the longitudinal direction of the field (0.89±0.12) compared to the lateral direction (0.73±0.16, p<.01). The coupling between the group measures of the two teams also revealed that changes in the synchrony of each team were intimately related (Cross-SampEn values of 0.02±0.01). Interestingly, ball possession did not influence team synchronization levels. In player-team synchronization, individuals tended to be coordinated under near in-phase modes with team behavior (mean ranges between -7 and 5° of relative phase). The magnitudes of variations were low, but more irregular in time, for the longitudinal (SD: 18±3°; SampEn: 0.07±0.01), compared to the lateral direction (SD: 28±5°; SampEn: 0.06±0.01, p<.05) on-field. Increases in regularity were also observed between the first (SampEn: 0.07±0.01) and second half (SampEn: 0.06±0.01, p<.05) of the observed competitive game. Findings suggest that the method of analysis introduced in the current study may offer a suitable tool for examining teams synchronization behaviors and the mutual influence of each teams cohesiveness in competing social collectives.
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Exploring the periodicity of cardiovascular events in Switzerland: variation in deaths and hospitalizations across seasons, day of the week and hour of the day.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The purpose of this study is to explore the periodical patterns of events and deaths related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke in Swiss adults (? 18 years).
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Population specific and up to date cardiovascular risk charts can be efficiently obtained with record linkage of routine and observational data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Only few countries have cohorts enabling specific and up-to-date cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. Individual risk assessment based on study samples that differ too much from the target population could jeopardize the benefit of risk charts in general practice. Our aim was to provide up-to-date and valid CVD risk estimation for a Swiss population using a novel record linkage approach.
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Portuguese migrants in Switzerland: healthcare and health status compared to Portuguese residents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Most migrant studies have compared health characteristics between migrants and nationals of the host country. We aimed at comparing health characteristics of migrants with nationals from their home country.
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Vaccination using recombinants influenza and adenoviruses encoding amastigote surface protein-2 are highly effective on protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In the present study we evaluated the protection raised by immunization with recombinant influenza viruses carrying sequences coding for polypeptides corresponding to medial and carboxi-terminal moieties of Trypanosoma cruzi ´s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP2). Those viruses were used in sequential immunization with recombinant adenovirus (heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol) encoding the complete sequence of ASP2 (Ad-ASP2) in two mouse strains (C57BL/6 and C3H/He). The CD8 effector response elicited by this protocol was comparable to that observed in mice immunized twice with Ad-ASP2 and more robust than that observed in mice that were immunized once with Ad-ASP2. Whereas a single immunization with Ad-ASP2 sufficed to completely protect C57BL/6 mice, a higher survival rate was observed in C3H/He mice that were primed with recombinant influenza virus and boosted with Ad-ASP2 after being challenged with T. cruzi. Analyzing the phenotype of CD8+ T cells obtained from spleen of vaccinated C3H/He mice we observed that heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol elicited more CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant epitope as well as a higher number of CD8+ T cells producing TNF-? and IFN-? and a higher mobilization of surface marker CD107a. Taken together, our results suggest that immunodominant subpopulations of CD8+ T elicited after immunization could be directly related to degree of protection achieved by different immunization protocols using different viral vectors. Overall, these results demonstrated the usefulness of recombinant influenza viruses in immunization protocols against Chagas Disease.
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Relationship of hyperactivity/inattention with adiposity and lifestyle characteristics in preschool children.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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We performed a cross-sectional study in 450 nonreferred preschool children aged 4 to 6 years to assess the association between hyperactivity/inattention with adiposity and lifestyle characteristics. Measurements included scores of hyperactivity/inattention, adiposity, objectively measured physical activity, television viewing, and eating habits. Higher scores of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower percentage body fat, higher levels of physical activity, and less time spent in sedentary activity (all P ? .01). However, higher scores of hyperactivity/inattention were also associated with more television viewing and less healthy eating habits (all P ? .04). Except for some selected eating habits (P ? .07), those relationships remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, and sociodemographic confounders. To conclude, higher scores of hyperactivity/inattention are linked to different lifestyle characteristics that may in part contribute to a future development of overweight/obesity. Precise mechanisms explaining these associations and possible preventive approaches should be further investigated.
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Organs transplantation - how to improve the process?
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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The transplant of cadaveric organs must be performed in a short period of time in order to achieve satisfactory results. In Hospital S. João (HSJ), a large Portuguese hospital, during 2008 and 2009, 65 and 61 respectively potential donors were identified, but 12 and 19 of them were not validated as such in time. The number of validated donors could increase if the information workflow between donor hospitals and coordinator offices became more efficient. The goal of this work is to design and implement a multi-agent software platform to assist the information workflow between donor hospitals and coordinator offices. Through several meetings with HSJ coordinator office it was characterized a set of basic data that would allow coordinator offices to early identify possible organs donors. This preliminary characterization provided the necessary grounds for the development of an agent based software application allowing the storage and management of potential donors information and optimizing the information workflow. The information workflow and the current communication processes characterization allowed the development of a multi-agent web platform, providing a way to assist the information workflow, between coordinator hospitals and their attached hospitals network. The platform also improves direct communication between coordinator offices about most relevant facts. By using this tool or a similar one the information workflow between donor hospitals and coordinator offices can become more efficient, optimizing the pre-transplantation tasks and consequently the number of successful transplants in our country.
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Hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with albuminuria in the population-based CoLaus study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Increased serum levels of homocysteine and uric acid have each been associated with cardiovascular risk. We analyzed whether homocysteine and uric acid were associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria independently of each other. We also investigated the association of MTHFR polymorphisms related to homocysteine with albuminuria to get further insight into causality.
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Genome-wide association study identifies two loci strongly affecting transferrin glycosylation.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Polysaccharide sidechains attached to proteins play important roles in cell-cell and receptor-ligand interactions. Variation in the carbohydrate component has been extensively studied for the iron transport protein transferrin, because serum levels of the transferrin isoforms asialotransferrin + disialotransferrin (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, CDT) are used as biomarkers of excessive alcohol intake. We conducted a genome-wide association study to assess whether genetic factors affect CDT concentration in serum. CDT was measured in three population-based studies: one in Switzerland (CoLaus study, n = 5181) and two in Australia (n = 1509, n = 775). The first cohort was used as the discovery panel and the latter ones served as replication. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing data were used to identify loci with significant associations with CDT as a percentage of total transferrin (CDT%). The top three SNPs in the discovery panel (rs2749097 near PGM1 on chromosome 1, and missense polymorphisms rs1049296, rs1799899 in TF on chromosome 3) were successfully replicated , yielding genome-wide significant combined association with CDT% (P = 1.9 × 10(-9), 4 × 10(-39), 5.5 × 10(-43), respectively) and explain 5.8% of the variation in CDT%. These allelic effects are postulated to be caused by variation in availability of glucose-1-phosphate as a precursor of the glycan (PGM1), and variation in transferrin (TF) structure.
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Estimating the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a comparison of several risk scores: the Cohorte Lausannoise study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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To compare in the Swiss population the results of several scores estimating the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
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Ten-year trends in overweight and obesity in the adult Portuguese population, 1995 to 2005.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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There is little information regarding the trends in body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the overall Portuguese population, namely if these trends are similar according to educational level. In this study, we assessed the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population, overall and by educational level.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.