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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Aerobic versus resistance training effects on health-related quality of life, body composition, and function of older adults.
J Appl Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2015
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of training on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), body composition, and function in older adults. Fifty participants were randomized into aerobic training (AT--70%-80% HR reserve), resistance training (RT--80% 1RM), or controls. They had HRQoL, body composition, and function assessed before and after 8 months. Training groups reduced body fat, increased performance in the stair ascent, 8-ft up-and-go and sit-to-stand five-times tests, and improved their physical component score (PCS; p ? .03). AT increased performance in the 6MWT test, and improved general and mental health (MH) domains when compared to controls (p < .01). Finally, changes in stair ascent were associated with changes in bodily pain, MH, and mental component score (p ? .04), while changes in handgrip strength were associated with changes in physical role and MH (p = .03). AT and RT were effective interventions for decreasing body fat and improving functionality and the PCS in older adults.
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Evaluating the effect of energy-dense foods consumption on preschool children's body mass index: a prospective analysis from 2 to 4 years of age.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to study the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years and body mass index (BMI) at 4 years, using a cross-lagged panel design.
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Adaptation, Update and Validation of the General Nutrition Questionnaire in a Portuguese Adolescent Sample.
Ecol Food Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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This article describes the adaptation of the adult Portuguese version of the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ) for adolescents, and its validation. Respondents were 1,315 adolescents, who completed the questionnaire in two phases. A subsample of 73 adolescents was used to measure test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was tested using a sample of 32 dietetic students. The adapted version showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92), test-retest reliability (R = 0.71) and concurrent validity (U = 22766.0; p < .01). Adolescents' nutrition knowledge can now be assessed with a valid and reliable instrument. Future validation works of this or others questionnaires for children and elderly are warranted.
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Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated transgenesis in mice.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Over the years many well-described techniques for the introduction of transgene DNA into host organisms have been used, including pronuclear injection, in vitro fertilization-mediated transgenesis, transfection of ES and spermatogenic cells, nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei, and lentiviral vectors. The application of these techniques has been limited however either by the time and effort to be executed or by their narrow efficiency with large transgenes. The greatest advantage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated transgenesis is precisely its ability to stably introduce large DNA molecules into the genome of host organisms with relatively high efficiency, as compared to alternative procedures. In mice, this procedure has been shown to be a reproducible method to generate transgenic offspring with a high efficiency. Recently, it proved also to be a viable method to generate transgenic rats and pigs, and as such, it is foreseen with great interest for the production of transgenic farm animals, where it would constitute an important tool for the production of recombinant proteins and livestock improvement.
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Sodium content of bread from bakeries and traditional markets in Maputo, Mozambique.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The Na content of bread is one of the most common targets of initiatives to reduce Na intake worldwide. Assessing the Na content of staple foods is of major relevance in Mozambique, given the high burden of hypertension in this setting. We aimed to estimate the Na content of white bread available in different bakeries and markets in Maputo.
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Nutritional intake of elite football referees.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.
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The role of sex and sex-related hormones in cognition, mood and well-being in older men and women.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Alterations in hormone levels during aging impact on cognition and mood. Serum concentration levels of testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and prolactin (PRL) were assessed in 120 community-dwellers (51+ years of age, males and females), in a cross-sectional approach. Performance clusters based on executive functioning (GENEXEC), memory (MEM), mood and well-being were obtained. In males, higher PRL levels associated with worse cognitive performance, lower well-being, and higher scores in depression scales, and lower E2 with poorer cognition and higher depressive mood. DHEAS positively associated with GENEXEC and MEM. Nutritional status significantly associated with PRL (positively) and with DHEAS (negatively). Findings indicate that besides the more exhaustively studied E2 and TT, variations in the levels of sex-related hormones such as PRL, FSH, LH and DHEAS are of interest for the mental health aging profile particularly in men.
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Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI?z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.
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[Promoting sustainable behavior change in body weight control].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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There is a wide acknowledgement of obesity as a relevant clinical entity. Such relevance can be inferred by the huge worldwide amount of research and related health promotion and clinical efforts. Though the evidence sustains some cues for the therapeutic success, the overall long-term effectiveness of obesity treatment tends to be not so satisfactory. Scientific literature is not unequivocal in key areas of nutritional intervention, such as the magnitude of caloric restriction, proportion of macronutrients, meal frequency, among others. The same applies to the area of physical activity recommendation for weight control. As a correlate of this scenario of incertitude, there is a proliferation of interventions and there is a clear need to integrate the scientific and clinical evidence. This paper presents a narrative literature review of key issues of clinical practice in obesity, regarding a set of actions that, in the overall, have as main purpose the promotion of reduction and/or control of body weight. The role of the health professional is highlighted as a facilitator of acquisition of habits that favor weight control, by integrating the professional's scientific knowledge with the patient's readiness for and capacity to change.
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Dissociable effects of psychopathic traits on cortical and subcortical visual pathways during facial emotion processing: an ERP study on the N170.
Psychophysiology
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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This study examined the relation between psychopathic traits and the brain response to facial emotion by analyzing the N170 component of the ERP. Fifty-four healthy participants were assessed for psychopathic traits and exposed to images of emotional and neutral faces with varying spatial frequency content. The N170 was modulated by the emotional expressions, irrespective of psychopathic traits. Fearless dominance was associated with a reduced N170, driven by the low spatial frequency components of the stimuli, and dependent on the tectopulvinar visual pathway. Conversely, coldheartedness was related to overall enhanced N170, suggesting mediation by geniculostriate processing. Results suggest that different dimensions of psychopathy are related to distinct facial emotion processing mechanisms and support the existence of both amygdala deficits and compensatory engagement of cortical structures for emotional processing in psychopathy.
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Integrated disease management: a critical review of foreign and Portuguese experience.
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The present article reviews findings from empirical evaluations of integrated disease management programmes. The objective is to provide insights on integration levels, priority interventions and their effect on patient outcomes.
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Parental education level is associated with clustering of metabolic risk factors in adolescents independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage.
Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Few studies have reported associations between clustering metabolic risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) in youth. This study aimed to analyze the association between clustering metabolic risk factors and SES in adolescents. It was hypothesized that SES is inversely related to clustering metabolic risk factors. This 2009 cross-sectional school-based study investigated 517 Portuguese adolescents ages 15-18 years. The study considered the age- and sex-adjusted z-scores for the ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, homeostasis model, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure, and a metabolic risk score was constructed by summing all the z-scores (?1 standard deviation was considered high risk). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the 20 m shuttle-run test and dietary intake by a food frequency questionnaire. The best of parental education was used as a proxy measure of SES. The results showed that adolescents with low SES were more likely to have a high metabolic risk score (odds ratio [OR], 1.96; p < 0.020) regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage. In conclusion, a lower SES was associated with increased risk for a high metabolic risk score among Azorean adolescents after adjustment for pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Future health-promotion strategies among Azorean adolescents should consider the impact of SES on their health.
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Combination and adaptation of two tools to assess parental feeding practices in pre-school children.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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To test a combined version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the expanded concept of parental control ("covert" and "overt") among Portuguese preschool children.
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Vitamin D intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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A growing body of research suggests that vitamin D might play an important role in overall health. No data exist on vitamin D intake for the Azorean adolescent population. The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin D intake and investigate a possible association between vitamin D intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in Azorean adolescents.
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Viscoelastic model based force control for soft tissue interaction and its application in physiological motion compensation.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Controlling the interaction between robots and living soft tissues has become an important issue as the number of robotic systems inside the operating room increases. Many researches have been done on force control to help surgeons during medical procedures, such as physiological motion compensation and tele-operation systems with haptic feedback. In order to increase the performance of such controllers, this work presents a novel force control scheme using Active Observer (AOB) based on a viscoelastic interaction model. The control scheme has shown to be stable through theoretical analysis and its performance was evaluated by in vitro experiments. In order to evaluate how the force control scheme behaves under the presence of physiological motion, experiments considering breathing and beating heart disturbances are presented. The proposed control scheme presented a stable behavior in both static and moving environment. The viscoelastic AOB presented a compensation ratio of 87% for the breathing motion and 79% for the beating heart motion.
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Intake of milk, but not total dairy, yogurt, or cheese, is negatively associated with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents.
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Could the Food Neophobia Scale be adapted to pregnant women? A confirmatory factor analysis in a Portuguese sample.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) is widely used in different countries, however appropriate psychometric analyses are required to allow cross-cultural comparisons. To our knowledge, most studies have been conducted among children and adult populations, with no reference to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the FNS, and to identify clusters of food neophobia during pregnancy.
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Salt reduction in vegetable soup does not affect saltiness intensity and liking in the elderly and children.
Food Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Reduction of added salt levels in soups is recommended. We evaluated the impact of a 30% reduction of usual added salt in vegetable soups on elderly and children's saltiness and liking evaluation.
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Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, childs carer, childs siblings and childs BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake ( ? median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·95), salty snacks (IRR = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·65, 1·00) and sweets (IRR = 0·73, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age ( ? 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0·75, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·96; IRR = 0·56, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later.
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Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.
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Trapping of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid at vacancies on and underneath the ice I(h) basal-plane surface.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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We investigate the uptake of HCl and HF at lattice vacancies in ice Ih as a function of their distance to the basal-plane surface layer using density-functional theory calculations. The results for HCl display large dispersions in the binding-energy results due to the appearance of distinct dissociation states. The layer-averaged results suggest that the uptake of HCl is most favorable in the two layers just below the surface, which is consistent with available experimental indications. The behavior of HF is found to be manifestly different due to the fact that it is a weaker acid. The dispersion in the binding-energy values is significantly less compared to the case of HCl, and the average values are essentially equal to the bulk value, regardless of layer position. This suggests that, in contrast to the case of HCl, there should not be any tendency for accumulation of HF near the surface.
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Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.
Med Probl Perform Art
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.
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Food consumption, physical activity and socio-economic status related to BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in adolescents.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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To examine the association between obesity and food group intakes, physical activity and socio-economic status in adolescents.
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The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established.
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Adolescents Perception of Environmental Features and its Association With Physical Activity: Results From de Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study II.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The aim of the present study was to verify if physical activity (PA) behavior (steps/day) was associated with environmental features that may be able to promote PA and walking in a sample of Portuguese adolescents living in the Azorean Archipelago.
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Latin American consensus on guidelines for chronic migraine treatment.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Chronic migraine is a condition with significant prevalence all around the world and high socioeconomic impact, and its handling has been challenging neurologists. Developments for understanding its mechanisms and associated conditions, as well as that of new therapies, have been quick and important, a fact which has motivated the Latin American and Brazilian Headache Societies to prepare the present consensus. The treatment of chronic migraine should always be preceded by a careful diagnosis review; the detection of possible worsening factors and associated conditions; the stratification of seriousness/impossibility to treat; and monitoring establishment, with a pain diary. The present consensus deals with pharmacological and nonpharmacological forms of treatment to be used in chronic migraine.
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Impact of an intervention through teachers to prevent consumption of low nutrition, energy-dense foods and beverages: a randomized trial.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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To examine the effects of an intervention program held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of low nutrient, energy-dense (LNED) foods, of children attending elementary schools.
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Physical activity in adults with controlled and uncontrolled asthma as compared to healthy adults: a cross-sectional study.
Clin Transl Allergy
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Though exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common among asthmatics, physical activity (PA) seems important in asthma management. Still, various studies point at avoidance of sports and certain daily life activities like walking stairs, even by patients with mild symptoms. We aimed to compare physical activity levels between healthy subjects and asthmatics with controlled and uncontrolled disease.
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Differential responses of adiposity, inflammation and autonomic function to aerobic versus resistance training in older adults.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Increased body fat, autonomic dysfunction and low-grade chronic inflammation are interrelated risk factors implicated in the etiology of several chronic conditions normally presented by older adults.
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Reference curves for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio for Azorean adolescents (Portugal).
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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There are no percentile curves for BMI, waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) available for Portuguese children and adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific BMI, WC and WHtR percentile curves for a representative sample of adolescents living in the Portuguese islands of Azores, one of the poorest regions of Europe, and to compare them with those from other countries.
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3D force control for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery based on viscoelastic tissue model.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Current cardiac surgery faces the challenging problem of heart beating motion even with the help of mechanical stabilizer which makes delicate operation on the heart surface difficult. Motion compensation methods for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery have been proposed recently in literature, but research on force control for such kind of surgery has hardly been reported. Moreover, the viscoelasticity property of the interaction between organ tissue and robotic instrument further complicates the force control design which is much easier in other applications by assuming the interaction model to be elastic (industry, stiff object manipulation, etc.). In this work, we present a three-dimensional force control method for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery taking into consideration of the viscoelastic interaction property. Performance studies based on our D2M2 robot and 3D heart beating motion information obtained through Da Vinci™ system are provided.
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Haptic feedback control in medical robots through fractional viscoelastic tissue model.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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In this paper, we discuss the design of an adaptive control system for robot-assisted surgery with haptic feedback. Through a haptic device, the surgeon teleoperates the medical instrument in free space, fixed on a remote robot or in contact. In free space, the surgeon feels the motion of the robot. In the present paper, we evaluated the performance of the controller on viscoelastic tissue, modeled by a fractional derivative equation. In addition, we propose a novel controller using an integer formalization process that is suitable for these tissue properties. The simulation results suggested that performance, in terms of force control and telepresence, became poorer when the conventional controller, which was designed for elastic target object, was applied to the viscoelastic tissues. In contrast, the results suggested that our proposed controller maintained its performance on the viscoelastic tissues.
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Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.
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Venous thromboembolism risk factors and practices of prophylaxis: ENDORSE study results in Portugal.
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment is a cornerstone for the achievement of best practices and outcomes. Epidemiologic data and practices related to venous thromboprophylaxis as considered by the global ENDORSE study, (Epidemiologic International Day for the Evaluation of Patients at Risk for Venous Thromboembolism in the Acute Hospital Care Setting), enrolled 68,183 patients from 32 countries, in which Portugal. Within ENDORSE, data from all participant countries analyzed to determine their risk of VTE and to evaluate the suitability of prophylaxis.
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[Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese children and adolescents].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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In Portugal, there have been many studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. However, because many of the studies are not submitted to publication in scientific journals, these results remain unknown.
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Generation and characterization of an Advillin-Cre driver mouse line.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Progress in the somatosensory field has been restricted by the limited number of genetic tools available to study gene function in peripheral sensory neurons. Here we generated a Cre-driver mouse line that expresses Cre-recombinase from the locus of the sensory neuron specific gene Advillin. These mice displayed almost exclusive Cre-mediated recombination in all peripheral sensory neurons. As such, the Advillin-Cre-driver line will be a powerful tool for targeting peripheral neurons in future investigations.
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Quantification of paraquat in postmortem samples by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and review of the literature.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide implicated in numerous fatalities, mainly caused by voluntary ingestion. Several methods have been used to quantify PQ in plasma and urine samples of intoxicated humans as a predictor of clinical outcome. There is no validated method for the analysis of PQ in postmortem samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an analytical method, using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) after solid-phase extraction, to quantify PQ in postmortem samples, namely in whole blood, urine, liver, lung and kidney, to cover the routes of distribution, accumulation and elimination of PQ. The method proved to be selective as there were no interferences of endogenous compounds with the same retention time as PQ and ethyl paraquat (internal standard). The regression analysis for PQ was linear in the range 0-10?µg/mL. The detection limits ranged from 0.0076?µg/mL for urine to 0.047?µg/mL for whole blood, and the recoveries were suitable for forensic analysis. The proposed GC-IT/MS method provided an accurate and simple assay with adequate precision and recovery for the quantification of PQ in postmortem samples. The proof of applicability was performed in two fatal PQ intoxications. A review of the analytical methods for the determination of quaternary ammonium herbicides is also provided for a better understanding of the presently available techniques.
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Dietary intake of ?-linolenic acid and low ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA are associated with decreased exhaled NO and improved asthma control.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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As recently described, adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with improved asthma control. However, evidence of how specific nutrients such as fatty acids and antioxidants may affect this relationship remains largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between dietary intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and asthma control. A cross-sectional study was developed in 174 asthmatics, mean age of 40 (SD 15) years. Dietary intake was obtained by a FFQ, and nutritional content was calculated using Food Processor Plus™ software (ESHA Research, Inc., Salem, OR, USA). Good asthma control was defined by the combination of forced expiratory volume during the first second, exhaled NO (eNO) and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score (control: forced expiratory volume in the first second ?80 %; eNO ?35 ppb; ACQ <1·0, scale 0-6 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to analyse the associations between nutrients and asthma outcomes, adjusting for confounders. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio predicted high eNO, whereas high intakes of n-3 PUFA, a-linolenic acid (ALA) and SFA were associated with low eNO. Odds for controlled asthma improved along with an increased intake of n-3 PUFA (OR 0·14, 95% CI 0·04, 0·45; P for trend=0·001), SFA (OR 0·36, 95% CI 0·13, 0·97; P for trend=0·047) and ALA (OR 0·18, 95% CI 0·06, 0·58; P for trend=0·005). A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio increased the odds for uncontrolled asthma (OR 3·69, 95% CI 1·37, 9·94; P for trend=0·009), after adjusting for energy intake, sex, age, education and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Higher intakes of n-3 PUFA, ALA and SFA were associated with good asthma control, while the risk for uncontrolled asthma increased with a higher n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. The present results introduce a protective effect of ALA in asthma control, independent of marine n-3 fatty acids, and provide a rationale to dietary intervention studies in asthma.
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The endonuclease activity of Mili fuels piRNA amplification that silences LINE1 elements.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have conserved functions in transposon silencing. The murine Piwi proteins Mili and Miwi2 (also called Piwil2 and Piwil4, respectively) direct epigenetic LINE1 and intracisternal A particle transposon silencing during genome reprogramming in the embryonic male germ line. Piwi proteins are proposed to be piRNA-guided endonucleases that initiate secondary piRNA biogenesis; however, the actual contribution of their endonuclease activities to piRNA biogenesis and transposon silencing remain unknown. To investigate the role of Piwi-catalysed endonucleolytic activity, we engineered point mutations in mice that substitute the second aspartic acid to an alanine in the DDH catalytic triad of Mili and Miwi2, generating the Mili(DAH) and Miwi2(DAH) alleles, respectively. Analysis of Mili-bound piRNAs from homozygous Mili(DAH) fetal gonadocytes revealed a failure of transposon piRNA amplification, resulting in the marked reduction of piRNA bound within Miwi2 ribonuclear particles. We find that Mili-mediated piRNA amplification is selectively required for LINE1, but not intracisternal A particle, silencing. The defective piRNA pathway in Mili(DAH) mice results in spermatogenic failure and sterility. Surprisingly, homozygous Miwi2(DAH) mice are fertile, transposon silencing is established normally and no defects in secondary piRNA biogenesis are observed. In addition, the hallmarks of piRNA amplification are observed in Miwi2-deficient gonadocytes. We conclude that cycles of intra-Mili secondary piRNA biogenesis fuel piRNA amplification that is absolutely required for LINE1 silencing.
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Effects of resistance and aerobic exercise on physical function, bone mineral density, OPG and RANKL in older women.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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This study compared the effects of a resistance training protocol and a moderate-impact aerobic training protocol on bone mineral density (BMD), physical ability, serum osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels. Seventy-one older women were randomly assigned to resistance exercise (RE), aerobic exercise (AE) or a control group (CON). Both interventions were conducted 3 times per week for 8 months. Outcome measures included proximal femur BMD, muscle strength, balance, body composition, serum OPG, and RANKL levels. Potential confounding variables included dietary intake, accelerometer-based physical activity (PA), and molecularly defined lactase nonpersistence. After 8 months, only RE group exhibited increases in BMD at the trochanter (2.9%) and total hip (1.5%), and improved body composition. Both RE and AE groups improved balance. No significant changes were observed in OPG and RANKL levels, and OPG/RANKL ratio. Lactase nonpersistence was not associated with BMD changes. No group differences were observed in baseline values or change in dietary intakes and daily PA. Data suggest that 8 months of RE may be more effective than AE for inducing favourable changes in BMD and muscle strength, whilst both interventions demonstrate to protect against the functional balance control that is strongly related to fall risk.
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Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and overweight in children from a Mediterranean country.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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To assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and overweight in children from a Mediterranean country.
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Atomistic simulation of track formation by energetic recoils in zircon.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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We have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of fission track formation in zircon. We simulated the passage of a swift heavy ion through crystalline zircon using cylindrical thermal spikes with energy deposition (dE/dx) of 2.5-12.8 keV nm( - 1) and a radius of 3 nm. At a low dE/dx of 2.55 keV nm( - 1), the structural damage recovered almost completely and a damage track was not produced. At higher values of dE/dx, tracks were observed and the radius of the track increased with increasing dE/dx. Our structural analysis shows amorphization in the core of the track and phase separation into Si-rich regions near the center of the track and Zr-rich regions near the periphery. These simulations establish a threshold dE/dx for fission track formation in zircon that is relevant to thermochronology and nuclear waste immobilization.
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Multicomponent training program with weight-bearing exercises elicits favorable bone density, muscle strength, and balance adaptations in older women.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Physical exercise is advised as a preventive and therapeutic strategy against aging-induced bone weakness. In this study we examined the effects of 8-month multicomponent training with weight-bearing exercises on different risk factors of falling, including muscle strength, balance, agility, and bone mineral density (BMD) in older women. Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise-training group (ET, n = 30) or a control group (CON, n = 30). Twenty-seven subjects in the ET group and 22 in the CON group completed the study. Training was performed twice a week and was designed to load bones with intermittent and multidirectional compressive forces and to improve physical function. Outcome measures included lumbar spine and proximal femoral BMD (by dual X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength, balance, handgrip strength, walking performance, fat mass, and anthropometric data. Potential confounding variables included dietary intake, accelerometer-based physical activity, and molecularly defined lactase nonpersistence. After 8 months, the ET group decreased percent fat mass and improved handgrip strength, postural sway, strength on knee flexion at 180°/s, and BMD at the femoral neck (+2.8%). Both groups decreased waist circumference and improved dynamic balance, chair stand performance, strength on knee extension for the right leg at 180°/s, and knee flexion for both legs at 60°/s. No associations were found between lactase nonpersistence and BMD changes. Data suggest that 8 months of moderate-impact weight-bearing and multicomponent exercises reduces the potential risk factors for falls and related fractures in older women.
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[Prevalence of nutritional inadequacy among Portuguese children].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in children, and its frequently related to low activity levels and inadequate nutrition. To evaluate the prevalence of nutritional inadequacy a total of 4845 children (2445 girls and 2400 boys) aged 7-9 years old, were observed. Height and weight were measured according to international standards, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overweight and obesity, using age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points as defined by the International Obesity Taskforce, were used. Childrens dietary intake was measured using a 24-h dietary recall by trained researchers. To evaluate nutritional inadequacy, Food and Nutrition Board Dietary Reference Intakes and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended intake goals were used. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this sample was 30.8% and the proportion of children with an intake below the Estimated Average Intake/Adequate Intake was very low (= 10%) for the following nutrients: vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, and PP; and for magnesium, zinc, iodine, phosphorous, selenium, and iron. High prevalences of inadequacy were found for folate (60.5% in girls and 54.6% in boys), vitamin E (63.9% in girls and 59.5% in boys), calcium (45% in girls and 40.7% in boys), molybdenum (89.7% in girls and 87.4% in boys, and fibre (87.8% in girls and 86.7% in boys). Regarding the macronutrients, 65.9% and 78.8% of the individuals were above WHO recommended intake values for protein and total fats, respectively; 22% didnt ingest lower than WHO carbohydrates intake recommendation. Weve also found that 81.4% and 97.3% of the individuals were above WHO recommendations for saturated fatty acids and total sugars, respectively. Regarding cholesterol intake, 53% of the individuals ingested more than the recommended by WHO. In conclusion, the prevalence of inadequate intakes of calcium, vitamin E, folate, molybdenum and fibre was unacceptably high, while and the contribution of total fat, saturated fat and sugars were far above the recommended by WHO. This could be associated to major chronic diseases, such as coronary heart diseases, in later life.
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Chronic headache and comorbidities: a two-phase, population-based, cross-sectional study.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking.
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Food patterns according to sociodemographics, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in Portuguese children.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5-10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.
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An open pilot study assessing the benefits of quetiapine for the prevention of migraine refractory to the combination of atenolol, nortriptyline, and flunarizine.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Migraine is a prevalent neurological disorder. Although prevention is the core of treatment for most, some patients are refractory to standard therapies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Quetiapine (QTP) in the preventive treatment of refractory migraine, defined as previous unresponsiveness to the combination of atenolol, nortriptyline, and flunarizine.
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Antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and damage in elite trained kayakers and canoeists and sedentary controls.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2009
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Strenuous physical activity is known to generate reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed the antioxidant defense system and lead to oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, plasma enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase [Gr], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) activities, nonenzymatic (total antioxidant status [TAS], uric acid, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin) antioxidants, and markers of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and muscle damage (creatine kinase [CK]) were measured in 17 elite male kayakers and canoeists under resting conditions and in an equal number of age- and sex-matched sedentary individuals. Athletes showed increased plasma values of alpha-tocopherol (p = .037), alpha-carotene (p = .003), beta-carotene (p = .007), and superoxide dismutase activity (p = .002) and a lower TAS level (p = .030). Antioxidant intake (alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene) and plasmatic GPx, Gr, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and uric acid levels were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, TBARS (p < .001) and CK (p = .011) levels were found to be significantly higher in the kayakers and canoeists. This work suggests that despite the enhanced levels of antioxidants, athletes undergoing regular strenuous exercise exhibited more oxidative stress than sedentary controls.
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Ankle-brachial index, a screening for peripheral obstructive arterial disease, and migraine - a controlled study.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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Epidemiological studies support the association between migraine, especially migraine with aura, and vascular disorders. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is largely used as a surrogate of peripheral obstructive arterial disorders (POAD). Accordingly, in this study we contrasted the ABI in individuals with migraine and in controls.
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Antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and damage in elite kayakers after 1 year of training and competition in 2 seasons.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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The large volume of training performed by elite athletes throughout the season can translate into a chronic oxidative insult. To study the effects that chronically high training loads have on athletes redox status, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and creatine kinase activities; total antioxidant status (TAS); and uric acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, vitamin C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), interleukin-6, and cortisol levels were determined in 9 kayakers (6 men) in a competitive period during the first season (June, T1), and in precompetitive (March, T2) and competitive (June, T3) periods during the following season. TAS decreased from the first to the second season (T1 vs. T2, p < 0.001; T1 vs. T3, p < 0.001). TBARS (p = 0.024) decreased from T1 to T2. The alpha-tocopherol increase (p = 0.001) from T1 to T2 lost statistical significance after adjustment for total lipids (p = 0.243). GPx (p = 0.003) increased, while SOD (p < 0.001) and uric acid (p = 0.032) decreased from T2 to T3. Cortisol levels decreased significantly throughout the study (T1 vs. T2, p = 0.042; T2 vs. T3, p = 0.018; T1 vs. T3, p = 0.002). No significant differences were observed for any of the other parameters studied. Antioxidant status changed more within the same season than from one season to another. Redox markers should be monitored throughout the season to detect athletes at an increased oxidative risk.
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Chemical polymorphism and chemosensory recognition between Iberolacerta monticola lizard color morphs.
Chem. Senses
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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In the lizard Iberolacerta monticola, there are 2 discrete color morphs ("blue" vs. "green") that seem to have alternative reproductive strategies. Because scent marking of territories and chemoreception are important in social organization of these lizards, we explored whether there is also chemical polymorphism and chemosensory recognition between color morphs. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that adult males of different morphs had similar chemical compounds in femoral gland secretions, but the proportions of some shared chemicals were different; blue morph males had higher proportions of steroids and lower proportions of fatty acids than green males. Differential tongue-flick rates to scents from femoral secretions of males indicated that males were able to detect the scent of any male from a baseline odorless control (water) but did not discriminate between the scent of males of different morphs. In contrast, females detected and discriminated between scents of the 2 male morphs by chemical cues alone. We suggest that differences in males chemical signals between morphs and the ability of females of discriminating chemically between male morphs might be required to maintain spatial behavior, social organization, and mate choice decisions and, thus, be important for the maintenance of alternative reproductive strategies and polymorphism in lizards.
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Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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This study aimed to determine the effects of 4 wk of antioxidants (AOX) supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, muscle damage, and inflammation in kayakers.
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Proton spectroscopy in patients with post-traumatic headache attributed to mild head injury.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Post traumatic headaches (PTH) following mild head injury (MHI) impose important diagnostic challenges to clinicians, and are often the scope of litigation. Objective.- To investigate whether spectroscopy magnetic resonance imaging (MRS) demonstrates markers of PTH following MHI.
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Prevalence of headache in the entire population of a small city in Brazil.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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To estimate the 1-year prevalence of headache, using face-to-face interviews of the entire population of a city in Brazil.
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Does exercise increase the risk of upper respiratory tract infections?
Br. Med. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression, which is multifactorial in origin. Evidence showing clinical significance of this immunodepression is scarce.
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Judgment of line orientation depends on gender, education, and type of error.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Visuospatial tasks are particularly proficient at eliciting gender differences during neuropsychological performance. Here we tested the hypothesis that gender and education are related to different types of visuospatial errors on a task of line orientation that allowed the independent scoring of correct responses ("hits", or H) and one type of incorrect responses ("commission errors", or CE). We studied 343 volunteers of roughly comparable ages and with different levels of education. Education and gender were significantly associated with H scores, which were higher in men and in the groups with higher education. In contrast, the differences between men and women on CE depended on education. We concluded that (I) the ability to find the correct responses differs from the ability to avoid the wrong responses amidst an array of possible alternatives, and that (II) education interacts with gender to promote a stable performance on CE earlier in men than in women.
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Long sleep duration and childhood overweight/obesity and body fat.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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To assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight/obesity and body fat (BF) and to identify correlates of short sleep duration in a sample of Portuguese children. A cross-sectional study of children 7-9 years (n = 4511) was performed between October 2002 and June 2003. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured, and parents filled out a questionnaire about family characteristics as well as sleep duration. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and BF (%) both decreased by long sleep duration. After adjusted for confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for overweight/obesity and sleep duration were as follows: reference >11 h/d; 10-11 h/d, OR: 1.3; confidence interval (CI):1.26, 1.33; 9-10 h/d, OR: 1.16; CI: 1.13, 1.19; and <9 h, OR: 3.22; CI: 3.11, 3.32. Children whose parents had a low educational level slept less time during each night than children whose parents had a higher educational level; children who spent more time watching television slept less time than those who watched less television, and those children engaged in physical activity slept more time each night than sedentary children. Our results showed an inverse relationship between long sleep duration and overweight/obesity prevalence as well as with body fat, and these findings are important because sleep duration is a potentially modifiable risk factor that could be important to consider in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.
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A review of methods to assess parental feeding practices and preschool childrens eating behavior: the need for further development of tools.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles were retrieved, and further searching of reference lists and contact with experts produced an additional 18 articles. We identified three tools on the qualitative dimension of childrens eating behavior, two tools on food intake or preferences, and one tool on parental feeding practices with rigorous testing of internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. All other tools presented in this review need further evaluation of their validity or reliability. Because major gaps exist, we highlight the need for more tools on parental attention to childrens hunger and satiety cues, and the need to evaluate the degree of control allowed to children younger than age 2 years in feeding events. Food avoidance (ie, behaviors or strategies to take away and to reject food) and food approach (ie, attractiveness for food stimuli) have not been assessed in children aged 12 to 24 months. Food preference tests based on sensory aspects rather than nutritional quality may be worth investigating. We identified a need for further evaluation of quality, especially test-retest reliability and construct validity, for most tools developed for use in studying children aged 0 to 5 years.
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Btg1 is Required to Maintain the Pool of Stem and Progenitor Cells of the Dentate Gyrus and Subventricular Zone.
Front Neurosci
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Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons. Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at 2?months of age the number of these proliferating cells, as well as of mature neurons, greatly decreases compared to wild-type controls. Remarkably, adult dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells of Btg1-null mice exit the cell cycle after completing the S phase, express p53 and p21 at high levels and undergo apoptosis within 5?days. In the SVZ of adult (two-month-old) Btg1-null mice we observed an equivalent decrease, associated to apoptosis, of stem cells, neuroblasts, and neurons; furthermore, neurospheres derived from SVZ stem cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the self-renewal and expansion capacity. We conclude that ablation of Btg1 reduces the pool of dividing adult stem and progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and SVZ by decreasing their proliferative capacity and inducing apoptosis, probably reflecting impairment of the control of the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. As a result, the ability of Btg1-null mice to discriminate among overlapping contextual memories was affected. Btg1 appears, therefore, to be required for maintaining adult stem and progenitor cells quiescence and self-renewal.
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The impact of an intervention taught by trained teachers on childhood overweight.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
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The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a six-months nutrition program, delivered and taught by classroom teachers with in-service nutrition training, on the prevention of overweight and obesity among children in grades 1 to 4. In this randomized trial, four hundred and sixty four children from seven elementary schools were allocated to a nutrition educational program delivered by their own teachers. Intervened teachers had 12 sessions of three hours each with the researchers throughout six months, according to the topics nutrition and healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop activities in class focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. In the intervention group the increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score was significantly lower than in the control group (p = 0.009); fewer proportion of children became overweight in the intervened group compared with the control (5.6% vs. 18.4%; p = 0.037). Our study provides further support to decrease the overweight epidemic, involving classroom teachers in a training program and making them dedicated interventionists.
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The impact of an intervention taught by trained teachers on childhood fruit and vegetable intake: a randomized trial.
J Obes
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Our study aimed to assess the impact of a six-months nutrition program, taught by trained teachers, on fruit and vegetable consumption among children in grades 1 to 4. Four hundred and sixty-four children (239 female), 6 to 12 years old, from seven elementary schools were assigned to this randomized trial. Teachers were trained by researchers over six months, according to the following topics: nutrition, healthy eating, and strategies to increase physical activity. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop activities in the classroom on the topics learned. Childrens sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The effect sizes ranged between small (Cohens d = 0.12 on "other vegetables") to medium (0.56 on "fruit and vegetable"), and intervened children reported a significantly higher consumption of vegetables and fruit. Interventions involving trained teachers offer promise to increase consumption of fruit and vegetable in children.
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Prevalence and burden of headaches as assessed by the health family program.
Headache
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Unified health systems often have Family Health Programs (FHPs) as a core component of their preventive and early curative strategies. In Brazil, the FHP is established to proactively identify diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.
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Comparison of blood levels of riboflavin and folate with dietary correlates estimated from a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in older persons in Portugal.
J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr
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Since information regarding biochemical parameters of riboflavin and folate status is limited in some populations of older adults, a food-frequency questionnaire is often used to estimate riboflavin and folate status. However, the performance of this type of questionnaire among this age group has not been comprehensively evaluated. Thus, we sought to assess riboflavin and folate status in older adults living in Portugal and to validate findings from a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), by comparison to these blood measures. We used a cross-sectional study to investigate riboflavin in red blood cells (as Glutathione Reductase Activity Coefficient; EGRAC) and folate in the serum of 88 older persons (66.7% female), aged between 60 and 94 years, recruited from seven adult day care community centers in Porto, Portugal. Forty-six subjects had low EGRAC levels (<1.2), with a group mean concentration of 1.17 and median of 1.10 (range 1.00-2.10). For daily riboflavin dietary intakes from FFQ, the mean was 3.34 mg, the median 3.37 mg, and range 0.66-4.81 mg. The Spearman correlation between these two measures was r = 0.073, (P = 0.497) and Pearson correlation, after adjustment for energy, was r = 0.263, P = 0.013. All participants were above the 7 nmol/L serum folate cut-off for adequacy. Spearman correlation coefficient between serum and FFQ measures was r = -0.10, (P = 0.359), and the Pearson correlation, after adjustment for energy and following log(e) transformation, was r = -0.58, (P = 0.593). Thus riboflavin and folate intakes estimated by FFQ correlated poorly with EGRAC and folate serum values.
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Effect of a specific exercise program on the strength and resistance levels of lumbar muscles in warehouse workers.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health
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The aim of this study was to verify the influence of a specific exercise program on the strength and resistance levels of lumbar flexors and extensors in warehouse workers.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.